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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 793
CCOHS Chemical Name: Dimethyl sulfoxide

Synonyms:
Dimethylsulphoxide
Dimethyl sulphoxide
DMSO
Methyl sulfoxide
Sulfinylbismethane
Dimethyl sulfoxyde

Chemical Name French: Sulfoxyde de diméthyle
Chemical Name Spanish: Dimetil sulfoxido
CAS Registry Number: 67-68-5
RTECS Number(s): PV6210000
Chemical Family: Aliphatic sulfoxide / dialkyl sulphoxide
Molecular Formula: C2-H6-0-S
Structural Formula: CH3-S(=O)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid; odourless or with a light sulfur, garlic or oyster-like odour depending on purity.(56,57) Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air).(56)

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)is available commercially in 99.9% plus purity.

Uses and Occurrences:
DMSO is used as a solvent for the polymerization of acrylonitrile and other vinyl monomers, and other polymerization reactions; chemical extractions; cellulose, cellulose esters and cellulose ethers; many metal salts, polymers and resins; acetylene, sulfur dioxide and other gases; pesticides; clean-up; paint-removal agents; as a film-forming auxiliary in dispersions; and as a reaction medium for chemical and electrolytic reactions.(56,58,59) It is also used as a drug, a preservative and cryo-protective agent for organ and tissue transplants and is used in veterinary medicine.(14,56,58)
DMSO occurs naturally in spearmint oil, grains, vegetables, beverages and milk. It is a common constituent of ground water and seawater.(58)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid; odourless or with a light sulfur, garlic or oyster-like odour depending on purity. Hygroscopic. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as sulfur oxides, organic sulfides and formaldehyde. Essentially non-toxic following short-term exposure. Significantly enhances the absorption of numerous chemicals and drugs. Increased absorption could lead to increased toxicity.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) does not readily form a vapour at room temperature. Therefore, inhalation exposure is unlikely unless DMSO is heated or misted. There is no human information available about the potential harmful effects of inhaled DMSO. The limited animal information available suggests that DMSO is not very harmful by this route of exposure.

Skin Contact:
DMSO is probably not directly irritating to the skin, based on animal and limited human information. However, concentrated DMSO has produced warmth, wheals and flaring (contact urticaria).(1-4) In a study with 200 volunteers, application of 100% DMSO provoked definite wheal formation on the forearm, while 90% for 5 minutes did not produce any response in most volunteers.(2) In another study, whealing and flaring were observed following application of 70% DMSO or greater for 5 minutes. In the same study, prominent whealing was observed following the application of 90% DMSO for 10 or 60 minutes.(1) Similar results have been obtained in other studies.(3,4) There may be individual susceptibility to wheal formation since people have developed wheals following exposure to concentrations as low as 20%.(3)
Skin absorption may result in a garlic-like breath odour and central nervous system effects such as headache, nausea and dizziness.(4,5)
Repeated or prolonged skin contact has resulted in dermatitis (red, dry, scaly skin) in people treated with DMSO therapeutically.(4)

Eye Contact:
DMSO is either not irritating or a mild eye irritant, based on human and animal information. Application of 2 drops of 50 to 100% has caused a temporary burning sensation or stinging in volunteers. Concentrations of less than 50% produced no effects.(6) No to mild irritation has been observed in several animal studies.

Ingestion:
Oral administration is not approved therapeutically, but occasionally used. Gastrointestinal discomfort is the most common side effect reported.(7) Animal toxicity information indicates that the oral toxicity of DMSO is low. Central nervous system (CNS) effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness may be experienced if large doses are ingested. Ingestion is not a common route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

SKIN CONTACT: Long-term non-occupational skin application of 80-90% DMSO has produced central nervous system effects (such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, sedation, dizziness and headaches), and dermatitis (such as redness, dryness and scaling) in volunteers. A characteristic breath odour (garlic or oyster- like) has been noted.(5,6,8) Animal studies also indicate that DMSO produces severe dermatitis at the site of application.

EFFECTS ON VISION: Several sources indicate that research has shown no effects on the eyes or vision in humans following skin application of DMSO.(9- 14)

SKIN SENSITIZATION: Skin sensitization has not been reported in hundreds of human volunteers participating in a DMSO clinical trial. Also in this study, sensitizing capacity was evaluated by applying 90% DMSO to 25 volunteers using five 48-hour occlusive patches to sites previously inflamed by 10% sodium lauryl sulfate. None of the volunteers evidenced contact allergy when challenged with 50% DMSO 2 weeks later.(6)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. No conclusions can be drawn based on the limited animal studies available. DMSO may significantly increase the skin absorption of known carcinogens.(15)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. One study has shown embryotoxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity in mice exposed to DMSO orally. Other animal studies cannot be evaluated due to poor reporting and/or study design or have not reported teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic effects.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. The limited animal information available has not shown that DMSO has reproductive effects.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results have been obtained in tests using cultured human cells.(16-18) In general, negative results have been obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
DMSO has significantly enhanced the absorption of numerous chemicals and drugs in humans, rats, mice, and guinea pigs. Increased absorption could lead to increased toxicity.(1,10,11,19-22) DMSO's ability to increase the absorption of other chemicals is its most significant occupational hazard.

Potential for Accumulation:
DMSO is easily absorbed through the skin and other membranes and is rapidly absorbed into the blood and transported throughout the body. DMSO is metabolized to the volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which has a characteristic garlic-like odour, or to dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2). Unchanged DMSO is primarily excreted in the urine together with DMSO2, while some unchanged DMSO and the volatile DMS are exhaled in the breath.(13-15)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination of move victim to fresh air and obtain medical attention.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.

Note to Physicians:
DMSO can significantly enhance the absorption of many other chemicals and drugs.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
85 deg C (185 deg F) (closed cup) (60); 95 deg C (203 deg F) (open cup) (61)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.6% (61); 3-3.5% at 100 deg C (58)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
42% (61); 42-63% at 180 deg C (58)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
215 deg C (419 deg F) (61)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable compound.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Will probably not accumulate static charge by flow or agitation, since it has a relatively high electrical conductivity, reported as 3 X 10(6) pS/m at 20 deg C.(58) Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is probably not sensitive to static discharge, since it has a high flash point.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Sulphur oxides.(62)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 85 deg C. During a fire, irritating/toxic sulphur oxides may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently or explode and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.(62) Alcohol-resistant fire fighting foam is recommended for use on all water-soluble liquids or polar solvent-type liquids.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous and toxic decomposition products, such as sulfur oxides.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. If the above cooling procedure is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
The decomposition products of DMSO are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 78.13

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.19 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.314 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: 18.5 deg C (65.3 deg F) (56,58,63)
Boiling Point: 189 deg C (372 deg F) (56,58,63)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.10 at 20 deg C (59,63); 1.096 at 25 deg C (58) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(13,56)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, benzene and chloroform.(57,63)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -2.03 (64)
pH Value: Not available
Vapour Density: 2.71 (air = 1) (57)
Vapour Pressure: 0.06 kPa (0.45 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (15,59); 0.08 kPa (0.6 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (58)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 592 ppm (0.059%) at 20 deg C; 790 ppm (0.079%) (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
ACIDITY: Very weak acid: pKa = 35.1 (58)
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 2.47 mPa.s (2.47 centipoise) at 20 deg C (63); 1.996 mPa.s (1.996 centipoise) at 25 deg C (58)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 2.245 mm2/s (2.245 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 1.82 mm2/s (1.82 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 43.54 mN/m (43.54 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C; 42.86 mN/m (42.86 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (65)
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 48.9 at 20 deg C (63)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. DMSO decomposes slowly above 189 deg C forming methanethiol, formaldehyde, water, bis(methylthio)methane, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and other chemicals.(58,62)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitric acid, perchloric acid, periodic acid or solid potassium permanganate) - react violently, with risk of fire and explosion.(61,62,66,67)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid) or ACID ANHYDRIDES (e.g. trifluoroacetic anhydride) - violent or explosive reaction.(66)
STRONG BASES such as METAL ALKOXIDES (e.g. potassium tert-butoxide or sodium isopropoxide) - can cause ignition of DMSO.(66)
ACYL HALIDES (e.g. acetyl chloride, benzenesulfonyl chloride, benzoyl chloride or cyanuric chloride) or NON-METAL HALIDES (e.g. phosphorus trichloride, phosphoryl chloride, tetrachlorosilane, sulfuryl chloride or thionyl chloride), DINITROGEN TETRAOXIDE, CARBONYL DIISOCYANATE, HEXACHLOROCYCLOTRIPHOSPHAZINE or SODIUM HYDRIDE- react violently or explosively, with decomposition of DMSO.(62,66)
METAL OXOSALTS (e.g. aluminum, chromium, magnesium or sodium perchlorates, or iron(III) nitrate), BORON COMPOUNDS (e.g. diborane) or METHYL BROMIDE - react explosively.(61,62,66)
IODINE PENTAFLUORIDE, SILVER DIFLUORIDE or PHOSPHORUS(III) OXIDE - react violently.(61,62,66)
COPPER and TRICHLOROACETIC ACID or SULFUR TRIOXIDE - violent exothermic (gives off heat) reaction.(62,66)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, temperatures above 85 deg C

Corrosivity to Metals:
Probably not corrosive; attacks many plastics.(67)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): Greater than 1600 mg/m3 (aerosol) (4-hour exposure) (no deaths) (23)

LD50 (oral, rat): 14500 mg/kg (23)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): Greater than 11000 mg/kg (cited as 10 mL/kg) (no deaths) (24)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 7929 mg/kg (25, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, rat): approximately 40000 mg/kg has been reported, but is not considered valid. The animals were immersed in DMSO solutions for a few seconds. The dose was then estimated based on a comparison of the animal weights before and after dipping.(26)

Eye Irritation:

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has produced no to mild irritation.

Application of 0.5 mL of 100% DMSO caused mild injury in rabbits (graded 2/10).(27) Application of 0.1 mL of 100% DMSO was mildly irritating in rabbits according to Draize methods.(28) Application of 0.1 mL of 30, 50, 70 and 90% DMSO was non-irritating in rabbits according to Draize methods (mean total scores 0, 0.2, 0.2 and 1.6, respectively).(29) Other studies with rabbits have shown similar results.(19,23)

Skin Irritation:

DMSO has produced mild skin irritation.

Application of 0.01 mL of 100% DMSO produced mild injury in rabbits (graded 2/10).(27) Application of an unspecified amount of DMSO using the Draize test produced only slight redness in rabbits, which faded quickly after removal of the taped patch under which the DMSO had been applied.(23) Whealing and flaring have been observed in guinea pigs following short-term skin contact. Application of 0.05 mL of 60, 80, or 100% DMSO to the earlobe of female guinea pigs resulted in immediate (within 5 minutes) redness and swelling. This effect lasted longer than 3 hours. Ear thickness increased after 1 to 2 hours. This study was designed to evaluate a model for identifying chemicals that cause non-immunologic contact urticaria (whealing and flaring) (NICU). DMSO produced a positive result.(20)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Two studies which evaluated the effects of inhaling DMSO cannot be evaluated due to poor study design and reporting.(23,27)

Skin Contact:
Reduced body weight and minor blood cell changes (e.g. clotting times and platelet count) were observed in rats following skin application. Rats had 0.1 mL of 50 or 100% DMSO applied for 14 days. The approximate doses were 550 or 1100 mg/kg, respectively.(31)

Ingestion:
Very high oral doses (1100 to 40000 mg/kg) have produced signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression (reduced activity and incoordination), congestion and inflammation of the eyes, increased urination, excessive thirst and deaths in rats.(20,23,32) In one study, male rats were orally administered 1100 mg/kg (cited as 1.0 mL/kg) of 50 or 100% DMSO. A reduction in spontaneous motor activity was observed after exposure to 100% DMSO for 15 minutes, which became more pronounced after 45 and 60 minutes. No effect was noted if the dose was given diluted.(20)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
No significant effects were observed in male rats exposed by inhalation to 200 mg/m3 (62.8 ppm) for 30 days.(23) There are insufficient details available to evaluate another inhalation study in which rabbits developed lung, liver and renal effects following inhalation of up to 50 mL/hour intermittently for 2 months.(10,15)

Skin Contact:
Several studies with mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and monkeys treated dermally with very high doses (3300 to 33000 mg/kg for 28 days to 87 weeks) have shown no significant systemic effects. Swelling and ulceration of the skin and dermatitis (dry, red scaly skin) at the site of application were observed in some studies.(11,26,33,34) Eye changes have been observed in rabbits exposed to high dermal doses. Rabbits were exposed to up to 8800 mg/kg (cited as up to 8 mL/kg) 100% DMSO or up to 8800 mg/kg (cited as up to 16 mL/kg) 50% DMSO or water for 90 days. Harmful eye effects were observed in 3-4/4 animals at the high dose for both concentrations.(35)

Ingestion:
Very high oral doses have caused significant eye and vision changes in dogs (5500 mg/kg for 11 months; 3300 or 9900 mg/kg/day for up to 2 years; 2500 to 40000 mg/kg for 18 weeks) and rabbits (10000 mg/kg for 11 weeks). In some cases, the changes were irreversible.(35-39) In one study, oral administration of 100, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day to rabbits produced "suggestive" lens changes after 8 weeks.(12) Further details for evaluation are not available.

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results have been obtained in several tests using guinea pigs.(24,40)

Carcinogenicity:
No conclusions can be drawn from the available information. Mice were orally dosed with 330 mg/kg/week in 198 administrations. Tumours were observed in 18/54 surviving mice, a significant increase over controls. Tumour sites included the lungs, liver, kidneys and lymph nodes.(14) The reviewers indicated that the original article did not contain sufficient detail to make a detailed evaluation and that the study would not have met International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC) standards. In the same study, rats were orally exposed to 3000 mg/kg/week in 243 administrations. Tumours were observed in 17/65 animals after 11.5 months. Breast tumours were observed in 7/34 females. These observations were not significantly different from controls.(14) In tumour promotion studies, DMSO either showed no effect or inhibition.(14,15)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
One study has shown embryotoxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity in mice exposed to DMSO orally.
Mice were orally administered 3200 mg/kg DMSO on days 5-9 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity, as evidenced by a reduction in maternal body weight, and embryotoxicity (a significant reduction in the number of implantations) were observed.(41) Other studies cannot be evaluated because of factors such as poor study design, lack of reporting on maternal toxicity, high maternal toxicity and/or lack of statistical analysis.(42,43,44) Other studies have not reported teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic effects.(10,42,45)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Daily oral administration of 5000 mg/kg to both male and female rats for 4 days before mating and to females throughout pregnancy failed to interfere with fertility. Rabbits receiving DMSO orally at a dose of 10000 mg/kg/day were successfully bred and had litters of normal size.(10, unconfirmed)

Mutagenicity:
Due to the extensive use of DMSO as a solvent for other chemicals in mutagenicity tests, it is commonly evaluated as a control. DMSO has given negative results in hundreds of tests which are not generally referenced to DMSO because it was not the object of the studies. At high concentrations (above 8%), positive results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells.(46,47) All of the reported positive "mutagenic" effects of DMSO are compatible with indirect mechanisms, not involving damage to DNA or chromosomes. DMSO is generally considered to be non-mutagenic in bacteria and is used as a control in the Ames Assay.(14,48) DMSO has been evaluated extensively in the development of new mutagenicity screening tests and bacterial strains. In some of these new mutagenicity screening tests, in some cases at relatively high concentrations, DMSO has shown mutagenic effects.(48-55)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Kligman, A.M. Topical pharmacology and toxicology of dimethyl sulfoxide: Part I. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 193, no. 10 (Sept. 6, 1965). p. 140-148
(2) Frosch, P.J., et al. Cutaneous biometrics I. The response of human skin to dimethyl sulphoxide. British Journal of Dermatology. Vol. 102 (1980). p. 263-274
(3) Sulzberger, M.B., et al. Some effects of DMSO on human skin in vivo. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 141 (1967). p. 437-450
(4) Rosenbaum, E.E., et al. Dimethyl sulfoxide in musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 192, no. 4 (Apr. 26, 1965). p. 109-113
(5) Brobyn, R. The human toxicology of dimethyl sulfoxide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 243 (1975). p. 497-506
(6) Kligman, A.M. Dimethyl sulfoxide: Part 2. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 193, no. 11 (Sept. 13, 1965). p. 151-156
(7) Jacob, S., et al. Proceedings of the symposium on dimethyl sulfoxide. Veterinary Medicine: Small Animal Clinician. Vol. 7 (Mar. 1982). p. 365- 376
(8) John, H., et al. Clinical experiences with the topical application of DMSO in orthopedic diseases: evaluation of 4180 cases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 243 (1975). p. 506-516
(9) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 574-578
(10) Jacob, S.W., et al. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): toxicology, pharmacology and clinical experience. American Journal of Surgery. Vol. 114 (Sept. 1967). p. 414-426
(11) David, N.A. The pharmacology of dimethyl sulfoxide 6544. Annual Review of Pharmacology. Vol. 12 (1972). p. 353-374
(12) Gordon, D.M., et al. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on animal and human eyes. Archives of Ophthalmology. Vol. 79 (Apr. 1968). p. 423-427
(13) Willhite, C.C., et al. Toxicology updates: dimethyl sulfoxide. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 4, no. 3 (June 1984). p. 155-160
(14) Knudsen, L.E. Dimethylsulfoxide. In: Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1991. Edited by B. Beije, et al. Arbete och Halsa. No. 50 (1991). p. 156-191
(15) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Dimethyl sulfoxide. In: Occupational toxicants: critical data evaluation for MAK values and classification of carcinogens. Vol. 3. Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area. VCH, 1992. p. 163-171
(16) Butterworth, B.E., et al. Chemically-induced DNA repair in rodent and human cells. In: Indicators of genotoxic exposure. Banbury Report no. 13. Edited by B.A. Bridges, et al. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1982. p. 101- 114
(17) Vig, B.K., et al. Study on cytological effects of carofur - a new mutagen. Mutation Research. Vol. 42, no. 1 (Jan. 1977). p. 109-116
(18) Painter, R.B. Rapid test to detect agents that damage human DNA. Nature. Vol. 265 (Feb. 17, 1977). p. 650-651
(19) Rubin, L.F. Toxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide alone and in combination: Part II. Toxicology, fate, and metabolism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 243 (1975). p. 98-103
(20) Weiss, L.R., et al. Some comparative toxicologic and pharmacologic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide as a pesticide solvent. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 11 (1967). p. 546-557
(21) Grandjean, P. Dimethyl sulfoxide. In: Skin penetration: hazardous chemicals at work. Taylor and Francis, 1990. p. 174-177
(22) Rosen, H., et al. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent in acute toxicity determinations (30574). Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 120 (1965). p. 511-514
(23) Fishman, E.G., et al. Effects of acute and repeated inhalation of dimethyl sulfoxide in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 15, no. 1 (July 1969). p. 74-82
(24) Brown, V.K., et al. A note on the toxicity and solvent properties of dimethyl sulphoxide. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacolology. Vol. 15 (1963). p. 688-692
(25) RTECS database record for methyl sulfoxide. Last updated: 1997-10.
(26) Smith, E.R., et al. The toxicity of single and repeated dermal applications of dimethyl sulfoxide. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Vol. 8 (Sept.-Oct. 1968). p. 315-321
(27) Smyth, Jr., H.F. et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VI. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1962). p. 95-107
(28) Conquet, Ph., et al. Evaluation of ocular irritation in the rabbit: objective versus subjective assessment. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 39, no. 1 (Jan. 1977). p. 129-139
(29) Taniguchi, Y., et al. Inter-laboratory validation study of the skin dermal model ZK1100 and MTT cytotoxicity assay kits. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 19, no. 1 (1994). p. 37-44
(30) Lahti, A., et al. An animal model for nonimmunolgic contact urticaria. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 76, no. 2 (Nov. 1984). p. 219- 224
(31) Lox, C.D. Hematological function in the rat following topical dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Research Communications in Substances of Abuse. Vol. 2, no. 4 (1981). p. 423-426
(32) Willson, J.E., et al. A toxicologic study of dimethyl sulfoxide. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7, no. 1 (Jan. 1965). p. 104- 112
(33) Vogin, E.E., et al. Chronic toxicity of DMSO in primates. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 16, no. 3 (May 1970). p. 606-612
(34) Wright, E.T. Topical application of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to the skin of guinea pigs: a histopathological study. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Vol. 46, no. 4 (1966). p. 409-414
(35) Rubin, L.F., et al. Ocular effects of oral and dermal application of dimethyl sulfoxide in animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 141 (1967). p. 333-345
(36) Noel, P.R.B., et al. The toxicity of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for the dog, pig, rat, and rabbit. Toxicology. Vol. 3 (1975). p. 145-169
(37) Rubin, L.F., et al. Dimethyl sulfoxide: lens changes in dogs during oral administration. Science. Vol. 153 (1966). p. 83-84
(38) Kleberger, K-E. An ophthalmological evaluation of DMSO. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 141 (1967). p. 381-385
(39) Wood, D.C., et al. A study of DMSO and steroids in rabbit eyes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 141 (1967). p. 346-380
(40) Marzulli, F., et al. Validation of guinea pig tests for skin hypersensitivity. In: Dermatotoxicology. 2nd ed. Edited by F.N. Marzulli, et al. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1983. p. 237-250
(41) Iyer, P. R., et al. Developmental effects of petroleum creosote on mice following oral exposure. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 82, no. 3 (Dec. 1993). p. 371-374
(42) Caujolle, F.M.E., et al. Limits of toxic and teratogenic tolerance of dimethyl sulfoxide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 141, no. 67 (June 1967). p. 110-125
(43) Schmitt, P.T. Dimethyl sulfoxide induced teratogenesis in ICR mouse embryos following external application of DMSO to the dam on day 9 of gestation. BIOS. Vol. 57, nos. 2-4 (1988). p. 95-98
(44) Robens, J.F. Teratologic studies of carbaryl, diazinon, norea, disulfiram, and thiram in small laboratory animals. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 15, no. 1 (July 1969). p. 152-163
(45) Shepard, T.H. Catalog of teratogenic agents. 4th ed. John Hopkins University Press, 1983. p. 160-161
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1999-02-22

Revision Indicators:
Bibliography 2003-04-18
NFPA (health) 2003-04-18
NFPA (flammability) 2003-04-18
WEEL TWA 2003-06-10
PEL final comments 2003-12-19
PEL-TWA transitional 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
Bibliography 2004-04-08



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