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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 154
CCOHS Chemical Name: Dimethyl sulfide

Synonyms:
2-Thiapropane
Dimethyl sulphide
Dimethyl monosulphide
2-Thiopropane
Dimethyl monosulfide
Dimethyl thioether
DMS
Methylthiomethane
Thiobismethane
Methyl sulfide
Methyl sulphide
Methyl monosulfide

Chemical Name French: Sulfure de diméthyle
Chemical Name Spanish: Sulfuro de dimetilo
CAS Registry Number: 75-18-3
UN/NA Number(s): 1164
RTECS Number(s): PV5075000
Chemical Family: Organic sulfide / aliphatic sulfide / alkyl sulfide / dialkyl sufide / thioether
Molecular Formula: C2-H6-S
Structural Formula: CH3-S-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to pale yellow, volatile liquid with a disagreeable, wild radish, cabbage-like odour.(1) Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air).(3)

Odour Threshold:
9.75-20 ppb (0.0098-0.02 ppm) (method not specified) (3); 100 ppb (0.1 ppm) (100% recognition) (4)

Warning Properties:
VERY GOOD - Its strong odour is detectable before harmful airborne levels are reached. A degree of tolerance to the odour may develop, but there is still normally a good margin of safety.

Composition/Purity:
Dimethyl sulfide is available in grades with purity of 95% to greater than 99%.(2) Impurities may include small amounts of dimethyl disulfide, carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, butyl ethyl sulfide and diallyl sulfide.(1,31) The presence of these impurities can contribute significantly to the overall hazards of the product. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or the manufacturer/supplier for specific information on the product you are using.

Uses and Occurrences:
Dimethyl sulfide is used as a chemical intermediate for the synthesis of dimethyl sulfoxide; as a sulfiding agent for hydrotreating refinery catalysts; as an anti-coking agent in ethylene furnaces; as a gas odorant; as a solvent for anhydrous mineral salts; and as a flavour ingredient in beer, non-alcoholic beverages, cooked vegetables and other foods.(1,26,31)
Dimethyl sulfide is a metabolic product of many biosystems. It is produced abundantly by marine algae and is the principal volatile sulfur compound in seawater.(5) It is reported to have been found in peppermint oil, butter and white bread.(12) It is a by-product of the Kraft pulping process.(26)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to pale yellow, volatile liquid with a disagreeable, wild radish, cabbage-like odour. Hygroscopic. EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating/toxic sulfur oxides and very toxic/flammable hydrogen sulfide gas may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time. Confined space hazard. Can accumulate in confined spaces, producing a fire/toxicity/explosion hazard. High concentrations can displace oxygen in the air and cause suffocation. EYE AND SKIN IRRITANT. Causes moderate to severe skin and eye irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Dimethyl sulfide very rapidly forms a vapour at room temperature and extremely high airborne concentrations are very easily attained. It is extremely flammable. Dimethyl sulfide vapour concentrations can become so high that it displaces oxygen in the air and can cause suffocation, especially in a confined space.
Dimethyl sulfide has an extremely disagreeable odour at very low concentrations (parts per billion). It is expected to be irritating to the nose and throat and may cause central nervous system depression (with headache, nausea and unconsciousness) at extremely high concentrations, based on limited animal information and comparison to related sulfides. It is unlikely that anyone would willingly remain in an environment contaminated with dimethyl sulfide. Although, tolerance to the odour may develop or the victim may be knocked down or trapped in a contaminated environment.
In air, the normal oxygen concentration is 20.9%. At 15-16% oxygen, symptoms of sleepiness, fatigue, loss of coordination, errors in judgment and confusion are masked by a state of euphoria, giving the victim a false sense of security and well-being. An oxygen concentration of 12% or lower can cause unconsciousness quickly and without warning. In some cases, disturbed respiration, abnormal fatigue, emotional upsets, nausea, vomiting and inability to move freely may occur. Concentrations below 6% can result in respiratory collapse and death.(20,21,22) Since exercise increases the body's need for oxygen, symptoms will occur more quickly during exertion in an oxygen-deficient environment.
If the victim survives oxygen deprivation, some or all organs, including the central nervous system and brain, may show damage. These effects may be reversible with time, depending on the degree and duration of the oxygen deprivation and the extent of the injury.(22)
A case report describes a worker found dead in a storage tank where dimethyl sulfide vapour was later estimated to be present at a concentration of 50% (500,000 ppm) or more. The death was attributed to a combination of dimethyl sulfide toxicity and asphyxia due to lack of oxygen.(15)

Skin Contact:
Dimethyl sulfide is a moderate to severe irritant, based on animal information. Application of 1% dimethyl sulfide in petroleum jelly, under a patch, for 48 hours, did not cause skin irritation on human volunteers.(12, unconfirmed) Once in contact with the skin, dimethyl sulfide will quickly evaporate and may produce a cool sensation and drying effect.
Dimethyl sulfide is not expected to produce harmful effects if absorbed through the skin, based on animal toxicity values. Dimethyl sulfide rapidly evaporates and readily forms high airborne concentrations. Any skin contact would also involve significant inhalation exposure. See "inhalation" above for information regarding potential health effects following inhalation exposure.

Eye Contact:
Dimethyl sulfide is a moderate to severe eye irritant, based on unconfirmed animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
Dimethyl sulfide is not expected to be toxic if ingested, based on animal information. Dimethyl sulfide boils at 37.3 deg C (very close to body temperature). Therefore, it will rapidly start to "boil off" if it comes into contact with body tissues. There is no human information available. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Nervous System:
A study of 81 workers in Finnish cellulose mills found a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease in the ability to concentrate and a small, but significant, increase in chronic or recurrent headaches in workers exposed to a mixture of sulfur-containing gases including hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. Dimethyl sulfide concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 4.74 ppm (0.36 to 12.04 mg/m3).(23) It is not possible to draw any specific conclusions regarding dimethyl sulfide exposure from this study, due to limitations such as self-reporting bias and the fact that exposure was to a mixture of chemicals.

Skin Sensitization:
Dimethyl sulfide did not cause sensitization when tested on 25 individuals at a concentration of 1% in petroleum jelly.(12, unconfirmed)

Blood/Blood Forming System:
A small group of workers (eighteen) exposed to a mixture of low levels of organic sulfides, including dimethyl sulfide at a mean concentration of less than 0.05 ppm, at a pulp and paper plant showed no significant differences in blood chemistry. Five workers were exposed to higher (but unknown) levels of sulfides and showed higher iron and transferrin concentrations, and lower ferritin concentrations in their blood, indicating possible interference with the uptake of iron from the blood.(24) It is not possible to draw specific conclusions regarding methyl disulfide due to limitations such as the small number of workers involved in the study and the fact that exposure was to a mixture.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results have been reported in tests using cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no relevant information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulate. In a rabbit study, dimethyl sulfide was largely exhaled, unchanged, in the breath. A small amount was metabolized to dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone, which were then excreted in urine.(25)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This is chemical is extremely flammable and can displace oxygen in the air. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. remove any sources of ignition, wear appropriate protective equipment and use the buddy system). Move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Less than -18 deg C (less than 0 deg F) (closed cup) (27)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.2% (27)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
19.7% (27)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
206 deg C (403 deg F) (27)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Dimethyl sulfide probably has relatively high electrical conductivity, based on the dielectric constant, and therefore will not accumulate static charge.(28,29) Dimethyl sulfide vapour and air in concentrations in the flammable range will be ignited by a static discharge.

Electrical Conductivity:
Probably greater than 100 pS/m, based on the dielectric constant.

Minimum Ignition Energy:
0.48 millijoules (mJ) (30)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Sulfur oxides, hydrogen sulfide gas and carbon monoxide.(2)

Fire Hazard Summary:
EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Will readily ignite at room temperature. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Can accumulate in confined spaces and low-lying areas resulting in an asphyxiation, toxicity and flammability hazard. During a fire, irritating/toxic sulfur oxides and very toxic/extremely flammable hydrogen sulfide gas may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder or appropriate foam.(2) Water may not be effective for extinguishing a fire because it may not cool dimethyl sulfide below its flash point. Fire fighting foams, such as multipurpose alcohol-resistant foams, are recommended for most flammable liquid fires.(27) Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of of tank.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The decomposition products of dimethyl sulfide, such as corrosive sulfur oxides and very toxic, flammable hydrogen sulfide gas, are hazardous. Do not enter without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 62.13

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 2.54 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.39 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -98.3 deg C (-144.9 deg F) (28,32)
Boiling Point: 37.3 deg C (99.1 deg F) (28,34)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.848 at 20 deg C (5,28); 0.842 at 25 deg C (5,34) (water=1)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (1.96-2.2 g/100 mL at 25 deg C) (33,34)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether.(28,32)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.92 (estimated) (35)
pH Value: Not available
Dissociation Constant: pKa = -6.99 (34)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.289 mPa.s (0.289 centipoises) at 20 deg C (28); 0.284 mPa.s ( 0.284 centipoises) at 25 deg C (32)
Surface Tension: 24.46 mN/m (24.46 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C; 24.06 mN/m (24.06 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (36)
Vapour Density: 2.14 (air=1) (1)
Vapour Pressure: 56 kPa (420 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (3); 66.9 kPa (502 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (from experimentally-derived coefficients) (1,33)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 553000 ppm (55.3%) at 20 deg C; 660000 ppm (66.0%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Very high.
Henry's Law Constant: 1.63 X 10(2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.61 X 10(-3) atm.m3/mol)at 25 deg C (1,33); log H = -1.18 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 6.7 at 21 deg C (28,29)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. calcium hypochlorite, perchloric acid, perchlorates, peroxides or potassium permanganate) - reaction may be violent. Risk of fire and explosion.(2,27,37)
1,4-DIOXANE and NITRIC ACID - may lead to a delayed explosion.(37)
DIBENZOYL PEROXIDE or XENON DIFLUORIDE - interaction is explosive in the absence of a solvent.(37)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Sparks, open flames, heat, static discharge, hot surfaces and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No information is available.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Dimethyl sulfide attacks butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (Nitrile-Buna N (NBR)), butyl rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) and synthetic and natural isoprene at normal temperatures. It does not attack Teflon.(38)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 40250 ppm (4%) (4-hour exposure) (7)
LC50 (rat): 19.5 ppm (4-hour exposure); (cited as 50 mg/m3) (8)*
LC50 (mouse): 9 ppm (4-hour exposure); (cited as 31.5 mg/m3) (2-hour exposure) (8)*
*NOTE: The validity of these lower LC50 values has been questioned and the values were not replicated in a reliable study.(7)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 2000 mg/kg (10% solution in corn oil; 0/2 died) (11)
LD50 (oral, rat): 3300 mg/kg (10, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 3700 mg/kg (9,12-unconfirmed)
NOTE: An LD50 (oral, rat) value of 535 mg/kg appears in a few secondary sources (9,12). The origin of this value cannot be traced and it is questionable whether this value is actually for dimethyl disulfide.

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 5000 mg/kg (9, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Dimethyl sulfide is a severe eye irritant.

Application of an unspecified amount of undiluted dimethyl sulfide and of a 10% solution in propylene glycol, for an unknown duration, caused slight immediate pain, and slight to moderate irritation persisting over 48 hours in rabbits. Slight corneal damage and slight inflammation of the iris were also observed, both of which cleared within 24 hours.(11) Irritation scoring was not reported. Application of 250 micrograms of dimethyl sulfide for 24 hours caused severe irritation in rabbits.(10, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

Dimethyl sulfide is a moderate to severe skin irritant.

Application (3 or 10 times) of an unspecified amount of undiluted dimethyl sulfide and of a 10% solution in Dowanol 50B caused moderate to severe irritation on intact and abraded skin in rabbits. Effects ranging from slight to moderate fluid accumulation and slight tissue death were reported. In all cases, healing occurred within 21 days.(11) Irritation scoring was not reported. Application of an unspecified amount of undiluted dimethyl sulfide to intact or abraded rabbit skin for 24 hours, under a patch, produced slight irritation.(12, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Mice exposed to 6.8% (68000 ppm) dimethyl sulfide died within 8 minutes. Dimethyl sulfide toxicity caused the deaths, based on measurements of dimethyl sulfide levels in body tissues. At 11.6, 23.5 or 34.0% (116000, 235000 or 340000 ppm), death was due to a combination of dimethyl sulfide toxicity and oxygen deprivation (resulting from air displacement by dimethyl sulfide). At 50.6% (506000 ppm), death was caused by oxygen deprivation.(15) In a limited study, inhalation of dimethyl sulfide irritated the eyes and nose, paralyzed the voluntary muscles and finally the respiratory muscles in rats. Exposure of one rat to 5.4% (54000 ppm) for 15 minutes was lethal.(13) In another study, exposure to 9.5% (95000 ppm) for 15 minutes caused coma in 50% of the rats exposed. All animals regained consciousness within 30 minutes following exposure.(14)

Ingestion:
When 2 rats were fed a 10% solution of dimethyl sulfide in corn oil for a total single dose of 2000 mg/kg, neither rat died but slight liver damage was noted at autopsy.(11) No further details are available. The small number of animals used limits the usefulness of this study.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Daily exposure to 0, 0.29, 1.95, or 9.75 ppm dimethyl sulfide for 6 months was reported to cause a decrease in weight gain, an increase in heart weight, and differences in the rates of several biochemical processes were observed at 9.75 ppm. The lowest dose at which any changes were noted was 1.95 ppm.(8, unconfirmed) There are no further details available and therefore, this study cannot be evaluated.

Ingestion:
Oral exposure of rats to 0, 2.5, 25, or 250 mg/kg/day dimethyl sulfide in corn oil for 14 weeks did not affect their health or body-weight gain. Although some random, non-dose related organ weight changes were observed, no adverse effects were noted from analysis of blood, serum and urine or from a detailed autopsy of the treated animals. Therefore, treatment with dimethyl sulfide at these doses was not considered to have significant harmful effects.(16) Rabbits given 2% dimethyl sulfide in their drinking water (reported dose 2000 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks exhibited lung congestion and kidney inflammation.(17) Note: Interpretation of the results of ingestion studies must take into consideration that dimethyl sulfide boils at 37.3 deg C (very close to body temperature). Therefore, it will rapidly "boil off" if it comes into contact with body tissues.

Mutagenicity:
The information available does not suggest that dimethyl sulfide is mutagenic.
A negative result (gene mutation) was obtained in cultured mammalian cells.(18, unconfirmed) A negative result (DNA repair) was also obtained in bacteria.(19)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) US National Library of Medicine. Dimethyl sulfide. Last revision date: 2002-01-18. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>
(2) Methyl sulfide, 99+%, FCC. Sigma-Aldrich Website. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Date updated: 2003-01. Available at: <www.sigmaaldrich.com/suite7/homepage/New_Site_Redirect.html> (Password required)
(3) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47. p. 142-151
(4) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 4th ed. Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. p. 940-941
(5) Methyl sulfide. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 1091
(6) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(7) Tansy, M.F., et al. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of rats exposed to vapors of methyl mercaptan and other reduced-sulfur compounds. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 8, no. 1-2 (Jul.-Aug., 1981). p. 71-88
(8) Seliuzhitskii, G.V. Experimental data used to establish the maximum allowable concentration of methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide in the air of the working area of pulp and paper plants. Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Vol. 16, no. 6 (1972). p. 46-47
(9) Shertzer, H.G. Organic sulfur compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 7. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 730-731
(10) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Methyl sulfide. Last updated: 2000-07. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html>
(11) Biochemical Research Department, the Dow Chemical Company. Initial submission: results of range finding toxicological tests of dimethyl sulfide. EPA/OTS 88-930000028. The Dow Chemical Company, 1992. NTIS/OTS0538292
(12) Opdyke, D.L. Dimethyl sulfide. Monographs on fragrance raw materials. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, no. 4 (1979). p. 365-368
(13) Ljunggren, G., et al. On the effect and toxicity of dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and methyl mercaptan. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Vol. 5 (1943). p. 248-255
(14) Zieve, L., et al. Synergism between mercaptans and ammonia of fatty acids in the production of coma: a possible role for mercaptans in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Vol. 83, no. 1 (Jan., 1974). p. 16-28
(15) Terazawa, K., et al. Fatality due to inhalation of dimethyl sulfide in a confined space: a case report and animal experiments. International Journal of Legal Medicine. Vol. 104, no. 3 (1991). p. 141-144
(16) Butterworth, K.R., et al. Short-term toxicity of dimethyl sulphide in the rat. Food and Cosmetic Toxicology. Vol. 13 (1975). p. 15-22
(17) Wood, D.C., et al. Mechanism considerations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): lenticular changes in rabbits. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 177, no. 3 (1971). p. 528-535
(18) Dooley, J.F., et al. Mutagenicity of sulfides and polysulfides in the mouse lymphoma assay. Abstract. Environmental Mutagenesis. Vol. 9, suppl. 8 (1987). p. 30
(19) Nakamura, S., et al. SOS-inducing activity of chemical carcinogens and mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/PSK1002: examination with 151 chemicals. Mutation Research. Vol. 192 (1987). p. 239-246
(20) Compressed Gas Association. Safety guidelines for compressed gases and cryogenic liquids. In: Handbook of compressed gases. 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall, 1990. p. 83
(21) Lipsett, M.J., et al. Inorganic compounds of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen: oxygen, O2. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part F. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 4598-4600
(22) Wilkenfeld, M. Simple asphyxiants. In: Environmental and occupational medicine. 2nd ed. Edited by W.N. Rom. Little, Brown and Company, 1992. p. 535-538
(23) Kangas, J., et al. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and sulfur dioxide in pulp industry. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 45, no. 12 (Dec., 1984). p. 787-790
(24) Klingberg, J., et al. Disturbed iron metabolism among workers exposed to organic sulfides in a pulp plant. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 14, no. 1 (1988). p. 17-20
(25) Williams, K.I.H., et al. Metabolism of dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl sulfone in the rabbit. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 117 (1966). p. 84-87
(26) Genco, J.M. Pulp. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 20. John Wiley and Sons, 1996. p. 546
(27) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491 (Organic sulfides)
(28) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 1.202, 5.95, 5.115, 5.142
(29) Pratt, T.H. Electrostatic ignitions of fires and explosions. Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2000. p. 68-69
(30) Britton, LG. Using material data in static hazard assessment. Plant/Operations Progress. Vol. 11, no. 2 (Apr., 1992). p. 56-70
(31) Thio and fine sulfur chemicals: dimethyl sulfide (DMS). ATOFINA Canada inc. Available at: <www.e-organicchemicals.com/thio/sulfur_chemicals/fuse.cfm/act/Dimethyl_Sulfide_DMS>
(32) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE, 1999
(33) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(34) Mackay, D. et al. Physical-chemical properties and environmental fate handbook. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBase, 2000
(35) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(36) Jasper, J.J. Surface tension of pure liquid compounds. In: Compilation of data of some 2200 pure liquid compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 1, no. 4 (1972). p. 866
(37) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(38) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for elastomers II: a guide to chemical resistance of rubber and elastomeric compounds. Compass Publications, 1994. p. C-122 to C-127
(39) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Mercaptans, methyl-, ethyl-, n-butyl-. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(40) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Dimethyl sulfide. In: OSHA Chemical Sampling Methods. Revision Date: July 7, 1992. Available at: <www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_236505.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-10-15



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