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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 597
CCOHS Chemical Name: Diethyl ether

Synonyms:
Anesthetic ether
Diethyl oxide
Ether
Ether ethylique
Ethyl ether
Ethyl oxide
Oxybis-1,1'-ethane
Oxyde d'ethyle

Chemical Name French: Éther diéthylique
Chemical Name Spanish: Dietiléter
CAS Registry Number: 60-29-7
UN/NA Number(s): 1155
RTECS Number(s): KI5775000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-467-2
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic ether / alkyl ether / dialkyl ether / ethyl ether / diethyl ether
Molecular Formula: C4-H10-O
Structural Formula: CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear colourless liquid; characteristic sweet pungent odour (23)

Odour Threshold:
0.3 ppm (100% recognition) (26,27)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than ten times the odour threshold

Composition/Purity:
Diethyl ether is commercially available in various grades. Typical impurities include ethanol, water, aldehydes, and peroxides.(28) Peroxides can form in ether exposed to air and light for prolonged periods. Diethyl ether may be stabilized with 1 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and/or 2% ethanol.

Uses and Occurrences:
Diethyl ether is used as a solvent or extractant for fats, waxes, oils, perfumes, resins, dyes, gums, alkaloids; when mixed with ethanol, used as a solvent for nitrocellulose in the manufacture of guncotton, colloidion solutions, and pyroxylin plastics; extractant for acetic acid and other organic acids; denaturant for ethanol; fuel additive; starting fuel for diesel engines; as a reaction medium; in chemical syntheses (e.g. monoethanolamine and ethylene); and as a medical anesthetic.(28,29,30)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a characteristic, sweet, pungent odour. EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and spread fire. Slowly forms explosive peroxides in the presence of light and air and in the absence of inhibitors. Mild central nervous system depressant. May cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion. May be an aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Diethyl ether readily forms high vapour concentrations. The vapour can irritate the nose and throat. Nose irritation has been reported after exposure of volunteers to 200 ppm for 3-5 minutes.(1) At high concentrations, excitement, drowsiness, vomiting, paleness, decreased pulse, irregular respiration, muscle relaxation, drooling and headache may occur. After effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, respiratory irritation, headache and feelings of depression or excitement.(2,3,4) Loss of consciousness has been estimated to occur at concentrations between 2 and 10%. Higher concentrations produce unconscious in a shorter time. At concentrations above 10%, respiratory arrest and death can occur.(3,4) Overexposure to diethyl ether may cause mild, temporary changes in liver and kidney function.(3,4)
Almost all of the reported human experience relates to diethyl ether's use as a medical anesthetic agent. Occupational exposure has resulted in very few deaths or illnesses.(2,3)

Skin Contact:
Normally, brief contact with liquid diethyl ether has no harmful effects. Rapid evaporation of the liquid may make the skin feel cool. Aged diethyl ether may be more irritating than fresh diethyl ether, due to possible peroxide content.
Diethyl ether is not absorbed through the skin in significant quantities, based on an animal toxicity value.

Eye Contact:
The liquid may produce mild irritation, based on animal information. Increased peroxide content may increase irritation. High vapour concentrations may cause temporary stinging.(5)

Ingestion:
Animal toxicity information suggests that diethyl ether is not very toxic if ingested. It is irritating to the mouth and throat.(6) Symptoms of central nervous system depression, such as excitement, dizziness, headache, nausea and vomiting (similar to alcohol intoxication), would be experienced. The stomach can become distended due to the "boiling" of diethyl ether as it warms to body temperature.(7)
Diethyl ether may be inhaled (aspirated) into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting, based on physical properties. Aspiration may lead to serious lung injury, with potentially fatal accumulation of fluid (pulmonary edema). There have been no reports of aspiration involving diethyl ether.
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Repeated exposure can cause drying and cracking of the skin due to extraction of oils.(6,8) There are several historical reports that suggest that diethyl ether may have health effects following long-term exposure, but there is not enough information available to draw firm conclusions. The available reports are limited by factors such lack of detail, small numbers of employees studied, lack of exposure data and/or concurrent exposure to other potentially harmful chemicals.

A case report describes three medical staff working in operating rooms with diethyl ether who developed general fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, shortness of breath, irritability and susceptibility to dental disease. There was also evidence of blood and heart abnormalities. Diethyl ether concentrations were reported to be 7300 ppm. After six weeks absence from diethyl ether exposure, all symptoms disappeared.(9) Other historical reports claim that long-term exposure to diethyl ether in the manufacture of smokeless powder has caused kidney injury, but this effect has been questioned.(2,3) Other reports also describe symptoms such as loss of appetite, dizziness, a feeling of excitement and mental disturbances.(4)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Developmental effects have been observed in rats and mice exposed by inhalation to maternally toxic concentrations.(10)

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results have been obtained in one study using live animals. Short-term tests using bacteria and cultured mammalian cells or embryos have produced positive and negative results.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Diethyl ether can slow the metabolism of alcohol and certain drugs.(2) The liver toxicity of acetaminophen (administered by injection) has been enhanced markedly in mice by brief anesthetic exposure to diethyl ether.(11)

Potential for Accumulation:
Diethyl ether is rapidly absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream, from which it passes rapidly into the brain. It is also taken up rapidly by fatty tissue, the kidneys and liver, as well as muscle tissue. Most of the absorbed ether is exhaled unchanged in the breath. A small amount (8-10%) is broken down to carbon dioxide, which is exhaled, ethanol and acetaldehyde, which are rapidly oxidized to acetate, which then enters the 2-carbon pool of intermediary metabolism, and non-volatile glycerides, which are excreted in the urine.(2,6,12)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This product is extremely flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). If the victim is unconscious or does not respond, take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean over to reduce risk of aspiration. Rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Quickly transport victim to an emergency facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
-45 deg C (-49 deg F) (closed cup) (32)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.7% (30,33); 1.85-1.9% (32)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
36% (32); 48% (30,33)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
160 deg C (320 deg F) (32); 180 deg C (356 deg F) (30)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Pure diethyl ether is not sensitive to impact. Diethyl ether contaminated with high concentrations of peroxides may explode on impact.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Diethyl ether can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation due its low conductivity (less than 40 pS/m at 25 deg C (30,34)). Vapour in the flammable range can be ignited readily by static discharge of sufficient energy. MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY: 0.19 millijoules.(33)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Toxic, irritating chemicals.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Extremely flammable liquid. Material will readily ignite at room temperature. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Forms explosive peroxides upon prolonged exposure to air and light. Peroxides may explode violently when heated. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time. Closed containers containing peroxides may rupture violently in the heat of fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant" foam or polymer foam. Water may be ineffective because it may not cool diethyl ether below its flash point. Fire fighting foams, such as "alcohol resistant" foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite. Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Diethyl ether is only slightly hazardous to health. Fire fighters may enter the fire area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approvedor equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 74.14

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.03 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.33 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -116.3 deg C (241.3 deg F) (stable crystals) (6,28); -123 deg C (253.4 deg F) (metastable crystals) (28)
Boiling Point: 34.5 deg C (94.1 deg F) (27,30,32)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.714 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (27,30,32)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (6.5-6.9 g/100 g water at 25 deg C) (26,29,30)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions with simple alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), benzene, xylene, petroleum ether, chloroform and most other organic solvents. Soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid.(8,28)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.89 (28,35)
pH Value: Neutral
Vapour Density: 2.56 (air = 1) (26)
Vapour Pressure: 59 kPa (442 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (26,27); 71.6 kPa (537 mm Hg) at 25 deg C.(35)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 58% (581700 ppm) at 20 deg C; 70.7% (706690 ppm) (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 11.1-11.8 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (29,32)
Critical Temperature: 193.5 deg C (380.3 deg F) (34)

Other Physical Properties:
ACIDITY: pkA = -3.59 (35,36)
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 0.23-0.245 mPa.s (0.23-0.245 centipoise) at 20 deg C (30,32,34)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 0.322-0.343 mm2/s (0.322-0.343 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 17.06 mN/m (17.06 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (28,30)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 3637.9 kPa (35.9 atm) (34)
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 4.335 at 20 deg C (34); 4.197 at 26.9 deg C and 85.8 kilocycles (28)
HENRY'S LAW CONSTANT: 124.64 Pa.m3/mole (1.23 X 10(-3) atm.m3/mole) at 25 deg C (36)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Upon prolonged exposure to air and light, slowly forms peroxides or polyperoxides, which are dangerously explosive, even below 100 deg C.(37) Old containers may contain explosive peroxides.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZERS (e.g. chromic anhydride, chromium trioxide, chromyl chloride, hydrogen peroxide, iodine (VII) oxide, potassium peroxide, sodium peroxide, nitric acid, Nitryl hypofluorite, ozone, perchloric acid and perchlorates, permanganic acid or peroxodisulfuric acid) - can react violently with risk of fire and explosion.(31,37)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine or bromine) - can ignite on contact or explode. (31,37)
INTERHALOGENS (e.g. bromine trifluoride, bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride or iodine heptafluoride) - can ignite or explode on contact.(37)
SULFUR OR SULFUR COMPOUNDS (e.g. sulfonyl chloride (SO2Cl2) or thiotrithiazyl perchlorate) - can react violently causing fire and explosion. These reactions may be accelerated by the presence of peroxides.(37)
METHYLLITHIUM - solution in diethyl ether is pyrophoric.(37)
PEROXYACETIC ACID - interaction ethers is violent due to the formation of explosive peroxides.(37)
PERMANGANATES treated with SULFURIC ACID - can explode on contact.(31)
NON-METAL AZIDES (e.g. bromoazide or boron triazide) - may explode.(31,37)
ALUMINIUM HYDRIDE-DIETHYL ETHER - interaction of the solid with water or moist air is violent and may be explosive.(37)
TRIETHYL ALUMINUM DIETHYL ETHERATE or TRIMETHYL ALUMINUM DIETHYL ETHERATE - mixture with diethyl ether is spontaneously flammable in air.(31)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Can form peroxides upon prolonged exposure to air and light (in the absence of inhibitors).

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources, air, light, and absence or depletion of inhibitor.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Diethyl ether is not corrosive to the common metals. Carbon steel, stainless steels, iron, aluminum, copper, brass, bronze, naval bronze, nickel, tantalum and titanium have good resistance (less than 20 mils (505 um)/year).(38)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Naphthols, polyphenols, aromatic amines and aminophenols may be used as additives to prevent peroxide formation.(28)
See reference 37 for a description of methods used to destroy any peroxides formed in diethyl ether.
Diethyl ether can attack many plastics (e.g. Epoxy, polyesters, high molecular weight polyethylene, PVC and vinyl ester), elastomers (such as Viton A, isoprene, natural rubber, neoprene, Nitrile Buna-N and silicone rubbers), and coatings (such as epoxy general purpose, and vinyls).(38)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 32000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (3/6 animals died) (13)
LC50 (mouse): 36730 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 0.18 cc/L (3-hour exposure)(14)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1200 mg/kg (reported as 1.7 mL/kg) (15)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 14200 mg/kg (cited as greater than 20 mL/kg) (13)

Eye Irritation:

Diethyl ether is a mild irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted diethyl ether produced mild irritation in rabbits (graded 2/10; scored 1-5, where 5 is severe injury).(13) Application of 0.1 mL produced changes in rabbits which were reversible within 24 to 48 hours.(16) There are no further details available for evaluation.

Skin Irritation:

Diethyl ether is not irritating.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted diethyl ether to rabbits produced no irritation (graded 1/10).(13) In an unverified report, 50 mg caused severe irritation to guinea pigs.(17) Further details are not available for evaluation.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Inhalation of high concentrations produces central nervous system effects, such as behavioural effects, excitation, depression and unconsciousness. Inhalation exposure (nose only) of four mice to 32000 ppm diethyl ether for 5 minutes produced slight excitation and irritation, followed by unconsciousness (anesthesia). Deep anesthesia was produced at 64000 ppm. Deep anesthesia and irregular respiration was observed at 128000 ppm. Death occurred in 1/4 animals. When respiratory arrest occurred, animals were removed from exposure and, within a few seconds, breathing returned to normal.(18) Male mice were exposed by inhalation to 1000 to 30000 ppm for 30 minutes. A specific behavioural response was only minimally affected at 1000 ppm. The behaviour increased at concentrations between 3000 and 10000 ppm and was virtually eliminated at 30000 ppm.(19) Male mice were exposed by inhalation to 13300, 18000 or 30000 ppm diethyl ether for 20 minutes. Decreases in central nervous system activity and excitability, reduced muscle tone and reduced sensorimotor activity were observed.(20)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats, guinea pigs and rabbits exposed by inhalation for approximately 7 weeks to 2000 ppm showed no obvious signs of toxicity or any significant effect on organ weight or biochemical function.(12)

Ingestion:
Rats were exposed orally to 500, 2000, or 3500 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. Marked toxicity (deaths, decreased food intake and weight loss (females only)) was observed at the high dose. Body weight loss was observed in both sexes at 2000 mg/kg. Autopsy showed no significant effects.(21)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No firm conclusions can be drawn based on the available information. Developmental effects have been observed in rats and mice exposed by inhalation to maternally toxic concentrations.(10)
Pregnant rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to maternally toxic concentrations of diethyl ether for 1-6 hours. In mice, exposure resulted in embryotoxicity (embryo deaths as evidenced by resorptions) and teratogenicity (e.g. missing sternums and cervical vertebrae). In rats, fetoxicity (e.g. decreased weight and decreased length of long bones) was observed.(10)

Mutagenicity:
Negative results (no increase in abnormal spermatazoa) were obtained in a study using mice exposed to 0.32 or 1.5% diethyl ether for 5 days.(22)
Positive and negative results have been obtained in studies using cultured mammalian cells.(22,23,24) Negative results have been obtained in most bacterial tests; aged ether (containing peroxides) was mutagenic.(22,25)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Nelson, K.W., et al. Sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 7 (1943). p. 282-285
(2) Arvidson, B. NEG and NIOSH basis for an occupational standard: ethyl ether. US Department of Health and Human Services, February, 1993
(3) Browning, E. Ethers. In: Toxicity of industrial organic solvents. Chemical Publishing, 1953. p. 261-280
(4) Flury, F., et al. Ethers. In: Toxicology and hygiene of industrial solvents. Edited by K.B. Lehmann, et al. (Translated by E. King, et al.). Williams and Wilkins, 1943. p. 248-251
(5) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 656
(6) Kirwin, C.J., et al. Ethers: diethyl ether. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part A. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 448-456, 459-463
(7) Gosselin, R.E., et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, 1984. p. II-184
(8) Ether ether. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Vol. 1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 631-632
(9) Werthmann, H. Chronic ether intoxications in surgeons. Beitr Klin Chir. Vol. 178 (1949). p. 149-156
(10) Schwetz, B.A., et al. Embryotoxicity and fetal malformations of rats and mice due to maternally administered ether. (Abstract) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 17 (1970). p. 275
(11) To, E.C., et al. Biochemical changes associated with the potentiation of acetominophen hepatoxicity by brief anesthesia with diethyl ether. Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol. 35, no. 23 (1986). p. 4139-4152
(12) Cellular biology and toxicity of anesthetics. The Williams and Wilkins Co., 1972. p. 275-285
(13) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: List VI. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23 (Mar.-Apr. 1962). p. 95-107
(14) Molitor, H. Some pharmacological and toxicological properties of vinyl ether. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 57 (1936). p. 274-288
(15) Kimura, E.T., et al. Acute toxicity and limits of solvent residue for sixteen organic solvents. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 19 (1971). p. 699-704
(16) Hopkins, R.E., et al. Eye irritation study of inhalational anesthetic agents. Abstract. Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 35 (1976). p. 729
(17) RTECS record for ethane, 1,1'-oxybis-. Last updated: 1997-12
(18) Swann, H.E., et al. Acute inhalation toxicology of volatile hydrocarbons. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 35 (Sept. 1974). p. 511-518
(19) Glowa, J.R. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of diethyl ether exposure in the mouse. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 15 (1993). p. 215-221
(20) Bowen, S.E., et al. Functional observational battery comparing effects of ethanol, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ether and flurothyl. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 18, no. 5 (1996). p. 577-585
(21) US EPA IRIS database record for ethyl ether. Last revised: 1993-01-07
(22) Consensus report for ethyl ether. Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XIV. Edited by P. Lundberg. Arbete och Halsa. Vol. 37 (1993). p. 41-48
(23) Sturrock, J.E., et al. Mitosis in mammalian cells during exposure to anesthetics. Anesthesiology. Vol. 43, no. 1, (July 1975). p. 21-33
(24) Thompson, P.A.C., et al. The effects of disulfiram on the experimental C3H mouse embryo. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 5, no.1 (1985). p. 1- 10
(25) Fluck, E.R., et al. Evaluation of a DNA polymerase-deficient mutant of E. coli for the rapid detection of carcinogens. Chem.-Biol. Interactions. Vol. 15 (1976). p. 219-231
(26) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. p. 30, 979-980
(27) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 482, 485, 495
(28) HSDB record for diethyl ether. Last revised: 1999-02-01
(29) Karas, L., et al. Ethers. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 9. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 860-871
(30) Heitmann, W., et al. Ethers, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised edition. Vol. A 10. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1987. p. 23-34
(31) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(32) Sullivan, D.A. Solvents, industrial. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. p. 548- 549, 553, 567
(33) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991
(34) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.170, 5.101, 6.137, 8.163
(35) CHEMFATE database. (URL: http://esc- plaza.syrres.com/efdb/Chemfate.htm)
(36) The physical properties database (PHYSPROP). (URL: http://esc- plaza.syrres.com/interkow/PhysProp.htm)
(37) Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1996
(38) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 1041-1044
(39) Ethyl ether. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(40) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(41) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2000-07-03

Revision Indicators:
Bibliography 2003-04-18
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-08
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-08
PEL-STEL final 2004-01-08
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
Bibliography 2004-04-08



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