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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 39
CCOHS Chemical Name: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

Synonyms:
p-Chlorophenyl chloride
p-Dichlorobenzene
p-Dichlorobenzol
Paradichlorobenzene
1,4-DCB
PDCB
Dichlorobenzene (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: 1,4-Dichlorobenzène
Chemical Name Spanish: 1,4-Diclorobenceno

Trade Name(s):
Parazene
Paradi

CAS Registry Number: 106-46-7
RTECS Number(s): CZ4550000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-400-5
Chemical Family: Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon / halogenated benzene / halobenzene / dihalobenzene / chlorobenzene / dichlorobenzene
Molecular Formula: C6H4Cl2
Structural Formula: C6H4-Cl2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
White or colourless crystals with a penetrating, distinctive, camphor odour.

Odour Threshold:
0.121 ppm (0.73 mg/m3) (detection).(16) Range of values reported: 0.18 to 30 ppm.(1)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - Range of odour thresholds reported, some above TLV.

Composition/Purity:
1,4-Dichlorobenzene is available commercially in technical grades with high purity, both as a solid (about 100% purity) and a liquid (about 99% purity). Impurities include 1,2- dichlorobenzene (less than 0.5%), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (less than 0.5%), and monochlorobenzene and trichlorobenzene (less than 0.1%).

Uses and Occurrences:
1,4-Dichlorobenzene is mainly used as a deodorizer for toilets, garbage cans and diaper pails, and for moth control (in the form of mothballs or moth repellent blocks). It is also used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) resins, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 2,5-dichloroaniline (a dye intermediate) and pharmaceuticals, as a fumigant for the control of mildew and moulds, an insecticide, an animal and bird repellent, in abrasives, floor waxes and finishes, and agricultural chemicals.(1,15)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Volatile, white or colourless crystals, with a penetrating, distinctive, camphor odor. Melts at 53 deg C. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as hydrogen chloride and phosgene. POSSIBLE CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer, based on animal data.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
People have described the odour of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4- DCB) as faint at 15 to 30 ppm and strong between 30 and 60 ppm. Eye and nose irritation were reported to be painful above 80 ppm and 160 ppm could not be tolerated. People exposed for a longer period of time, were able to tolerate higher concentrations (acclimatization).(7)
Central nervous system (CNS) effects have been reported in a few case studies where people were exposed to unknown levels of 1,4- DCB at home or at work. Symptoms included headache, dizziness, nausea, clumsiness and slurred speech.(1) Exposure details are not known and it is not known if 1,4-DCB was the only exposure. Therefore, these studies only suggest and don't prove that 1,4- DCB can cause CNS effects in humans exposed by inhalation.

Skin Contact:
The solid particles cause barely noticeable irritation on unbroken skin but will produce a burning sensation with prolonged contact. Warm fumes or strong solutions may irritate skin on repeated/prolonged contact.(7)
1,4-DCB can be absorbed through the skin, but toxic effects are not expected from this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
The solid particles will cause pain if they get in the eyes. Workers experienced painful eye irritation when exposed to vapour concentrations in the range of 80 to 160 ppm.(7) Another study found that workers exposed to 17 to 500 ppm reported severe eye irritation, even among those individuals who were accustomed to the vapour.(11) People who have been exposed to 1,4-DCB for some time may tolerate higher concentrations without effect (acclimatization). Routine medical examinations with special attention to the eyes did not find any changes in the lens of the eye.(7) Animal evidence suggests that 1,4-DCB does not cause cataracts, as was once thought.(7)

Ingestion:
1,4-DCB is probably irritating and slightly toxic by ingestion. Symptoms of central nervous system depression, as described for inhalation, would be expected. Animal evidence suggests that liver and kidney damage may result if large amounts are ingested. Ingestion is not a common route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Dermatitis has been reported.(11) Medical examinations of workers exposed to airborne concentrations of 1,4-DCB averaging 45 to 105 ppm, showed no injury, and no adverse changes in blood work or the eyes.(7)
There have been both occupational and non-occupational cases of chronic inhalation and ingestion exposures to 1,4-DCB. Reported effects included weakness, exhaustion, headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of appetite (anorexia), weight loss, enlarged liver and spleen. Kidney and liver damage, as well as anemia and other blood changes have also been reported.(5,11) There is one case report where the exposed individual experienced weakness, incoordination, difficulty in gait and speech, diminished reflexes, and clumsiness. Only minor symptoms remained 6 months after the exposure stopped.(12)

Carcinogenicity:

There are five case reports that have associated exposure to dichlorobenzenes with leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that the evidence for carcinogenicity of dichlorobenzenes, including 1,4-DCB, to humans is inadequate. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,4-DCB to experimental animals.(8)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Based on limited animal information, 1,4-DCB is not expected to be teratogenic or embryotoxic at doses which are not harmful to the mother.(1,9)

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. Based on limited animal information, 1,4-DCB is not expected to cause reproductive toxicity.(10)

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. 1,4-DCB does not appear to be mutagenic in most in vitro studies with human cells. 1,4-DCB gave negative results in animal in vivo tests (dominant lethal and micronucleus tests, and unscheduled DNA synthesis).(1,6,11) In studies with human white blood cells (lymphocytes) or HeLa cells, 1,4-DCB did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis. It did not cause an increase in chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes, with or without activation.(1) Another study with cultured human lymphocytes found an increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges, as well as a cytotoxic effect.(14)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information is available.

Potential for Accumulation:
1,4-DCB is absorbed through inhalation or ingestion and rapidly distributed throughout the body. Most absorbed 1,4-DCB is deposited in fat tissue, with some distributed to the liver and kidneys and minor amounts found in other organs such as the lungs, heart and brain. Levels in fat have been shown to persist at least 5 days after exposure. 1,4-DCB is metabolized mainly to the 2,5-dichlorophenol, which is eliminated largely in the urine. Some elimination in the feces and expired air has been observed.(1,5) Metabolism and elimination in the urine took approximately 6 to 8 days. Studies of exposed workers showed that excretion (of 2,5-dichlorophenol) began soon after exposure, peaked at the end of a shift and continued for several days.(5)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Wash with water and non-abrasive soap for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Obtain medical attention advice. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. Obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except under minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
65.6 deg C (150 deg F) (closed cup) (1)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.5% (24); 6.2% (1)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
16% (1)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Greater than 500 deg C (greater than 932 deg F) (18,21)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Stable material; probably not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Not available. Probably not sensitive because of its high flash point.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen chloride, chlorocarbonons, phosgene.(15,19) Under certain limited conditions of incomplete combustion or pyrolysis, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans may be formed.(19)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Melts at 53 deg C. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 65.6 deg C. During a fire, irritating/toxic hydrogen chloride and phosgene gases may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray or fog, carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam.(22)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Otherwise, keep cooling streams of water on fire-exposed tanks or containers exposed to flames until well after the fire has been extinguished. Water may be used to blanket fire. The water must be applied to the surface of the liquid, preferably with a fine spray of fog nozzle. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. Also water can be used as a spray or fog to absorb heat, keep containers cool and protect exposed material of structures. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to flush spills away from ignition sources.
1,4-Dichlorobenzene and its decomposition products, hydrogen chloride and phosgene, are very hazardous to health. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 147.00

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 6 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.167 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 53.1 deg C (127.6 deg F) (1,11)
Boiling Point: 174 deg C (345 deg F) (sublimes at room temperature) (1)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.2475 at 20 deg c (water = 1) (1)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (79 mg/100 mL at 25 deg C) (1,17)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, chloroform, benzene, carbon disulfide.(1)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 3.39 at 20 deg C (17)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 5.08 (air = 1) at 16-20 deg C (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 0.13 kPa (0.963 mm Hg) at 16 deg C (18); 0.17 kPa (1,277 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (calculated) (19)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 1267-1681 ppm (0.13-0.17%)
Evaporation Rate: Not available. Volatile.
Critical Temperature: 407.5 deg C (765.5 deg F) (18,19)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 0.839 centipoises (0.839 mPa.s) at 55 deg C
SURFACE TENSION: 29.9 dynes/cm at 55 deg C (18)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 4109 kPa (40.55 atm) (18,19)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.(19)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS - May increase the risk of fire and explosion.(15,22)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium) _ React violently.(21)
ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS - May cause an explosion.(22)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None known

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames, other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Non-corrosive

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
See reference 18 for some of the reactions of dichlorobenzenes.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, male rat): 3863 mg/kg (2)
LD50 (oral, female rat): 3790 mg/kg (2)
LD50 (oral, rat): 500-1000 mgkg (3, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 2950 mg/kg (4, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 2830 mg/kg (4, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, rat): greater than 6000 mg/kg (2)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (4, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

The major target organs affected by high level exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) are the liver, kidneys and central nervous system (1). Depression of the central nervous system produces symptoms such as excitability, restlessness and muscle spasms or tremors. Death is generally due to respiratory depression.

Inhalation:
Eye and nose irritation, liver and kidney tissue death, and CNS depression were observed following inhalation.(1,5,6,7) Male and female rats, guinea pigs and rabbits were exposed to 173 ppm (7 hrs/d, 5 d/wk for 16 days). Increased liver and kidney weights were observed in rats. Lung damage, such as pulmonary edema (a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs) and bleeding, was observed in male rats, female guinea pigs and rabbits.(7)

Ingestion:
Oral administration has caused excitation followed by muscle incoordination, difficult breathing (dyspnea) and death from respiratory paralysis. Animals that died had enlarged livers, as well as tissue death in the liver and kidneys. Oral exposure also caused bleeding in the stomach and swelling in the brain (edema).(1,5,6,7) Rats fed large doses (up to 770 mg/kg for 5 days) developed severe liver damage.(1)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term exposures to 1,4-DCB are mainly associated with liver and kidney changes at low doses and damage at higher doses.

Inhalation:
No harmful effects were observed in inhalation studies with rats, guinea pigs and rabbits exposed to 96 ppm for 6 to 7 months. While, increased liver and kidney weights were observed in rats and guinea pigs exposed to 158 or 341 ppm for 5 to 7 months. In another study, very high levels (798 ppm for 20 to 69 exposures) produced CNS depression (tremors, weakness and unconsciousness), liver changes and some deaths. Kidney damage was observed in female rats, while lung damage was seen in rabbits.(7) In a 76 week inhalation study, rats and mice were exposed to up to 500 ppm. The results for mice were not considered due to the high incidence of respiratory infections. There were no effects observed in rats at 75 ppm and only minor effects, such as increased liver and kidney weights, at 500 ppm.(1,5)

Ingestion:
In two studies, rats were fed up to 1500 mg/kg/day and mice were fed up to 1800 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. Kidney changes were observed in male rats at 300 mg/kg. Liver, bone marrow, thymus, spleen and nasal changes or damage were observed at higher levels (1200 or 1500 mg/kg). In mice, there was liver damage at 675 mg/kg and higher. The white blood cell count was reduced significantly in both male (at 600 mg/kg and higher) and female mice (at 1000 and 1500 mg/kg). There was no kidney damage in mice at any dose.(6) Increased liver and kidney weights were found in rats given 188 and 376 mg/kg for 6 months. Liver and kidney damage was observed at the higher dose.(1) In 2-year studies, female rats and male and female mice were fed up to 600 mg/kg/day, while male rats were fed up to 300 mg/kg/day. The major findings were reduced body weights with kidney damage in rats and mice and liver damage in mice. There was reduced survival of high dose male rats.(6)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,4-DCB to experimental animals.(8)
In life-time oral exposure studies, male rats were exposed to 150 and 300 mg/kg/day in corn oil and female rats and male and female mice were exposed to 300 and 600 mg/kg/day in corn oil Although there was no evidence of carcinogenicity in female rats, there were dose-related kidney tumours in male rats and liver tumours in male and female mice.(6,8) No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in one 76-week inhalation study, in which rats and mice were exposed to 75 or 500 ppm. This study is not considered adequate because of the low dose given to the rats, the short duration of exposure and the high incidence of respiratory infections in mice.(1)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
The few studies available suggest that effects only occur at doses that are maternally toxic.(1) Rats were exposed by inhalation to up to 500 ppm on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy, with no toxic effects on the offspring. Rats were also exposed orally to 250 to 1000 mg/kg/day during days 6 to 15 of pregnancy. At 500 mg/kg and above, there was maternal toxicity (reduced weight gain) as well as a minor skeletal variation (an extra rib) in the offspring.(1) Rabbits were exposed during days 6 to 18 of pregnancy to 100, 300 or 800 ppm. A minor variation in the circulatory system, which was not considered teratogenic, was noted at 800 ppm. This exposure level caused maternal toxicity (decreased weight gain).(1,9)

Reproductive Toxicity:
There was no reproductive toxicity observed in a two-generation study with rats. Animals were exposed by inhalation to concentrations of 0, 66, 211 or 538 ppm for 10 to 11 weeks prior to mating. There were no effects on reproductive outcome in spite of toxicity in the adults (reduced body weights, as well as liver and kidney changes).(10) Details are unavailable for evaluation.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that 1,4-DCH is mutagenic, based on the available information.
Negative results were also obtained in studies using live animals and relevant routes of exposure (inhalation or ingestion), including unscheduled DNA sythesis, micronucleus formation chromosomal aberrations, and dominant lethal mutations. Some positive results have been obtained in studies that used irrelevant routes of exposure (intraperitoneal injection).(5,6,8)
Negative results have been obtained in the majority of tests using cultured mammalian cells and bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(5,6,8)

LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON THE EYE: Several long-term studies have been conducted to determine if 1,4-DCB can cause cataracts in the eyes of rabbits. Repeated exposures to extremely high vapour concentrations (approx. 800 ppm) caused no effects on the lens of the eye. There were no changes in the eyes of rabbits orally dosed with 1000 mg/kg for several months. Other investigations have confirmed these findings.(7)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Toxicological Profile for 1,4 Dichlorobenzene. (ATSDR/TP-88/14) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service, 1989.
(2) Gaines, T.B., et al. Acute toxicity of pesticides in adult and weanling rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 7, no. 2 (August, 1986). p.299-308
(3) Ben-Dyke, R., et al. Acute toxicity for pesticides (1970). World Review of Pest Control. Vol.9 (1970). p. 119-127
(4) RTECS record for benzene, p-dichloro. Date of last update: 9401
(5) Health assessment document for chlorinated benzenes: final report. Report no. EPA/600/8-84/015F. U.S Environmental Protection Agency, January, 1985.
(6) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (CAS no. 106-46-7) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). (National Toxicology Program technical report 319). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January, 1987.
(7) Hollingsworth, R.L., et al. Toxicity of paradichlorobenzene: determinations on experimental animals and human subjects. American Medical Association Archives of Industrial Health. Vol.14, (1956). p.138-147
(8) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol. 73. Some chemicals that cause tumours of the kidney or urinary bladder in rodents and some other substances. World Health Organization, 1999
(9) Hayes, W.C., et al. Teratogenic potential of inhaled dichlorobenzenes in rats and rabbits. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol.5, no. 1 (February, 1985). p.190-202
(10) Neeper-Bradley, T.L., et al. Reproductive toxicity study of inhaled paradichlorobenzene (PDCB) vapor in CD rats. (Abstract). Teratology. Vol.39, no.5 (May, 1989). p.470-471
(11) Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th Edition. Volume II. ACGIH, 1991. p. 410-416
(12) Miyai, I, et al. Reversible ataxia following chronic exposure to paradichlorobenzene. (Letter). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. Vol. 51, no. 3 (1988). p.453-454
(13) Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program
(14) Carbonell, E., et al. Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) induced by p-dichlorobenzene in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutation Research. Vol.263, no. 1 (May, 1991). p.57-59
(15) HSDB record for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Date of last update: 9402
(16) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 16, 54
(17) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 2nd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983. p. 477- 478
(18) Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th rev. edition. Vol. A6. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p.328-340, 391-395
(19) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th edition. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 1993. p. 87-100
(20) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(21) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 285
(22) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 1116C
(23) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(24) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June, 1994. p. 96-97
(25) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004
(26) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organic Vapors. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(27) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Hydrocarbons, Halogenated. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(28) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Volatile Organic Compounds (Screening). In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1995-10-06

Revision Indicators:
Resistance of materials 1998-06-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Carcinogenicity 2000-06-01
Toxicological info 2000-06-01
Mutagenicity 2000-06-01
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-11
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-11
PEL-STEL final 2003-11-11
EU classification 2005-01-02
EU label symbols 2005-01-02
EU risks 2005-01-02
EU safety 2005-01-02
Bibliography 2005-02-02
Bibliography 2005-03-16
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-16
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-16
Bibliography 2005-04-03
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-03



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