The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 735
CCOHS Chemical Name: Dibutyl phthalate

Synonyms:
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester
o-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester
n-Butyl phthalate
DBP
Di-n-butyl phthalate
Dibutyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
Phthalic acid dibutyl ester
Phtalate de dibutyle

Chemical Name French: Phtalate de dibutyle
Phtalate de dibutyle (ortho-)
Chemical Name Spanish: Ftalato de dibutilo
Acido 1, 2 - bencenodicarboxílico dibutil éster
Ftalato de n - butilo
CAS Registry Number: 84-74-2
RTECS Number(s): TI0875000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 201-557-4
Chemical Family: Aromatic carboxylic acid ester / aromatic dicarboxylic acid ester / benzenecarboxylic acid ester / benzenedicarboxylic acid ester / phthalic acid ester / phthalate
Molecular Formula: C16-H22-O4
Structural Formula: CH3-(CH2)2-CH2-O-(O=)C-C6H4-C(=O)-O-(CH2)2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to faint yellow, oily, viscous liquid; odourless or slight aromatic, ester odour.(23,36)

Odour Threshold:
Odourless

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation, however, with only a slight odour warning properties are expected to be poor.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used primarily as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl chloride; used in plastisol formulations for carpet back coating and other vinyl compounds; in the manufacture of various paints, varnishes and lacquers, medical supplies (such as transfusion and dental materials), safety glasses for automobiles, plastic food wrap, cosmetics, such as nail polishes and paper coatings; textile lubricant agent; insect repellant for impregnation of clothing; concrete additive; solvent for perfume oils; perfume fixative; stabilizer in rocket propellants; solvent for chlorinated rubber and resins; in adhesives; in printing inks; desensitizing agent for nitroglycerin; reaction media for chemical reactions.(5,23,25)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless, oily, viscous liquid with no or slight aromatic, ester odour. Can burn if strongly heated. POSSIBLE REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD - may cause reduced fertility and harmful effects to the unborn based on animal data.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
No reports of acute inhalation exposure in humans were located. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) does not readily form vapour and inhalation exposures are unlikely to occur unless DBP is misted or heated. Animal information suggests that exposure to high aerosol concentrations may result in respiratory tract irritation and mild central nervous system (CNS) depression, with symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness and vomiting.

Skin Contact:
DPB is not expected to cause skin irritation. Application of 2% or 5% DBP in petrolatum to humans did not produce irritation in 48-hour closed patch tests.(17) Limited animal information also suggests that it is not irritating.
Animal information suggests that DBP can be absorbed through the skin, but toxicity by this route of exposure has not been reported.

Eye Contact:
DBP may cause mild eye irritation. There is one report of eye contact causing severe stinging pain and tearing but no damage.(11) Limited animal information also suggests that DBP is not irritating.

Ingestion:
One case report describes a worker who accidentally ingested approximately 10 grams of DBP. A few hours later he experienced central nervous system effects such as dizziness, nausea and vomiting. These symptoms were followed by pain upon exposure to light, tearing, redness and pain in the eyes with minor renal involvement. Complete recovery occurred within 1 week.(3) Some doubt about the legitimacy of this report has been expressed, because the history of ingestion was obtained with difficulty. In addition, the question has been raised whether one could actually drink DBP by mistake without immediate revulsion, because its taste is so strong and bitter.(11) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure. Animal evidence suggests that DBP is not very toxic by ingestion.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: A health survey of 147 Soviet employees concluded that polyneuritis (e.g., weakness in the extremities) was a predominant adverse effect. Phthalate ester (including DBP) concentrations were reported to range from 1.7 to 66 mg/m3 (as total mixed esters) in the work environment.(18) It is not possible to state with any certainty that DBP caused this effect because of the concurrent exposure to other chemicals. In another study, peripheral polyneuritis was not observed in 150-250 employees exposed to 8-15 mg/m3 DBP (in addition to other phthalate esters).(9)

SKIN SENSITIZATION: Patch tests carried out on 47 workers who had developed skin conditions showed only 1 subject with a reaction to DBP. No reactions were observed in a control group of 40 subjects.(10) A 5% solution of DBP in petrolatum was tested on 53 human subjects with no positive reactions. Some studies have shown that products containing 4.5-9% DBP were found to be non-sensitizing and non-photosensitizing.(17) However, there are a number of case reports of dermal sensitization to DBP which developed following non- occupational exposure to anti-perspirants and nail polish products which contained DBP.(10) No conclusions can be made from these reports due to the concurrent exposure to other ingredients.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. Limited animal information suggests that DBP is not carcinogenic.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. DBP has produced fetotoxic effects (e.g. decreased body weight and increased liver weights) in rats and mice at doses which were not maternally toxic. One study has also shown fetotoxicity (reduced body weight), embryotoxicity (fetal deaths) and teratogenicity (cleft palate and skeletal malformations) in rats exposed to non-maternally toxic doses.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. There is conclusive evidence that oral exposure to DBP produces harmful effects on male fertility in several animal species, as evidenced by testicular atrophy and infertility. Reduced fertility has also been observed in female rats and mice exposed orally to DBP.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. One study conducted on human cells in vitro and one mammalian cell in vivo study produced negative results, as have most short-term studies. One in vitro mammalian cell studied produced inconclusive results and weakly positive results have been observed in some tests with Salmonella typhimurium, without metabolic activation.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No reports of toxicological synergism were located.

Potential for Accumulation:
DBP does not accumulate in the body. It is readily absorbed by the inhalation, oral and skin routes in animal studies and distributed throughout the body. DBP is rapidly metabolized to mainly monobutyl phthalate (MBP) (with small amounts of various oxidation products of MBP and phthalic acid), absorbed and excreted predominantly (31% to 44% ) in the urine with less (20% to 22%) in the feces. Most is excreted within 24 hours and virtually all is removed by 48 hours after exposure.(5,23)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is a reproductive hazard. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes or leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
157 deg C (315 deg F) (closed cup) (28)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.5% at 235 deg C (23)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
402 deg C (757 deg F) (28)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Information not available. Probably does not accumulate static discharge. The electrical conductivity of phthalate esters is high.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products at 250-500 deg C include 1-butene, butanol and phthalic anhydride. It has also been reported that pyrolysis products include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.(25)

Fire Hazard Summary:
This material can burn if strongly heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam. Water spray and foam may cause frothing.(29)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Water or foam may cause frothing. The frothing may be violent and could endanger personnel close to the fire. However, a water spray or fog that is carefully applied to the surface of the liquid, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire. Water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat, keep containers cool and protect exposed material. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Dibutyl phthalate and its decomposition products may be hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 278.34

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 11.4 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3= 0.09 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -35 deg C (-31 deg F) (23,29)
Boiling Point: 340 deg C (644 deg F) (23,29)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.047 at 20 deg C (water=1) (23,37)
Solubility in Water: Sparingly soluble (11.2 mg/L at 20 deg C; 13 mg/L at 25 deg C) (5)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone and benzene (5) and soluble most other organic solvents and oils (6).
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P (oct) = 4.72 - 5.60 (23)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 9.58 (air=1) (25)
Vapour Pressure: 1.3 x 10(-6) to 1.8 x 10(-6) kPa (1.0 x 10(-5) to 1.4 x 10(-5) mm Hg) at 25 deg C (23)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 0.013 - 0.18 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Extremely low
Critical Temperature: 500 deg C (932 deg F) (25)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 21 mPa.s (21 centipoises) at 20 deg C (37)
SURFACE TENSION: 34 mN/m (34 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (25)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 1722.7 kPa (17 atmospheres) (25)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitrates, peroxides) - may react violently, with the risk of fire and explosion.(29,36)
STRONG ACIDS or ALKALIS - reaction may be vigorous or violent, generating heat.(29,36)
LIQUID CHLORINE - reacts explosively.(28,36)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 157 deg C

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive to steel, stainless steel, cast iron, copper and its alloys, nickel and its alloys and aluminum.(38)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (mouse): 12500 mg/m3 (12.5 mg/L) (4-hour exposure); cited as 25 mg/L (2-hour exposure) (unconfirmed) (12)

LD50 (oral, rat): 8000 mg/kg (1)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 4840 mg/kg (10, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Application of undiluted dibutyl phthalate (DBP) did not produce irritation in rabbits.(35) No further details are available.

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.5 mL DBP to intact and abraded skin for 24 hours resulted in "very slight irritation" in rabbits.(16)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Exposure to high aerosol concentrations (up to 250 mg/m3) for 2 hours caused strong upper respiratory tract irritation, laboured breathing, and central nervous system effects (incoordination, unconsciousness and death) in mice.(12) Lethal oral doses (9930 to 37100 mg/kg) have also produced signs of central nervous system depression in rats and mice.(10)

Skin Contact:
There is evidence that DBP is absorbed through the skin.(2,7) However, toxic effects have not been reported.

Ingestion:
Mice administered 470 or 5200 mg/kg in the diet for two weeks developed adverse effects on the kidney at 5200 mg/kg. Necrosis and degeneration of the liver were also observed, as well as thickening and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa and atrophy of the spleen.(13,10) A dose-dependent increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferation (indicating liver damage) was observed in rats administered up to 2.5% (approximately 2100 mg/kg/day) DBP in the diet for 21 days.(14,15) Slightly reduced body weight gain, and increased liver and spleen weights were observed in female rats given 1040 or 5200 mg/kg DBP for 3 weeks. Increased kidney weights were also observed at 5200 mg/kg.(10)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Leukocyte levels were depressed in the mid- and high-dose groups in male rats exposed continuously for 93 days to up to 0.98 mg/m3 DBP. No other adverse effects were reported.(19) Mice were exposed to 20-85 mg/m3 DBP for 86 days and 170-420 mg/m3 for an additional 6 days. The main finding was pulmonary edema.(10) Further details for evaluation are not available.

Skin Contact:
Dermal application of up to 4190 mg/kg/day undiluted DBP to male rabbits for 90 days caused slight dermatitis and pronounced irritation to mucous membranes. At the high dose, slight kidney damage was reported.(16) No further details are available.

Ingestion:
Rats and mice were exposed to high dietary levels of DBP for thirteen weeks. Significant reductions in body weight were observed in male rats at 1% and female rats at 2% or 4% and in mice at 0.5% or greater. Significant changes in organ weights (liver, kidney, testis) were also observed. Mild anemia was observed in male rats receiving 0.5% or greater. Liver lesions were observed in rats at 1% and above and in male mice at 1% and female mice at 2%.(5)

Skin Sensitization:
Sensitization was not observed in rabbits receiving daily dermal application of DBP for 90 days.(16) Sensitization was reported in 5/6 guinea pigs in a poorly reported study.(10) Insufficient details do not permit evaluation of this study.

Carcinogenicity:
DBP was not carcinogenic when administered to rats in the diet at levels of 0.01% or 0.03% (100 or 300 ppm) for 21 months; or when administered in the diet at 0.05% (500 ppm) for 15 months.(6) No further details for evaluation are available.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is evidence of fetotoxicity (decreased body weight, increased liver weights with increased liver enzyme activity) in rats and mice at doses which were not maternally toxic.(26,27,5) Also, one study has shown fetotoxicity (reduced body weight), embryotoxicity (fetal deaths) and teratogenicity (cleft palate and skeletal malformations) in rats exposed to non-maternally toxic doses.(30)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Exposure to oral doses of DBP has conclusively produced adverse effects on male fertility in several species, as evidenced by testicular atrophy and infertility.(20,21,22,5) Reduced fertility has also been observed in female rats and mice exposed orally to DBP.(24,5)

Mutagenicity:
Analyses of peripheral blood samples from mice exposed to up to 2% (20000 ppm) in the diet did not reveal an increased incidence of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes.(5)
DBP was not mutagenic in cultured human leukocytes, with or without metabolic activation or in mouse lymphoma cells, without metabolic activation.(5,10,25) Inconclusive results were reported in a test with cultured mammalian cells (Chinese hamster fibroblasts), without metabolic activation.(31) Weakly positive results have been observed in some tests with Salmonella typhimurium, without metabolic activation.(33,34) DBP was not mutagenic in the Ames assay using several strains of Salmonella typhimurium, with or without metabolic activation.(4,5,32,33) Other short-term tests have also been negative.(4)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smith, C.C. Toxicity of butyl stearate, dibutyl sebacate, dibutyl phthalate, and methoxyethyl oleate. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 7 (1953). p. 310-318
(2) Izmerov, N.F., et al. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982. p. 44
(3) Cagianut, B. Keratitis erosiva and nephritis toxica following the ingestion of dibutyl phthalate. Translated from: Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. No. 44 (1954). p. 1243-1244 (Public Works and Government Services Canada. Translation request no. 4506789)
(4) Syracuse Research Corporation. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: phthalates. Second draft. SRC TR 82-520. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, March, 1982.
(5) National Toxicology Program. NTP technical report on toxicity studies of dibutyl phthalate (CAS No. 84-74-2) administered in feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series number 30. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 1995.
(6) Lefaux, R. Practical toxicology of plastics. Chemical Rubber Co., 1968. p. 137-138, 346-348
(7) Elsisi, A.E., et al. Dermal absorption of phthalate diesters in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 12 (1989). p. 70-77
(8) Bisesi, M.S. Esters. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. 4th edition. Volume II. Toxicology. Part D. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 3050-3053
(9) Dibutyl phthalate. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th edition. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986. p. 400-402
(10) Woodward, K.N., et al. Review of the toxicity of the esters of o- phthalic acid (phthalate esters). Toxicity review 14. Health and Safety Executive, 1986.
(11) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th edition. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 528
(12) Voronin, A.P. Toxicological and sanitary characteristics of a dibutyl phthalate plasticizer. Chemical Abstracts. Vol. 80 (1974). p. 56224. Abstract no. 56220r. (Toksikol. Gig. Prod. Neftekhim. Neftekhim. Proizod. (1972). p. 83-9
(13) Woodward, K. N. Phthalate esters, cystic kidney disease in animals and possible effects on human health: a review. Human and Experimental Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 6 (1990). p. 397-401
(14) Lin, L.I-K. The use of multivariate analysis to compare peroxisome induction data on phthalate esters in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 9, no. 2 (1987). p. 25-48.
(15) Barber, E.D., et al. Peroxisome induction studies on seven phthalate esters. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 3, no. 2 (1987). p. 7-24
(16) Lehman, A.J. Insect repellents. Association of Food & Drug Officials of U.S. Quarterly Bulletin. Vol. 19 (1955). p. 87-99
(17) Final report on the safety assessment of dibutyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 4, no. 3 (1985). p. 267-303.
(18) Milkov, L.E., et al. Health status of workers exposed to phthalate plasticizers in the manufacture of artificial leather and films based on PVC resins. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 3 (January, 1973). p. 175- 178
(19) Men'shikova, T.A. Hygienic assessment of dibutylphthalate in connection with the use of polymers for the trimming of living quarters of ships. Gigiyena i Sanitariya. Vol. 36, no. 3 (1971). P. 23-27 (English Translation: NIOSHTIC Control number: 00133614)
(20) Gray, T.J.B., et al. Species differences in the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 11 (1982). p. 141-147
(21) Gray, L.E., Jr., et al. The development of a protocol to assess reproductive effects of toxicants in the rat. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 2, no. 3/4 (1988). p. 281-287
(22) Srivastava, S.P., et al. Testicular effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP): biochemical and histopathological alterations. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 64 (1990). p. 148-152
(23) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate. TP-90-10. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, December 1990.
(24) Lamb, J.C., et al. Reproductive effects of four phthalic acid esters in the mouse. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 88 (1987). p. 255- 269
(25) HSDB record for dibutyl phthalate. Date of last update: 9501
(26) Shiota, K., et al. Embryotoxic effects of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mice. Environmental Research. Vol. 22 (1980). p. 245-253
(27) Shiota, K., et al. Teratogenicity of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 45 (1982). p. 65-70
(28) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491
(29) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Volume 1. Sigma-Aldrich, 1988. p. 1105A
(30) Ema, M., et al. Characterization of the developmental toxicity of di- n-butyl phthalate in rats. Toxicology. Vol. 86, no. 3 (February, 1994). p. 163-174
(31) Ishidate, Jr., M., et al. Chromosome tests with 134 compounds on Chinese hamster cells in vitro: a screening for chemical carcinogens. Mutation Research. Vol. 48 (1977). p. 337-354
(32) Zeiger, E., et al. Phthalate ester testing in the National Toxicology Program's environmental mutagenesis test development program. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 45 (1982). p. 99-101
(33) Agarwal, D.K., et al. Mutagenicity evaluation of phthalic acid esters and metabolites in Salmonella typhimurium cultures. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 16 (1985). p. 61-69
(34) Seed, J.L. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 45 (1982). p. 111-114
(35) Lawrence, W.H., et al. A toxicological investigation of some acute, short-term, and chronic effects of administering di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalate esters. Environmental Research. Vol. 9 (1975). p. 1-11
(36) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 94-95
(37) Towae, F.K, et al. Phthalic acid and derivatives. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised edition. Vol. A 20. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1992. p. 181-211
(38) Corrosion data survey. Metals section. 6th edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 46-47
(39) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(40) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2001/59/EC. Aug. 6, 2001
(41) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Di-n-butylphthalate. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(42) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dibutyl Phthalate and Di(2 ethylhexyl) Phthlate. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-03-25

Revision Indicators:
TDG 1996-06-01
NFPA (health) 1996-06-01
Sampling 1996-06-01
Respiratory guidelines 1996-06-01
Resistance of materials 1998-05-01
Bibliography 2002-02-25
EU No. 2002-02-25
TDG 2002-06-11
Bibliography 2003-04-16
NFPA (health) 2003-04-16
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-21
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-21
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-03
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-03
Bibliography 2005-03-03
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-03
Carcinogenicity 2005-12-19
Skin protection 2006-01-03



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6