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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 535
CCOHS Chemical Name: Diamylamine (mixed isomers)

Synonyms:
Dipentylamine (mixed isomers)
Dipentylamines
Diamylamines (mixed isomers)
Diamylamine (non-specific name)
Pentanamine, N-pentyl (mixed isomers)

Chemical Name French: Diamylamine (mélange d'isoméres)
Chemical Name Spanish: Diamilamina (mezcla de isómeros)
CAS Registry Number: Not assigned
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic amine / secondary alkyl amine / secondary amino alkane / aliphatic monoamine / alkyl secondary amine / secondary amine / dipentylamine isomer mixture / amylamine isomer mixture / pentylamine isomer mixture
Molecular Formula: C10-H23-N
Structural Formula: (C5H11)2-NH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with an ammonia-like or fishy odour.(5,16) May turn yellow on prolonged exposure to air.

Odour Threshold:
Specific information not available.

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation

Composition/Purity:
Diamylamine (mixed isomers) consists of 97% secondary amines. Depending on the manufacturer, anyone of the following isomers may be present in varying concentrations: di-n-amylamine (CAS No. 2050-92-2), di(2-methylbutyl)amine (CAS No 27094-65-1), and (2-methylbutyl)-pentylamine (CAS No 61361-18-0). Some of the impurities that may be present are n-amylamine, tri-n-amylamine, mono-(2-methylbutyl)amine, tri-(2-methylbutyl)amine, n-amyl nitrile, amylhalides, amyl alcohols, ammonia, and water.(11)

Uses and Occurrences:
Used in the manufacture of rubber accelerator, lubricant additives, and antioxidants.(17)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with an ammonia-like or fishy odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Has a low autoignition temperature and can easily ignite on hot surfaces. Decomposes at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides or hydrogen cyanide. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled and harmful if absorbed through the skin or swallowed. CORROSIVE to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. Low vapour concentrations may cause a temporary visual disturbance known as "blue haze" or "halo vision".



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Diamylamine (mixed isomers) does release a vapour and is very toxic if inhaled, based on animal information. The vapour and mists formed from solutions are severely irritating to the nose, throat and lungs. Symptoms such as sore throat, coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath and difficult breathing may occur. High concentrations may cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) that might be fatal. Symptoms of pulmonary edema (tightness in the chest and shortness of breath) can develop up to 48 hours after exposure and are aggravated by physical exertion. No human case reports of pulmonary edema were located.

Skin Contact:
Diamylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive, based on animal information. Corrosive materials are capable of producing severe burns, blisters, ulcers and permanent scarring, depending on the concentration of the solution and the duration of contact. Airborne diamylamine (mixed isomers) may cause skin irritation, with symptoms such as redness and pain.
Diamylamine (mixed isomers) is absorbed through the skin and is toxic by this route of exposure based on an animal toxicity value. Because diamylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive, direct contact could damage the skin allowing increased absorption. Any skin contact may also involve significant inhalation exposure.

Eye Contact:
Diamylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive, based on animal information. Corrosive materials are capable of producing severe eye burns, and permanent injury, including blindness, depending on the concentration of the solutions and duration of contact. Brief exposure to low concentration of airborne diamylamine (mixed isomers) is expected to produce eye irritation. At higher concentrations, inflammation of the eyes and blurred vision can occur. Permanent injury, including blindness, could result. No human information was located.
Low airborne concentrations of many amines (e.g. diethylamine, dimethylamine and triethylamine) can cause a visual disturbance commonly known as "blue haze" or "halo vision". This effect results from temporary swelling of the surface of the eye caused by the amine (9), or by direct deposition of tertiary amines onto the surface of the eye (12). In general, after about 1-3 hours of exposure, vision becomes foggy or blurred, objects might appear bluish and there may be halos around lights. Affected persons may not experience eye discomfort or pain. The effect normally clears up within a day and causes no permanent injury. (9,12,13) The visual disturbance could contribute to accidents. It is not known whether diamylamine (mixed isomers) or any of its components can cause this effect.

Ingestion:
Diamylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive. Ingestion of concentrated solutions can cause burns to the lips, tongue, throat esophagus and stomach. Severe permanent injury or death could result. No human or animal information was located. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Long-term exposure to relatively low concentrations may be irritating to the respiratory system (nose, throat and bronchi), due to the corrosive nature of diamylamine (mixed isomers).

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact with dilute solutions could cause dermatitis (red, dry, cracked skin).

INHALATION: Chronic exposure to some other airborne amines can cause allergic respiratory sensitization.
Sensitized people can experience symptoms of bronchial asthma such as wheezing, difficult breathing, sneezing, and runny or blocked nose at low airborne concentrations that have no effect on unsensitized people. It is not known whether diamylamine (mixed isomers) or any of its ingredients can cause respiratory sensitization.

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located. Secondary amines like the components of diamylamine (mixed isomers) can react with nitrite under acidic conditions to form nitrosamines many of which are carcinogenic in animal tests.(3,14,15) The extent of this conversion and its relevance for carcinogenicity in humans is not known.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal information on diamylamine (mixed isomers) was located. A negative result was obtained in bacteria for di-n-amylamine, a component of the isomeric mixture.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Secondary amines, such as the components of diamylamine (mixed isomers), can react with nitrosating agents (e.g. nitrogen oxides, nitrites, nitrous acid) to give nitrosamines, many of which are carcinogenic in animal tests.(3,14,15)

Potential for Accumulation:
Secondary aliphatic amines like diamylamine (mixed isomers) are readily absorbed from the skin, respiratory and digestive tracts.(3,15) No specific information is available on how diamylamine (mixed isomers) is metabolized in humans or animals, but it probably does not accumulate in the body.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is very toxic. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for at least 30 minutes. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, and it can be done safely, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. Double bag, seal, label and leave contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods at the scene for safe disposal.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush chemical off the face. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 60 to 240 mL (2 to 8 oz) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Varies with composition. 51 deg C (124 deg F) (closed cup) (di-n-amylamine) (7); typically 70 deg C (158 deg F) (open cup) (mixed isomers) (4)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.1% (estimated)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
6.1% (estimated)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
250 deg C (482 deg F) (estimated)

Electrical Conductivity:
Less than 10(4) pS/m (estimated)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, nitriles, isocyanates, nitrosamines, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other irritating and toxic fumes may be formed in a fire.

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
Water mixtures are corrosive to skin. During a fire, toxic nitrogen oxide and hydrogen cyanide gases may be generated. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Small fires: Dry chemical powder. Large fires: Alcohol resistant foam.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
Carbon dioxide reacts with amines to form thermally unstable carbamate salts.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. Build earthen dikes in the path of burning liquid to limit the fire area. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Foam is the most effective agent for fighting large fires of this type. Cover the liquid with appropriate foam to blanket the surface to reduce the rate of evaporation, control intensity of fire when a leak can't be stopped, and to extinguish the fire when the leak is stopped. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates. Water is ineffective for fighting fires because diamylamine mixture is not soluble in water and also floats on water. The intensity of fire can be reduced when water is applied as a fine spray or fog to absorb the heat of the fire, and to cool exposed containers and materials.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Solid streams of water are ineffective and will spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Dike water runoff. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water mixtures with diamylamines are corrosive and may be combustible. Corrosive and explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Diamylamines and the decomposition products such as nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide are extremely hazardous to health. Do not enter any fire area without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical protective suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. (Di-n-amylamine)
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur. (Di-n-amylamine)
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water. (Di-n-amylamine)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 157.3

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 6.42 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.156 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Will vary with composition. Less than -7.85 deg C (17.9 deg F).
Boiling Point: Varies with composition. Typically 175-218 deg C (347-424 deg F).(4)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Varies with composition. Typically 0.77 at 20 deg C (water = 1).(4,18)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (less than 0.1 g/100 mL) (19,22)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in diethyl ether, very soluble in ethanol, and soluble in acetone. Expected to be soluble in most organic solvents.(4,18)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Varies with composition. Log P(oct) = 3.76 (estimated)
pH Value: 11 (0.0028M solution) (estimated) (calculated)
Basicity: Strong organic base.
Dissociation Constant: pKb = 2.8 at 26 deg C (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: Varies with composition. 1.2-1.5 mPa.s (1.2-1.5 centipoises) at 25 deg C (20)
Surface Tension: Varies with composition. 24-26 mN/m (24-26 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (21)
Vapour Density: 5.4 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: Varies with composition. Typically 0.04-1.2 kPa (0.3-9 mm Hg) at 26 deg C.(4,19)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Varies with composition. Typically 200-12000 ppm (0.02-1.2%) at 26 deg C (calculated).
Evaporation Rate: Expected to evaporate at a slower rate than n-butyl acetate.
Henry's Law Constant: 2.11 Pa.m3/mol (cited as 2.08 x 10(-5) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated); log H = -2.07 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: less than 3 at 20 deg C (dimensionless) (estimated)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Reaction with hypochlorites form unstable chloroamines, which may explode at room temperature.(26)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids is vigorous or violent.(26,27)
NITRATING AGENTS (e.g. mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid) - May form unstable nitro compounds that pose an explosion risk if subjected to shock or if heated rapidly and uncontrollably.(26)
DIAZOTIZATION AGENTS (e.g. mixture of sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid) - Forms unstable N-nitroso compounds, which are explosive and sensitive to friction, shock, heat and radiation.(26)
MERCURY - Reacts with mercury to form shock-sensitive compounds.(26)
NITROMETHANE - Reaction product may detonate; organic amines and nitromethane form sensitive explosive mixtures.(26)
NITROPHENOLS - Form shock-sensitive compounds.(26)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine gas, thionyl chloride) - Reaction evolves heat. May form shock sensitive chloroamines. Toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas is released.(26)
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride.(27)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium) or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction at room temperature can form toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride). May evolve heat. Reaction with phosgene forms thermally unstable isocyanate compounds.(8,11)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may evolve heat.(8,11)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid and may evolve heat.(8,11)
CARBON DIOXIDE - Forms thermally unstable amine carbamate salts.(8)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Diamylamines are slowly oxidized by prolonged exposure to air. Transient, organic peroxides or thermally unstable N-oxides such as hydroxylamines form which may decompose to form butene (flammable gas) or pentene (a very volatile flammable liquid), nitrous acid (corrosive and oxidizer), or formaldehyde (corrosive and very toxic).(23,24,25)

Conditions to Avoid:
Heating of substance at temperatures of 51 deg C or above, sparks including electrostatic discharges, direct sunlight, open flame, hot surfaces, or prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific corrosion data for diamylamine mixture. Diamylamine mixture is not expected to be corrosive to most stainless steels and some aluminum alloys. Diamylamine mixture is not corrosive to carbon steel at room temperature but may be corrosive to carbon steel at higher temperatures.(28) These conclusions are based on data for diethylamine and other secondary amines. In general, water mixtures with alkylamines are considered corrosive to copper and copper alloys (e.g. brass), some aluminum alloys, zinc, zinc alloys, and galvanized surfaces.(11,29)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. Diamylamines mixture is expected to attack polyvinyl chloride and polyurethane. It is expected to slightly attack polypropylene, polyamide, and polyester fiber (Dacron). Diamylamine mixture is not expected to attack Teflon and most other fluorinated plastics. Water mixtures with diamylamine mixture or wet diamylamine mixture are basic and therefore will etch glass.(30)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Information on the isomeric composition of the diamylamine used in the tests below was not provided.

Lethal concentration (rat): 62.5 ppm (4-hour exposure; 4/6 died); (6/6 died following a 4-hour exposure to 125 ppm) (1)

LD50 (oral, rat): 208 mg/kg (cited as 0.27 mL/kg) (1)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 270 mg/kg (cited as 0.35 mL/kg) (1)

Eye Irritation:

Diamylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive to the eyes.

Application of 0.02 mL of undiluted diamylamine caused severe injury (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 5/10) in rabbits.(1)

Skin Irritation:

Diamylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive to the skin.

Application of 0.1 mL of 100% diamylamine produced tissue death (necrosis) (graded 6/10).(1)

Mutagenicity:
There is no specific information available for diamylamine (mixed isomers). A negative result was obtained in bacteria for di-n-amylamine, which is a component of diamylamine (mixed isomers).(2)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VI. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23 (Mar.-Apr. 1962). p. 95-107
(2) Mortelmans, K., et al. Salmonella mutagenicity tests: II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals. Environmental Mutagenesis Journal. Vol. 8, supplement 7 (1986). p. 1-119
(3) Cavender, F.L. Aliphatic and alicyclic amines. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 5th rev. ed. Vol. 4. John Wiley & Sons, 2000. p. 683-706
(4) Flick, E.W., Industrial solvents handbook. 3rd ed. Noyes Data, 1985. p. 531
(5) Lawrence, S.A. Amines: synthesis, properties, and applications. Cambridge University Press, 2004. p. 34
(6) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(7) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49 (di-n-amylamine)
(8) Turcotte, G.M., et al. Amines, lower aliphatic amines and methylamines. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 2001. Available at:
<www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> {Subscription required}
(9) Grant, M.W., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 103-104
(10) Challis, B.C., et al. The chemistry of nitroso-compounds. Part 11. Nitrosation of amines by the two-phase interaction of amines in solution with gaseous oxides of nitrogen. Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions I, 1979. p. 299-304
(11) Karsten E., et al. Amines, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> {Subscription required}
(12) Page, E.H. et al. Visual and ocular changes associated with exposure to two tertiary amines. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 60, no. 1 (2003). p. 69-75
(13) Akesson, B. et al. Visual disturbances after experimental human exposure to triethylamine. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 42, no. 12 (1985). p. 848-850
(14) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 17. Some N-nitroso compounds. World Health Organization, May 1978
(15) Greim, H., et al. Toxicity of aliphatic amines: structure-activity relationship. Chemosphere. Vol. 36, no. 2 (1998). p. 271-295
(16) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Di-n-amylamine. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 364
(17) Celanese Chemicals Website. Celanese Chemicals. Celanese Corporation. Specification and technical data sheets for diamylamine (mixed isomers). Available at: <www.celanese.com/> (basic chemicals)
(18) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 82nd ed. CRC Press, 2001. p. 3-239 (Pentanamine, N-pentyl)
(19) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm> (dipentylamine)
(20) Shah, J.K. et al. Viscosity-temperature correlation for liquid aliphatic amines. Journal of Chemical Engineering Data. Vol. 14, no. 3 (1969). p. 333-335 (di-n-pentylamine and di-iso-pentylamine)
(21) Jasper, J.J. The surface tension of pure liquid compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 1, no. 4 (1972). p. 841-907
(22) Stephenson, M.R. Mutual solubility of water and aliphatic amines. Journal of Chemical Engineering Data. Vol. 38, no. 4 (1993). p. 625-629
(23) Cullis, C.F. et al. The gaseous oxidation of secondary aliphatic amines. Transaction of the Faraday Society, 1959. p. 2069-2076
(24) Gutman, D. et al. Identification of reactive routes in the reactions of oxygen atoms with methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, and trimethylamine. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 83, no. 24 (1979). p. 3065-3070
(25) Gilbert, K.E. et al. Peracid oxidation of aliphatic amines: general synthesis of nitroalkanes. Journal of Organic Chemistry. Vol. 44, no. 4 (1979). p. 659-661
(26) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(27) Armour, M.-A. Hazardous laboratory chemicals disposal guide. 2nd ed. Lewis Publishers, 1996. p. 47 (aniline)
(28) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 46-47 (dibutyl amines)
(29) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 110-121 (diethylamine); p. 14-25 (amines, general)
(30) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 146-157 (dibutylamine); p. 14-25 (amines, general)
(31) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Amines, aliphatic. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(32) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). n-Butylamine. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-11-10



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