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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION           FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE   ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION 
                                        ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                        WHO/VBC/DS/87.80
                                        ORIGINAL: ENGLISH
                                        Distr.: LIMITED

    DATA SHEET ON PESTICIDES No.  80


    DEET


    CLASSIFICATION:

    Primary Use:   Insect repellent
    Secondary Use:   None
    Chemical Group:  Substituted toluamide


         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food and Agriculture               des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

    1.0  GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1 COMMON NAME:  Deet (ANSI, ESA, exception BPC, BSI, E-ISO, 
        diethyltoluamide) 

    1.1.1 Identity:

          IUPAC:  N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide

          CAS: N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide 

          CAS Reg. No.: 134-62-3

          Molecular formula: C12H17NO

          Molecular weight: 191.3

          Structural formula:  
          
    Chemical Structure

    1.1.2 Synonyms: AutanR; DET; DETA; DetamideR;  DieltamidR; 
          diethyltoluamide; diethyl-m-toluamide; ENT 20,218;  ENT 22542:  
          FlypelR;  m-DelpheneR; m-Det;  m-Deta; MetadelpheneR; MGK;  
          Naugatuck DETR; OFFR; Repper-DET;  Repladin SpecialR. 

    1.2  SYNOPSIS: Deet is a selected spectrum, non-cumulative substituted 
         toluamide; an insect repellent of slight toxicity to mammals and 
         with residual activity.  The technical product is listed in WHO 
         Hazard Class III. Toxicity is not increased after metabolism to 
         the oxygen analogue.  Deet was introduced commercially in 1955. 

    1.3  SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1 Physical characteristics - The technical product is a nearly 
          odourless, colourless to amber liquid consisting of 85-95% 
          meta-isomer.  The boiling point is 111°C at 1.0 mm Hg; the 
          density (d) 244 is 0.996 to 0.998; viscosity 13.3 mPa at 30°C; 
          the refraction index (n) 25D 1.5206. Deet is not corrosive 
          to metals.
                   
    1.3.2 Solubility - Practically insoluble in water and glycerin.  
          Miscible with ethanol, isopropanol, propylene glycol, and other 
          organic solvents. 

    1.3.3 Stability - Technical deet is relatively stable, highly 
          hygroscopic and light sensitive. Sensitive to strong acids and 
          alkalis. 

    1.3.4 Vapour pressure: - 2.54 x 10-3 mm Hg (25°C)

    1.4  AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY - No recommended uses.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMMES - See 1.6

    1.6  HOUSEHOLD USE

    1.6.1 Common formulations - Deet is commercially available as 
          emulsifiable concentrate, creams, sticks, lotions and in 
          pressurized sprays and foams, ranging in concentration from 11.27 
          to 99.9% deet.  It may be formulated with solvents such as 
          ethanol or isopropanol, or with other pesticides. 

    1.6.2 Susceptible pests - Blood-sucking insects (including mosquitoes, 
          blackflies, gnats and other biting fleas), mites and ticks. 

    1.6.3 Use pattern - World-wide, on human skin to repel insect pests.  
          Can be used on clothing, household Pets, tents, bedrolls and 
          screens. 

    1.6.4 Unintended effects - No information available.

    2.0  TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS

    2.1  TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1 Absorption routes - Deet is absorbed slowly through the skin, 
          gastrointestinal tract or by inhalaton of spray mist.  Maximum 
          dermal penetration occurs within 24 hours and depending upon the 
          vehicle and the species may account for up to 77% of the applied 
          dose, the remainder being evaporated. 

    2.1.2 Mode of action - The exact mode of action of deet is not known.  
          Circumstantial evidence implicates deet in activities causing 
          accumulation of potassium in muscle cells and neurons.  See 
          Section 2.1.7. Pharmacological effects. 

    2.1.3 Excretion products - In seven-day excretion studies in rats, 
          rabbits and dogs, topically applied radio-labelled deet 
          (75% m-Deet in ethanol) was found to be excreted primarily 
          through the urine with the dog having lowest absorption 
          potential.  Of absorbed deet >75% was excreted in the urine 
          within 24 hours with little accumulation in any tissues for the
          three species.  Published human studies indicated that most of
          absorbed deet is excreted unchanged within one hour with the
          remainder being metabolized.  The predominant metabolic pathway
          in man involves oxidation of the benzylic moiety and 
          hydroxylation of the side chain yielding m-carboxyl-
          N,N-diethybenzoylamide.  The monohydroxylation product is 
          excreted as a glucuronide conjugate rather than a free alcohol. 

    2.1.4 Toxicity - Single dose

          Technical grade

          Oral LD50:

               Rat (M)          2.00 g/kg b.w. (meta-isomer)
                  
                                1.21 g/kg b.w. (ortho-isomer)

                                2.30 g/kg b.w. (para-isomer)

          Administration of technical grade deet to male rats by gastric 
          intubation led to acute toxicity symptoms including hyperemia at 
          base of ears, lacrimation, depression, prostration, epileptoid 
          tremors, asphyxial convulsions, respiratory and cardiac failure 
          and death.  Doses near but below the LD50 caused slight to mild 
          symptoms.  Some rats appeared moribund but recovered completely 
          within 24 hours.  No latent toxic effects were observed. 

          Dermal LD50:

               Mouse (M,F)      4.5 g/kg b.w.

               Rat (M,F)        >5.0 g/kg b.w.

               Rabbit (M)       3.18 g/kg b.w.

          Inhalation LC50:

               Rat (M,F)        >5950 mg/m3/8h


          Rats exposed to concentrations of 3.15 mg/l/hr for two to six 
          hours experienced a slight bloody discharge from the nose.  After 
          24 hours the rats appeared normal and showed no significant 
          physical or histopathological changes. 

          Intravenous LD50:

               Rabbit (M,F)  >50 mg/kg b.w. (meta-isomer)

          All rabbits receiving >75 mg/kg b.w. in a single injection died 
          within one minute.  Rabbits receiving 50 mg/kg b.w. experienced 
          temporary miosis and respiratory stimulation.  Pregnant rabbits 
          injected intravenously with a radio-labelled m-deet in ethanol 
          solution on the fifteenth day of gestation did not bioaccumulate 
          deet; the foetuses contained approximately one-sixth of the 
          maternal blood level of deet at all sampling intervals. 

          Eye irritation - Exposure of the rabbit eye to three drops (0.04 
          mg m-deet/drop) of a 30% and 40% solution of deet in cottonseed 
          oil and undiluted deet resulted in edema of the nictitating 
          membrane, lacrimation, conjunctivitis with pus.  After 48 hours 
          mild to moderate conjunctivitis and cloudiness of the cornea were 
          present.  After five days, injury to the eye began to disappear, 
          leaving no permanent damage.

    2.1.5 Toxicity, repeated doses

          Oral - Male rats, given 10% ortho-isomer (600 mg/kg b.w.) or 
          12.5% para-isomer (1125 mg/kg b.w.) for 19 days by gavage showed 
          no evidence of adverse effects and no histopathological changes. 

          Male rabbits, given 528 mg/kg b.w. m-deet daily by gavage for 15 
          days showed progressive weight loss, decreased serum calcium 
          levels, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as 
          increased relative kidney weight. 

          Dermal - Female rabbits dosed with radio labelled m-deet in 
          ethanol (75% conc.) throughout gestation in doses ranging from 0 
          to 500 mg/kg/b.w./day absorbed about 45% of the applied dose.  
          The degree of absorption was not dose dependant.  No 
          radioactivity was observed in the full term foetuses. 

          Moderate erythema, desquamation and dryness of skin occurred when 
          rabbits were dosed with m-deet in cottonseed oil or isopropanol 
          (50% conc.) at 1.0 g/kg b.w./day for 65 days.  Later, the skin 
          application site became leathery with hard, dry fissures 
          developing.  Three weeks after the final application all rabbits 
          appeared normal except for occasional scarring and no evidence of 
          skin sensitization was found. 

          In a 60 day study horses sprayed with 31 g/day of m-deet in 
          aerosol formulations (3.75-75.0% conc.) developed hypersteatosis 
          and dermatosis at >15% conc. The timing of appearance of these 
          effects was inversely related to dose. 
       
          Studies done on ortho- and para-isomers of deet showed similar 
          results to the meta-isomer.  Dermal application of 200 mg/kg 
          b.w./day to rabbits for 65 days resulted in mild interstitial 
          nephritis and more extensive inflammatory kidney lesions with the 
          para-isomer. 

          Inhalation - Groups of rats exposed to air saturated with m-deet. 
          100 mg/1.4m3 for 40 hours (eight hours/day, five days per week 
          and for seven weeks) showed slight hyperemia of ears, feed and 
          tail and increased motor activity. Some rats showed slight 
          bleeding from the nose.  At the end of the study there were no 
          significant physiological or histopathological findings. 

    2.1.6 Dietary studies

          Short-term - In a 200-day rat feeding study with dose levels of 
          100-10000 mg/kg diet, no effect levels were established at 500 
          mg/kg/diet for males and 5000 mg/kg/diet for females.  The male 
          no effect level was due to induced hypertrophy of the testes.  
          Hypertrophy of the liver and kidneys was observed in both sexes.  
          No histopathological changes were reported. 

    2.1.7 Supplementary studies

          Carcinogenicity - Lifetime studies of female mice and male and 
          female rabbits dosed twice a week with deet in acetone (100, 50 
          and 10% conc.) at a volume of 0.02 ml showed no carcinogenic 
          activity in either species and no local changes in mice. 

          Mutagenicity - Deet had no mutagenic potential in the 
          metabolically activated and non-activated Ames 
          Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay, nor in tests 
          involving Escherischia coli. 

          Additionally, a dominant lethal assay in male mice using m-deet 
          in corn oil yielded no statistically significant results. 

          Teratogenicity - No evidence of teratogenic activity was found 
          when female rabbits were repeatedly dosed dermally throughout 
          gestation a 75% solution of m-deet in concentrations ranging from 
          50 to 1000 mg/kg b.w./day. In a rat combined reproduction and 
          teratogenicity study, dermal applications of 100 or 1000 mg/kg 
          b.w./day of m-deet for the duration of gestation caused no 
          observed teratologic effects. 

          Reproduction

          Parent effects - Male rats inhaling 1500 mg m-deet/m3 of air for 
          six hours/day, five days/week for 13 weeks had sperm head 
          abnormalities and reduced sperm motility.  Untreated females 
          mated with these males had a decreased pregnancy rate. 

          In female rats dermally dosed with m-deet at 100 and 1000 mg/kg 
          b.w./day for the duration of pregnancy, increased pre- and post-
          implantation losses and decreased foetal viability and foetal 
          weight were observed at the highest dose level.  At 100 
          mg/kg/day, only the viability of foetuses was adversely affected.  
          These adverse effects were confirmed in a second study, using 
          similar doses for a period of one to six months prior to mating.  
          In addition, adverse testicular effects and decreased sperm 
          motility were reported in treated males at both dose levels.  In 
          another different study, groups of male rats dermally dosed with 
          m-deet at doses up to 1000 mg/kg b.w./day, five days/week for 
          nine weeks showed no alteration in sperm count, sperm morphology, 
          sperm viability, body weight or food consumption at any dose 
          level. 

          Pup Effects - When female rats were dosed dermally with m-deet 
          retarded development of the newborns was observed at the 1000 
          mg/kg, the highest dose level tested. 

          Neurotoxicity - When the mice were injected once, 
          intraperitoneally with 40% m-deet in alcohol they showed motor 
          excitement, disturbed coordination, convulsive twitching of 
          limbs, depression and death.  Dogs administered 100-300 mg/kg 
          b.w./day of m-deet for 13 weeks experienced mild CNS stimulation 
          and occasional emesis.  Temporary miosis was reported in rabbits 
          following a single intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg b.w. 
      
          Sensitization and skin irritation - Deet was not found to cause a 
          photo-chemical irritation reaction when applied dermally to 
          rabbits prior to UV light exposure.  No evidence of sensitization 
          was observed in guinea pigs following dermal application of 1.0 
          ml of 10% m-deet solution. 

          Behavioural changes - Minor behavioural changes in passive and 
          quick avoidance, tactile sensitivity, endurance, balance and 
          level of activity, were seen in a 65 day rat inhalation study of 
          m-deet at all dose levels from 250-1500 mg/m3. 
       
          Pharmacological effects - A 40% emulsion of m-deet (in vegetable 
          lecithin, ethanol and distilled water) had no effect on isolated 
          rat uterus at a dilution of 1:10000. A dilution of 1:5000 
          depressed the amplitude of rhythmic contraction in the uterus 
          while a dilution of 1:2500 completely abolished contraction and 
          muscle tone.  All effects were reversible when the m-deet 
          emulsion was removed or upon additional treatment with 
          acetylcholine or barium chloride.  The effects, therefore, are 
          consistent with increased intracellular potassium levels.  
          Rabbits showed circulatory and respiratory responses to m-deet 
          including a slight but evanescent fall in blood pressure when 
          intravenously administered at 5 mg/kg b.w. 

    2.2  TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1 Absorption route - See 2.1.1

    2.2.2 Dangerous doses - No published information available.  Probable 
          oral lethal dose 0.5 to 5.0  g/kg b.w. Dermal lowest toxic dose 
          35 mg/kg b.w./five days. 

    2.2.3 Observations of occupationally exposed workers - Contact 
          dermatitis developed on facial skin of 2.3% of workers using m-
          deet lotion.  Hyperemia and pronounced edema of fingers, dryness 
          and superficial cracks, tenderness in region of the fingers and 
          periodic numbness followed by the sensation of pain in the 
          fingers were common observations. 

    2.2.4 Observations of volunteers - In 1966, three preparations of deet 
          were tested in 85 men aged 19 to 27 years for adverse dermal 
          effects.  Deet (40%) in alcohol was applied to hands, forearms, 
          face and neck at a daily dose of 4 to 6 ml for three to four 
          weeks.  Effects included seborrhea (three cases), contact 
          dermatitis (one case), acne-like eruptions (one case), and 
          conjunctivitis (one case). 

          A group of 232 human volunteers' clothing was sprayed once every 
          three to five days for one to one and one half months with a deet 
          formulation including deet and Neopynamin or Sumithrin.  No side 
          effects were seen on the skin. 

          Five human volunteers were tested with a 50% solution of deet.  
          One ml was applied to the face and 2 ml were applied to each arm 
          daily for five days.  Tingling and mild desquamation occurred 
          around the nose. No systemic effects were observed.  Desquamation 
          cleared after two days. 

    2.2.5 Observations of the general population - No published information 
          available.  Bystander exposure is not likely to occur when 
          recommended application procedures are used. However, extra care
          should be taken to avoid unintentional exposure of young children
          and other sensitive individuals through mouth or skin contact 
          with liberally treated persons or objects (e.g. clothing, 
          bedding, toys, etc.). 

    2.2.6 Reported Mishaps - The majority of adult mishaps reported between 
          1961-1981  produced only mild syptoms of irritation.  Most 
          individuals remained asymptomatic.  Contact urticaria has been 
          reported in several cases in the general population. 

          Ten soldiers experienced bullous eruptions in the antecubital 
          fossae, 18 to 24 hours after application, prior to sleep, of a 
          50% m-deet repellent formulation to their skin.  Observations 
          included burning sensation, erythema, blisters, ulceration and 
          scarring. 

          Mishaps in which deet may have been concerned, produced severe 
          toxic encephalopathy occurred in female children; two of nine 
          poisonings were fatal.  An 18 month old girl was hospitalized 
          following ingestion of a small amount of 10% deet formulation.  
          Recovery was slow, after six weeks of treatment the patient was 
          discharged to a second hospital for further convalescence.  No 
          further details about her recovery are available. 

          A five year old girl, sprayed nightly for three months with a 
          formulation (10% deet) died 24 days after admission to hospital 
          for symptoms of toxic encephalopathy.  At autopsy, edema of the 
          brain and congestion of the meninges were observed.

          A three and one half year old girl was admitted to hospital with 
          symptoms of toxic encephalopathy after cumulative exposure to 
          approximately 180 mg of deet (15%) over a two week period.  
          Improvement followed vigorous medical treatiaent, including 
          anticonvulsant therapy.  The patient was discharged after three 
          days in hospital. 

          A six year old girl died seven days after admission to hospital 
          presenting toxic encephalopathy following repeated exposures to a 
          15% deet formulation.  This patient was also a presumed 
          heterozygote for ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency. 

    2.3  TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    2.3.1 Fish - LC50 (24 and 48 hr. exposure)

          Gambusia affinis (Mosquito fish) 235 mg/l in stagnant water.  The 
          fish appeared to become tranquilized in one to three minutes 
          exhibiting no response to external stimulus.  Surviving fish, if 
          placed in fresh water, fully recover. 

    2.3.2 Birds - Deet had teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in white 
          leghorn chicken embryos when 1.27 micromoles of deet were applied 
          to the chorio-allantoic membrane at various times during the 
          second incubation day. Forty-one percent of embryos survived and 
          of these thirty-three percent exhibited gross malformations. 
          Cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and CNS defects were common. 

    2.3.3 Other species - No information.

    3.0  FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF 
         COMPOUND

    3.1  RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY - (For definitions of 
         categories, see Introduction).  All liquid formulation above 10%, 
         and solid formulations above 40%, category 4. All other 
         formulations, category 5. 

    3.2  TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

         Formulations in category 4 - Should be transported and stored in 
         clearly labelled, rigid and leakproof containers, secure from 
         access by children and other unauthorized persons.  No food or 
         drink should be transported or stored in the same compartment. 

         Formulations in category 5 - Should be transported and stored in 
         clearly labelled leakproof containers out of reach of children, 
         away from food and drink. 

    3.3  HANDLING

         Formulations in category 4 - Skin protection (see 4.1.3) should be 
         used by all persons handling the concentrate for prolonged or 
         repeated time periods.  Adequate washing facilities should be 
         available at all times during the handling and should be close to 
         the site of handling.  Eating, drinking and smoking should be 
         prohibited during handling and before washing of hands and face. 

         Formulations in category 5 - No facilities other than those needed 
         for the handling of any other chemical are required. 

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER

         Containers may be decontaminated prior to disposal.  
         Decontaminated containers should not be used for storage of food 
         or drink.  If not decontaminated, large empty containers should be 
         crushed and buried below topsoil.  Care must be taken to avoid 
         subsequent contamination of water resources. 

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

         Formulations in category 4 - Pre-employment medical examination of 
         workers is desirable.  Workers suffering from active hepatic or 
         renal disease or dermatitis should be excluded from contact.  
         Special account should be taken of workers' mental ability to 
         comprehend and follow instructions.  Training of workers in 
         techniques to avoid contact is advisable. 

         Formulations in category 5 - No pre-employment medical examination 
         for workers is necessary.  Warning to workers to minimize skin 
         contact is essential.

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT - 
         Not applicable. 

    3.7  LABELLING

         Formulations in category 4 - Minimum cautionary statement

         Deet is a substituted toluamide of low mammalian toxicity and 
         should not be used by people under medical advice not to work with 
         such compounds.  Avoid all eye contact, mouth contact, excessive 
         skin contact, or inhalation of aerosol mist.  Wash splashes from 
         skin and eyes immediately.  Wash hands before eating or smoking 
         after handling the pesticide. 

         Do not contaminate food and animal feedstuffs, food preparation 
         surfaces or utensils. 

         Store pesticide in the original container, tightly closed and in a 
         safe place away from children.  Dispose of empty container 
         safely.  Do not contaminate ponds, waterways, ditches or ground 
         water with either the chemical directly or the used container. 

         Avoid prolonged use on children and do not apply to areas of deep 
         skin folds.  If signs of poisoning occur after overexposure, take 
         the patient to a physician. 

         Formulations in category 5 - minimum cautionary statement -

         This formulation contains deet.  Avoid all eye, mouth and 
         excessive skin contact, or inhalation of the spray mist.  Wash 
         hands after use.  Store in the original container in a safe place 
         away from children and pets. Avoid prolonged use on children and 
         do not apply to areas of deep skin folds.  In addition, for 
         aerosol preparations do not apply directly to face as a spray.  
         Keep container away from heat (including sun).  Do not puncture or 
         incinerate aerosol cans even when empty.  Dispose of all empty 
         containers safely.  Do not contaminate food, food utensils or food 
         preparation surfaces. 

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD - Not applicable.

    4.0  PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1  PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1 General - Deet is a substituted toluamide insect repellent of 
          moderate mammalian toxicity. 

    4.1.2 Manufacture and formulation - T.L.V.: No information.  Closed 
          systems and forced ventilation may be required to reduce as much 
          as possible the exposure of workers to the chemical. 

    4.1.3 Mixers - When opening the container and when mixing, care should 
          be taken to avoid contact with the skin, mouth and eyes.  If 
          necessary, a facial visor and gloves should be worn.  Splashes 
          should be washed immediately from the skin or eyes with large 
          quantities of water.  Before eating, drinking or smoking, hands 
          and exposed skin should be washed.  If contaminated, clothing 
          should be washed at the end of a working day. 

    4.1.4 Other associated workers - All persons exposed to the concentrate 
          should observe the precautions described above in 4.1.3 under 
          "Mixers and applicators". 

    4.1.5 Other populations likely to be affected - With recommended usage 
          the general population should not be exposed to hazardous amounts 
          of deet.  Caution should be exercised when children are treated 
          for prolonged periods. 

    4.2  ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS - Not applicable.

    4.3  DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS - Residues in large 
         concentrate containers should be emptied in diluted form into a 
         shallow pit taking care to avoid contamination of groundwaters. 
         The empty containers may be decontaminated by rinsing two or three 
         times with water and scrubbing the sides.  An additional rinse 
         should be carried out with a 5% sodium hydroxide solution which 
         should remain in the container overnight.  Impermeable gauntlets 
         should be worn during the work and soakage pit should be provided 
         for the rinsings.  Decontaminated containers should not be used 
         for storage of food and drink. Spillage of deet and its 
         formulations should be removed by washing with 5% sodium hydroxide 
         solution and then rinsing with large quantities of water. 

    4.4  EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1 Early symptoms of poisoning - Symptoms of early systemic 
          poisoning may include respiratory difficulty, confusion, abnormal 
          reflexes and convulsions; ataxia and coma may also occur.  Skin 
          contact may result in itchiness, a burning sensation, red patches 
          and blisters on exposed skin surfaces. 

    4.4.2 Treatment before a person is seen by a physician, if these 
          symptoms appear following exposure - For skin contact, the person 
          should remove contaminated clothing, wash contaminated skin with 
          soap and water and flush with large quantities of water.  
          Vomiting should not be induced following ingestion, inhalation of 
          the solvent must be avoided. 

    5.0  FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1  MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASE OF POISONING

    5.1.1 General information - Deet is a substituted toluamide insect 
          repellent of slight mammalian toxicity which may be absorbed from 
          the gastrointestinal tract, through the intact skin, and by 
          inhalation. 

    5.1.2 Symptoms and signs - Symptoms of acute systemic poisoning typical 
          of toxic encephalopathy include respiratory difficulty, shaking 
          spells stimulated by noise or pain, abnormal reflexes, confusion 
          and loss of sense of balance, followed by ataxia and convulsions; 
          coma may also occur.  Skin contact may result in hypersteatosis 
          or acute dermatitis, followed in some cases by ulceration in body 
          creases and scarring. 

    5.1.3 Laboratory - No published information.

    5.1.4 Treatment - Treatment is symptomatic.  If a potentially lethal 
          dose has been ingested, unless the patient is vomiting, rapid 
          gastric lavage should be performed.  For skin contact resulting 
          in toxicity, the skin should be washed with soap and water.  If 
          the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with 
          isotonic saline or large quantities of water. 

    5.1.5 Prognosis - If the acute toxic effect is survived and adequate 
          respiratory support was given, the chances of full recovery are
          good. 

    5.1.6 References to previously reported cases

          1.  Gryboski, J., Weinstein, D., Ordway, N. K.
                 N. Engl. J. Med., 264:289, 1961

          2.  Heick, H. M. C., Shipman, R. T., Norman, M. G., James, W.
                 J. Pedidtr. 97(3), 471-473, 1980

          3.  Konovalov, G. A., Ramanov.,
                 Anesteziol Reanimatol, 2, 54-5, 1980.

          4.  Maibach, H. I., Johnson, H. L. Arch. Dermatol. 111, 
              726-30, 1975.

          5.  PIMS (1980) Summary of Reported Pesticide Incidents 
              Involving Deet.  Pesticide Incident Monitoring System 
              Report No. 365.  US EPA 1980.

          6.  Reuveni, H., Yaqupsky, P. Arch. Dermatol., 118 (8) 
              582-3, 1982.

          7.  Zadikoff, C. M. J. Pediatr. 95(1) 140-142, 1979.

    5.2  SURVEILLANCE TESTS

         Urinary levels of deet and/or metabolites can be used to determine 
         the degree of exposure. 

    5.3  LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1 Detection and assay of compound -

          Wu, A., Pearson, M. L., Shekoski, D. L., Soto, R. J., Stewart, R. 
          D.,  J. High Resolute Chromatogr. Chromatog. Commun. 2(9) 
          558-562, 1979. 

    5.3.2 Other tests in case of poisoning - No published information.

     

See Also:
        DEET (PIM 170)