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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 52
CCOHS Chemical Name: Cyclohexanone

Synonyms:
Anone
Cyclohexyl ketone
Hexanon
Ketohexamethylene
Nadone
Pimelic ketone
Pimelin ketone
Sextone

Chemical Name French: Cyclohexanone
Chemical Name Spanish: Ciclohexanona
CAS Registry Number: 108-94-1
UN/NA Number(s): 1915
RTECS Number(s): GW1050000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-631-1
Chemical Family: Saturated alicyclic ketone / cyclic alkanone
Molecular Formula: C6-H10-O
Structural Formula: -(CH2)5-C(=O)- (-(CH2)5-C- cyclohexane ring)

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to pale yellow oily liquid with a sweet, sharp, mildly pleasant odour like acetone and peppermint.(41)

Odour Threshold:
0.12 ppm - 100 ppm (detection) (geometric mean odour threshold: 3.5 ppm); 0.12 ppm (recognition) (44)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than 7 times the geometric mean odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Cyclohexanone may be shipped with 2.25% methanol as antifreeze. It may contain impurities such as cyclohexane, benzene, cyclohexanol and phenol.(39)

Uses and Occurrences:
Mainly used to manufacture adipic acid and caprolactam (used to make nylon) and as a solvent and thinner for nitrocellulose lacquers, cellulose acetate, waxes, fats, crude rubber, natural and synthetic resins, shellac, polymers and insecticides. Also used to make many organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, insecticides and herbicides, printing inks, cyclohexanone resins, wood stains, paint, varnish and spot removers, polishes; metal and leather degreasers; silk dyeing and delustering; lubricating oil additives. Used in elemental analysis and in the manufacture of magnetic and video tapes.(39,40,41)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to pale yellow oily liquid with a sweet, sharp, mildly pleasant odour like acetone and peppermint. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. May form explosive peroxides upon standing or upon exposure to air or direct sunlight. TOXIC. Harmful if absorbed through the skin or inhaled. Central nervous system depressant. High concentrations may headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Causes skin and eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Inhalation of low concentrations for a brief period of time has produced irritation of the nose and throat. Ten people were exposed to various concentrations of cyclohexanone for 3 to 5 minutes. Exposure to 75 ppm was irritating to the nose and throat; 50 ppm was irritating to the throat and 25 ppm was not objectionable.(10)
Inhalation of higher concentrations is expected to cause signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion. Very high concentrations may cause loss of consciousness and possibly death. There is no human information available, but these effects have been seen in animal studies and have been observed in humans exposed to related ketones.

Skin Contact:
Cyclohexanone is probably a moderate to severe skin irritant, depending upon the concentration of the solution. There is no human information available, but concentrated solutions have caused severe irritation in animal studies. Dilute solutions are not expected to be irritating. Cyclohexanone can be absorbed through the skin. Symptoms of CNS depressions, as described for "Inhalation" above, may occur if significant skin contact occurs.

Eye Contact:
Solutions greater than 15% can cause severe to corrosive eye injury, based on animal information. Permanent eye injury or blindness could result. Dilute solutions (less than 10%) would probably cause no to mild irritation. The vapours are also irritating to the eyes, based on animal and human information. The majority of 10 subjects exposed to 75 ppm for 3 to 5 minutes reported eye irritation.(10)

Ingestion:
A man tried to commit suicide by drinking an adhesive cement containing 39% cyclohexanone, as well as several other ingredients.(12) No conclusions can be drawn from this report because of the combined exposure. Ingestion of large amounts of cyclohexanone would probably produce signs of CNS depression, as described for "Inhalation" above.
Like other ketones, cyclohexanone can probably be aspirated (inhalation of the liquid into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting). Aspiration of even a small amount of liquid could result in a life threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Severe lung damage (edema), respiratory failure, cardiac arrest and death may result.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

SKIN CONTACT: The liquid is a defatting agent. Prolonged and repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.

CASE REPORTS: There are 2 case reports of health effects (drowsiness and kidney disease) developing in workers exposed by inhalation or skin contact to cyclohexanone, as well as other chemicals.(18,19) It is not possible to say that cyclohexanone cause these effects because of the combined exposure to other chemicals and the small number (1 or 20) of workers studied.

SKIN SENSITIZATION: A woman who worked with 100% cyclohexanone was diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis. Patch testing with 10% cyclohexanone showed a slight reaction after 2 days which increased after 4 days (the patch became elevated and itchy). No previous history of allergies was noted. She remained symptom-free for 6 months after leaving the workplace.(20) This single case report provides insufficient evidence that cyclohexanone can cause an allergic skin reaction.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has determined that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of cyclohexanone to experimental animals.(2,51)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Teratogenicity, embryotoxicity and fetoxicity have been observed in animals studies, but only in the presence of toxicity in the mother.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. Infertility has been observed in male rats in a two-generation study. However, no conclusions can be drawn from this study due to severe toxicity in the animals.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that cyclohxanone is mutagenic. There is no human information available. Negative results have been in 3 in vivo tests in rats and mice exposed by inhalation. Positive results have been obtained in cultured human lymphocytes, in the absence of metabolic activation.(28,36) Negative results were obtained in the unscheduled DNA synthesis test using human embryonic intestinal cells, with and without metabolic activation.(22) Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Oral administration of both cyclohexanone and ethanol has increased the metabolism of both compounds in rabbits.(31) Inhalation pre-exposure to cyclohexanone has increased the liver toxicity of dichlorobenzene in male rats and mice.(32)

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. Cyclohexanone is absorbed by the inhalation, dermal and oral routes of exposure. In humans and animals, the primary metabolic reaction of cyclohexanone is extensive reduction to cyclohexanol. In human volunteers exposed to cyclohexanol by inhalation for 8 hours, the main metabolites found in the urine were the diols (about 60%), 1,4- cyclohexanediol and 1,2-cyclohexanediol, with only small amounts (1%) of cyclohexanol.(9)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 ozs. (240 to 300 mL) of water to dilute material in stomach. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
47 deg C (116 deg F) (closed cup) (52); also reported as 44 deg C (111 deg F) (method unspecified) (42)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.1% at 100 deg C (41)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
9.4% (41)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
420 deg C (788 deg F) (42)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Liquid can accumulate electrostatic charge by flow or agitation due to its low electrical conductivity.(43)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Acrid smoke, irritating fumes.(41)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures at, or above 44 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container if the air temperature exceeds the flash point. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a flammability and health hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam or polymer foam, water spray or fog. Water may be ineffective because it may not cool cyclohexanone below its flash point.(41)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Water can be applied as a fine spray or mist to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool fire-exposed containers and protect exposed materials. Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can also be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequation protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 98.15

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.0 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.25 ppm (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Reported values vary widely; at or below -26 deg C (-15 deg C) (41); - 47 deg C (-52.6 deg F) (39)
Boiling Point: 155.6-157 deg C (312.1-314.6 deg F) (41)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.948 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (12,39)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (2.3 g/100 g at 20 deg C) (41)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, benzene, methanol, n-hexane and most other common organic solvents.(39)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.81 (45)
pH Value: Practically neutral.
Vapour Density: 3.38 (air = 1) (45)
Vapour Pressure: 0.53 kPa (4 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (39,45); 0.69 kPa (5.2 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (12)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 5264 ppm (0.53%) at 20 deg C; 6840 ppm (0.68%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.29 (butyl acetate = 1); 40.6 (ether = 1) (40)
Critical Temperature: 356 deg C (673 deg F) (39)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 2.2 mPa.s (2.2 centipoises) at 25 deg C (40)
SURFACE TENSION: 35.05 mN/m (35.05 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (40)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 3850 kPa (38 atm) (40)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. May form peroxides.(43)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitric acid, peroxides, perchlorates) - violent reaction. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(43,46,47)
NITRIC ACID and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - form oily, explosive peroxides.(46)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive to common metals such as aluminum, stainless steel, steel, cast iron, copper, brass, bronze, nickel and its alloys.(41,48)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Attacks most paints and plastics.(41)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 2639 ppm (4-hour exposure) (1)

LD50 (oral, female rat): 1340 mg/kg (cited as 1.41 mL/kg) (1)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 950 mg/kg (cited as 1.00 mL/kg) (1)

Eye Irritation:

Two studies have shown that cyclohexanone (25-100%) can cause corrosive eye injury in rabbits.(1,7) Other studies have shown moderate to very severe irritation in rabbits from solutions of 15-20% and no to slight irritation from dilute solutions (5-10%).(3,6,7) Exposure to 4000 ppm for 355 minutes produced tearing and squinting in guinea pigs. Marked corneal opacity was observed the following day.(5) Dose-related eye congestion and irritation was observed in rabbits exposed to 190 to 3082 ppm (cited as 0.75 to 12.12 mg/L) for 50 six-hour periods for ten weeks.(13)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.2 mL of undiluted cyclohexanone, under cover for 24 hours, produced marked irritation in rabbits that did not disappear for 6 days. Application of 24.8% and 49.5% produced slight and moderate irritation, respectively, which disappeared in 72 hours. Application of 12.4% produced a minimal response which disappeared within 24 hours.(3) In another study, application of 0.01 mL of undiluted cyclohexanone caused no irritation in rabbits (graded 1/10).(6)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Inhalation of concentrations above 2000 ppm for 1-4 hours has produced irritation, salivation, signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression (sluggish movement and narcosis), reduced body temperature and deaths in guinea pigs, rats and mice. Autopsy has shown lung injury.(1,3,5) Early signs of CNS depression (reduced periods of immobility during a "despair swimming test") have been observed in male mice exposed to 255 ppm and above for 4 hours.(8)

Skin Contact:
One report of acute dermal exposure of rabbits cannot be evaluated due to the small number (1) of animals/group.(4)

Ingestion:
Oral exposure to doses above 1800 mg/kg has produced signs of CNS depression and deaths in mice and rats.(3) Cyclohexanone has been reported to be an aspiration hazard.(14)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Long-term inhalation exposure (50 six-hour periods over 10 weeks) of rabbits has produced signs of CNS depression (slight lethargy, light narcosis, laboured breathing and incoordination) starting at 1414 ppm. Two deaths occurred at 3082 ppm after three weeks.(13) Reversible disorders of the kidneys (increased urination, decreased protein in the urine) have been observed in female rats exposed to 26 ppm (cited as or 105 mg/m3) for 4 hours a day for 20 days. The lower dose (3 ppm or 11.5 mg/m3) caused an increase in liver weight.(15)

Skin Contact:
Guinea pigs were dermally dosed 3 times a week for 3 weeks with 0.5 ml of cyclohexanone with a six month follow-up period. Two animals developed cataracts, with another developing isolated vacuolated areas in edges of the lens.(16) No statistical analysis of the data was conducted, therefore, no conclusions can be drawn from this study. The study was subsequently repeated with no statistical differences observed between controls and guinea pigs exposed to either 2% or undiluted cyclohexanone. Similar dermal application to rats for 3 or 13 weeks caused no changes in the eye.(17)

Ingestion:
Oral administration of high doses (approximately 5500 to 12000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks) has caused reduced weight gain and deaths in mice. Rats fed up to 6500 ppm (approximately 1000 mg/kg) for 25 weeks exhibited no significant effects.(11)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results were obtained in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).(21)

Carcinogenicity:
Non-dose related increases in the incidence of benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex in male rats exposed to 500 mg/kg/day, malignant lymphomas in female mice exposed to 1600 mg/kg/day, and hepatocellular neoplasms in male mice exposed to 1400 mg/kg/day were observed in a 2-year study.(11) No conclusions can be drawn from this study due to the lack of a dose-response relationship and the different types of cancers observed. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity to experimental animals.(51)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Embryotoxicity (increased resorptions), teratogenicity (incomplete or lack of ossification) and/or fetotoxicity (reduced body weight) have been observed in rats and mice exposed by inhalation or orally, but only in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced weight gain, central nervous system depression and or functional kidney disorders).(15,35,37,38) Other studies have shown no effects in rats and mice exposed by inhalation or orally, in the absence of maternal toxicity.(23-26) One other study, provided no information on maternal toxicity and therefore, cannot be evaluated.(27)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Reduced fertility and reduced weight and survival of offspring was observed in second generation male rats (the offspring of parents exposed to 1000 ppm) exposed by inhalation to 1400 ppm. These effects were observed only in the presence of significant toxicity (reduced body weight, signs of central nervous system depression and deaths).(33) The infertility effect was reversible after exposure stopped and the animals were allowed to recover.(34) In another study, no significant changes in the reproductive organs were observed in male rats exposed to 3 or 26 ppm (cited as 11.5 and 105 mg/m3) for 48 days.(15)

Mutagenicity:
Negative results have been obtained in 3 different in vivo tests (the dominant lethal test in male rats; the sperm morphology test in male mice; the bone marrow cytology assay in rats). All animals were exposed by inhalation to 50 or 400 ppm for 5 days.(22) Positive results were obtained in one in vivo study, but the route of exposure is not considered relevant (subcutaneous).(51)
Positive results (sister chromatid exchanges and gene mutations) were observed in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells without, but not with, metabolic activation. Chromosome aberrations did not occur, with or without metabolic activation.(29) Negative results were obtained in the mouse lymphoma forward point mutation assay, both with and without metabolic activation.(12) Positive and negative results have been obtained in Salmonella typhimurium, both with and without metabolic activation.(2,12,30) Positive results have also been reported in Eschericheri coli, in the absence of metabolic activation.(12)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Nyeum, J.S., ed. Cyclohexanone: range finding toxicity studies. Special Report No. 30-133. Union Carbide Corporation, December 5, 1967. EPA/OTS 878210816; NTIS/OTS 0206064
(2) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacturing and painting. Volume 47. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 157-169
(3) Gupta, P.K., et al. Toxicological aspects of cyclohexanone. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 49 (1979). p. 525-533
(4) Treon, J.F., et al. The physiological response of rabbits to cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and certain derivatives of these compounds. I. Oral administration and cutaneous application. The Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 6 (June, 1943). p. 199- 214
(5) Specht, H., et al. Acute response of guinea pigs to the inhalation of ketone vapours. National Institute of Health Bulletin No. 176. Division of Industrial Hygiene, National Institute of Health, U.S. Public Health Service, 1940.
(6) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30 (1969). p. 470- 476
(7) Morgan, R.L., et al. Prediction of ocular irritation by corneal pachymetry. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 8 (August, 1987). p. 609-613.
(8) De Ceaurriz, J.P., et al. Concentration-dependent behavioral changes in mice following short-term inhalation exposure to various industrial solvents. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 67, no. 3 (March, 1983). p. 383-389
(9) Mraz, J., et al. Uptake, metabolism and elimination of cyclohexanone in humans. Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 66, no. 3 (1994). p. 203-208
(10) Nelson, K.W., et al. Sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapours. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 7 (September, 1943). p. 282-285
(11) Lijinsky, W., et al. Chronic toxicity study of cyclohexanone in rats and mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Vol. 77, no. 4 (October, 1986). p. 941-949
(12) Topping, D.C., et al. Ketones. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. 4th edition. Volume II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1739-1750, 1828- 1842
(13) Treon, J.F., et al. The physiological response of animals to cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and certain derivative of these compounds. II. Inhalation. The Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 8 (October, 1943). p. 323-347
(14) The aspiration hazard and toxicity of a series of ketones. Exxon Chem. Amers. EPA/OTS 878210934; NTIS/OTS 0206264
(15) Chirkova, Y.M., et al. Study of the embryotropic and gonadotropic effect of cyclohexanone. Toksikologiya Novykh Promysklennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Vol. 14 (1975). p. 26-32 (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control number: 00103133)
(16) Rengstorff, R.H., et al. Cataracts induced in guinea pigs by acetone, cyclohexanone and dimethyl sulfoxide. Edgewood Arsenal Technical Report EATR 4550. Medical Research Laboratory, Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories, Department of the Army, August, 1971
(17) Mayhew, D.A. Cataractogenesis studies with cyclohexanone. Proceedings of a symposium of an industry approach to chemical risk assessment: Caprolactam and related compounds as a case study, May 15-17, 1984. p. 264-272
(18) Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Organic Solvents. Report No. 80. Medical Research Council. Industrial Health Research Board, 1953. p. 333-334
(19) Albrecht, W.N., et al. IgA glomerulonephritis in a plumber working with a solvent-based pipe cement. Industrial Health. Vol. 25, no. 3 (1987). p. 157-158
(20) Sanmartin, O., et al. Occupational contact dermatitis from cyclohexanone as a PVC adhesive. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 27, no. 3 (September, 1992). p. 189-190
(21) Bruze, M., et al. Contact allergy to a cyclohexanone resin in humans and guinea pigs. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 18, no. 1 (1988). p. 46-49
(22) Schuler, R.L., et al. Mutagenicity of 13 NIOSH priority compounds. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (Publication date unknown)
(23) Samimi, B.H., et al. Fetal effects of inhalation exposure to cyclohexanone vapor in pregnant rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 5, no. 6 (December, 1989). p. 1035-1043
(24) Gray, Jr., L.E., et al. An extended evaluation of an in vivo teratology screen utilizing postnatal growth and viability in the mouse. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. Vol. 4 (1984). p. 403-426
(25) Chernoff, N., et al. A teratology system which utilizes postnatal growth and viability in the mouse. Short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures III. Plenum, 1983. p. 417-427
(26) Gray, Jr., L.E., et al. An evaluation of figure-eight maze activity and general behavioural development following prenatal exposure to forty chemicals: effects of cytosine arabinoside, dinocap, nitrofen, and Vitamin A. NeuroToxicology. Vol. 7, no. 2 (1986). p. 449-462
(27) Gondry, E. Experimental toxicology: studies on the toxicity of cyclohexylamine, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol, metabolites of cyclamate. Journal Europeen de Toxicoligie. Vol. 5, no. 4 (1972). p. 227-238 (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control number: 00119782)
(28) Perocco, P., et al. Toxic activity of seventeen industrial solvents and halogenated compounds on human lymphocytes cultured in vitro. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 16, no. 1-2 (April, 1983). p. 69-75
(29) Aaron, C.S., et al. Multiple genetic endpoint assay of cyclohexanone in CHO cells. In: Proceedings of a symposium on an industry approach to chemical risk assessment: caprolactam and related compounds as a case study, May 15-17, 1984. p. 233-245
(30) Massoud, A., et al. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of cyclohexanone. (Abstract). Mutation Research. Vol. 74, no. 3 (1980). p. 174
(31) Sakata, M., et al. Metabolic interaction of ethanol and cyclohexanone in rabbits. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 38, no. 1 (January, 1993). p. 33-42
(32) Brondeau, M.T., et al. Acetone compared to other ketones in modifying the hepatotoxicity of inhaled 1,2-dichlorobenzene in rats and mice. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 49, no. 1 (October, 1989). p. 69-78
(33) Two-generation reproduction study via inhalation (with a neurotoxicology/pathology component) in Albino rats using cyclohexanone. Final report, with cover letter. Study no. 450-1587. American Biogenics Corporation, March 19, 1986. EPA/OTS 40-8666137; NTIS/OTS 0511206
(34) Assessment of male reproductive performance during a post exposed recovery period of second generation males from a two generation reproduction study. Final report, with letter. Study no. 450-2326. American Biogenics Corporation, November, 1986. EPA/OTS 40-8666150; NTIS/OTS 511208
(35) Seidenberg, J.M., et al. Validation of an in vivo developmental toxicity screen in the mouse. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. Vol. 6 (1986). p. 361-374
(36) Lederer, J., et al. L'action cytogenetique et teratogene du cyclamate et de ses metabolites. Therapeutique. Vol. 47, no. 4 (April, 1971). p. 357-363
(37) An inhalation teratology study in rats with cyclohexanone with cover letter. Final report. Bio/dynamics Inc., May 1, 1984. EPA/OTS 40- 8466096; NTIS/OTS 0507478
(38) Initial submission: Inhalation teratologenicity study with cyclohexanone in mice. Final report, with cover letter dated 070292 and attachment. Bio/dynamics Inc., 1984. EPA/OTS 88-920004226; NTIS/OTS 0540574
(39) Fisher, W.B., et al. Cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. In: Kirk- Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th edition. Volume 7. John Wiley and Sons, 1993. p. 851-859
(40) HSDB record for cyclohexanone. Last revision date: 95/11/10
(41) Emergency action guide for cyclohexanone. Association of American Railroads, March, 1995
(42) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(43) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 252
(44) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 15, 53
(45) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 3rd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. p. 57-571
(46) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th edition. Volume 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 801
(47) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 84-85
(48) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 44-8 to 45-8
(49) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. September 1, 1993
(50) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(51) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999
(52) Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. URL: http://www.sigma- aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Technical+Library?OpenFramese t
(53) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Cyclohexanone. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(54) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Ketones I. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-09-24

Revision Indicators:
US transport 1998-03-01
Resistance of materials 1998-06-01
Mutagenicity 1999-12-01
Toxicological info 1999-12-01
Bibliography 2003-04-16
TLV-TWA 2003-05-22
TLV basis 2003-05-22
TLV proposed changes 2003-05-22
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-26
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-05-26
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-04
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-04
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-04
Bibliography 2004-04-04
Bibliography 2005-03-09
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-09
Oral administration of high doses (approximately 5500 to 12000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks) has caused reduced weight gain and deaths in mice. Rats fed up to 6500 ppm (approximately 1000 mg/kg) for 25 weeks exhibited no significant effects.(11) 2006-01-02



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