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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 38
CCOHS Chemical Name: Chlorobenzene

Synonyms:
Benzene chloride
Benzene monochloride
Chlorbenzene
Chlorobenzol
MCB
Monochlorbenzene
Monochlorobenzene
Phenyl chloride

Chemical Name French: Chlorobenzène
Chemical Name Spanish: Clorobenceno
CAS Registry Number: 108-90-7
UN/NA Number(s): 1134
RTECS Number(s): CZ0175000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-628-5
Chemical Family: Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon / halogenated benzene / halobenzene / chlorobenzene / monochlorobenzene
Molecular Formula: C6-H5-Cl
Structural Formula: C6H5-Cl

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless, volatile liquid, with a mild aromatic, sweet almond-like or mothball odour.(16,17,18)

Odour Threshold:
A wide range of values have been reported; 0.087 to 5.9 ppm. A reliable value is 1.3 ppm (5.9 mg/m3) (detection).(19)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is about 8 times the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Chlorobenzene is available commercially in technical (99%), reagent (99.6%) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) (99.9%) grades. Pure commercial chlorobenzene may contain 0.05% or less of benzene and up to 0.1% of dichlorobenzenes.(4)

Uses and Occurrences:
The main uses of chlorobenzene are as a solvent for pesticide formulations, diisocyanate manufacture, degreasing processes and for the production of nitrochlorobenzenes, diphenyl oxide and phenylphenols. It is also used in the dry cleaning industry, in the manufacture of polysulfone polymers, silicone resins, dyes, perfumes and pesticides, and as an intermediate in the synthesis of other halogenated organic compounds. In the past, the major uses were as an intermediate in phenol, DDT and other organochlorine pesticide production.(1,17,18,20)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless, volatile liquid, with a mild sweet, almond-like odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Liquid may accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. May accumulate in low lying areas. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as hydrogen chloride and phosgene. TOXIC. Harmful if inhaled. Central nervous system depressant. Vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion. High vapour concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death. May cause cyanosis (blue-gray skin and lips due to lack of oxygen), if ingested. Causes skin and eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration (breathing) into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Chlorobenzene very easily forms vapour concentrations at room temperature posing a significant inhalation hazard, especially in poorly ventilated areas and confined spaces. The main effect is depression of the central nervous system (CNS), with symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion. High concentrations may cause loss of consciousness and possibly death. Irritation of the nose, throat and respiratory tract also occurs. In general, dose-effect information is not available. Volunteers exposed to up to 60 ppm for 3 hours showed subtle CNS effects (lowered perception). After 7 hours they reported drowsiness, headache and sore throat.(1)

Skin Contact:
Chlorobenzene is a moderate skin irritant, based on unconfirmed animal studies. No human information was located.
It can be absorbed through the skin, but is not expected to cause significant harmful effects by this route of exposure.(1)

Eye Contact:
Chlorobenzene is a moderate eye irritant, based on animal information. Volunteers reported eye irritation after a 7-hour exposure to 60 ppm.

Ingestion:
There have been reports of methemoglobinemia developing after non-occupational ingestion.(1,3) Methemoglobinemia occurs when the oxygen-carrying component of the blood (hemoglobin) is converted to an inactive form (methemoglobin). This reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and may lead to dangerously low levels of oxygen in tissues such as the heart and brain. The earliest symptoms of poisoning are headache and a bluish coloration of the lips and skin (cyanosis). Other symptoms include headache, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, drowsiness and irregular heartbeat. Onset of symptoms may be delayed 2 to 4 hours after exposure. Symptoms usually disappear within 24 hours after exposure stops. In a recent case, severe liver damage developed after an ingestion incident.(1)
Chlorobenzene may be aspirated, based on its physical properties. Aspiration is the inhalation of the chemical into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting. Severe lung irritation, damage to the lung tissues and death may result. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are a few studies which have tried to relate non-specific effects (for example, headache and tiredness) to chlorobenzene exposure.(1,3,4) The reliability of these studies is limited by factors such as the lack of details, including exposure information, and the small number of workers studied. There are no other reports of effects associated with long-term chlorobenzene exposure.(1,3)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. In one animal study, chlorobenzene caused a slight increase in benign tumours of the liver in male rats orally exposed to 120 mg/kg/day.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Animal studies indicate that chlorobenzene is not teratogenic or embryotoxic at doses that are not maternally toxic.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. One animal study showed no effects on reproduction.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Chlorobenzene did not induce sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human cells.(1) Chlorobenzene has given positive results in studies using live animals. However, the route of exposure used (intraperitoneal) is not relevant to occupational situations.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
The primary route of occupational exposure to chlorobenzene is inhalation. Dermal contact is of minor importance. It can also be readily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract if ingested. Absorbed chlorobenzene is rapidly distributed throughout the body with the highest concentrations found in fat, liver, lungs and kidneys. It is metabolized in the liver, as well as some other tissues, and primarily excreted in the urine, mainly as free and conjugated forms of 4-chlorocatechol and 4-chlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenylmercapturic acid. Excretion through the lungs (as unchanged chlorobenzene) increases as the exposure concentration increases (100-700 ppm).(1,4) It is not expected to accumulate.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This product is flammable. Take proper precautions to reduce fire hazard (e.g. remove any sources of ignition) and to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 ozs) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. If symptoms of cyanosis develop (bluish lips and skin), oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except under minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. /Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
28-29 deg C (82-84 deg F) (closed cup) (1,20)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.3% (16,22); 1.8% (17)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
7.1% (16,23); 9.6% (17)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
593 deg C (1099 deg F ) (16); 638 deg C (1180 deg F) (18,21)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Stable material; probably not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Liquid can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation, due to its low electrical conductivity (7 X 10(3) pS/m).(24) Mixtures of chlorobenzene vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static charge of sufficient energy.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen chloride gas and traces of phosgene.(16,20,24)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 28 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Vapour can accumulate in low lying areas. During a fire, irritating/toxic hydrogen chloride and phosgene gases may be generated. Closed containers can explode if exposed to excess heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.(16,25) Water may be ineffective except as a blanket.(21) Fire fighting foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires.(16)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Shut off flow before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite. /Water may be ineffective for fighting a fire involving chlorobenzene because of its low flashpoint, except if used to blanket the fire. The water must be gently applied to the surface of the liquid, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, to prevent splashing and aerating the liquid.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 112.56

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.59 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.218 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -45 deg C (-49 deg F) (1,20,25)
Boiling Point: 132 deg C (296.6 deg F) (16,17,20)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.106 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (4,18,22)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (50 mg/100 mL at 20 deg C) (16,17,22)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Freely soluble in ethanol, benzene, chloroform and diethyl ether (1)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 2.84 (26); log P(oct) = 2.98 (4)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.806 mPa.s (0.806 centipoise) at 20 deg C (22)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 0.729 m2/s (0.729 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Surface Tension: 33.5 mN/m (33.5 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (22)
Vapour Density: 3.88 at 25 deg C (air = 1) (1,23)
Vapour Pressure: 1.173 kPa (8.8 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (1,17); 1.6 kPa (12 mm Hg) at 25 deg C.(23)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 11600 ppm (1.16%) at 20 deg C; 15800 ppm (1.6%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 1 (Butyl acetate = 1) (18)
Critical Temperature: 359.2 deg C (678.6 deg F) (20)
Critical Pressure: 4519 kPa (44.6 atm) (20,22)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Chlorobenzene is stable to air and moisture at normal temperatures and pressure. It is slowly degraded by sunlight forming monochlorobiphenyl and hydrogen chloride gas.(4,18) Chlorobenzene decomposes slowly under excessive heating at high temperatures to give some hydrogen chloride gas and traces of phosgene.(20)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium or potassium and its alloys) or ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium or magnesium) - violent, possibly explosive reaction.(16,24,27)
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. dinitrogen tetroxide, nitric acid, perchloric acid or peroxides) - may react violently with risk of fire and explosion.(18,21,24,25)
STRONG REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, metal hydrides) - may react violently or explosively.(16)
DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE - decomposes violently on contact with chlorobenzene.(21)
SILVER PERCHLORATE and ACETIC ACID - forms a shock-sensitive salt, which may explode when struck.(21)
PHOSPHORUS TRICHLORIDE and SODIUM - may explode.(27)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Sparks, static discharge, open flames, heat, other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Pure, dry chlorobenzene is not corrosive to steel, cast iron, stainless steels, aluminum, copper and its alloys or nickel and its alloys at normal or elevated temperatures. Moist chlorobenzene is corrosive to cast iron, types 304 and 316 stainless steel, copper bronze, brass and lead at normal and/or elevated temperatures.(20,28)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Will attack some forms of plastics, rubbers, and coatings.(16)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (female mouse): 2310 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 1886 ppm (6-hour exposure) (32)
LC50 (male rat): 3630 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 2965 ppm (6-hour exposure) (3,4)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1427-3400 mg/kg (1,5)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 1445 mg/kg; 2300 mg/kg (5)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2212 mg/kg; greater than 7940 mg/kg (1)

Eye Irritation:

Chlorobenzene has caused moderate eye irritation, which completely reversed in 7 days.

Application of 0.1 mL of chlorobenzene caused very mild to very severe irritation in rabbits, which completely reversed by day 7. Average scores at 24, 48 and 72 hours for 6 rabbits: 2/110; 19.3/110; 34.7/110, 36.3/110, 81/110 and 96/110, with an overall average of 29.9/110. All scores were 0/110 by day 7.(35) In an unpublished report, chlorobenzene caused moderate irritation in rabbits.(36, unconfirmed) No further details are available.

Skin Irritation:

Chlorobenzene is a moderate skin irritant.

In an unpublished report, which was done according to OECD standards, chlorobenzene caused moderate irritation in rabbits.(37, unconfirmed) In another unpublished report, chlorobenzene caused moderate irritation in guinea pigs.(36, unconfirmed) No further details are available.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

The main effect is depression of the central nervous system with symptoms such as drowsiness, weakness, laboured breathing and death due to respiratory paralysis. Lesions were also observed in the liver, kidney, lungs and stomach.(1) Short-term exposures have caused liver and kidney damage in rats and mice.(4,6) In one study, chlorobenzene was found to be the least toxic to the liver in comparison to several chlorinated benzenes tested.(7)

Inhalation:
The RD50, the concentration which produces a 50% decrease in the respiratory rate of mice, is 1054 ppm. Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans.(8)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Male rats and rabbits were exposed by inhalation to up to 200 ppm for 24 weeks. Statistically significant changes were observed in red blood cell parameters. Occasional liver and kidney congestion, kidney and adrenal cortex lesions were observed in the rats. Toxic effects observed in the rabbits included increased lung weights.(9) No changes in clinical chemistry, hematology or histology were observed in rats exposed to up to 434 ppm for 12 weeks.(3)

Ingestion:
Long-term exposures have mainly been associated with liver and kidney damage. There was reduced survival at the higher doses in rats and mice given up to 750 mg/kg/day orally 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Liver and kidney damage, as well as changes in the spleen, bone marrow and thymus were observed. There were no toxic effects noted at 125 mg/kg or less. In 2 year studies at lower levels, there were no toxic effects for rats or female mice at 120 mg/kg nor for male mice at 60 mg/kg.(6)

Carcinogenicity:
In a two-year oral study, there was no increase in tumour incidence in mice, female rats or low dose male rats. However, the high dose male rats (120 mg/kg) had a slight increase in benign tumours of the liver. Although other tumours (including some rare types) were observed, the incidence was not statistically significant.(1,6,10,11)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Chlorobenzene does not appear to be teratogenic, but is embryotoxic at doses which are toxic to the mother.
In the high dose group, there was evidence of maternal toxicity and embryotoxicity (slightly delayed skeletal development) in rats exposed by inhalation to up to 590 ppm during pregnancy. There were no other embryotoxic or teratogenic effects noted.(1,12) There were no compound-related increases in malformations in rabbits exposed by inhalation to up to 590 ppm during pregnancy. An increase in embryo deaths (indicated by resorptions) in the high dose group was reported to be within the historical range. There was evidence of maternal toxicity at this dose.(1,12)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Based on one study, chlorobenzene does not appear to affect reproduction.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to up to 450 ppm prior to mating, through mating, pregnancy and breast- feeding. A group of the resulting pups was then followed through a full reproductive cycle. There were no effects observed on body weights, food consumption, reproductive performance, fertility, pup survival or litter survival. There were, however, minor dose- related changes in the livers and kidneys, and in the testes of male rats.(1,13)

Mutagenicity:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that chlorobenzene is mutagenic.
Positive results were obtained in tests (micronucleus test, chromosome aberration test, DNA damage) using live animals exposed by intraperitoneal injection.(1,14,15) This route of exposure is not relevant to occupational situations. A study, which is not available in English, reported negative results in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.(1, unconfirmed) There are insufficient details available to evaluate this report.
Positive and negative results were obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells. Negative results were obtained in bacteria, both with and without activation.(1, unconfirmed)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Hellman, B. NIOH and NIOSH basis for an occupational standard: chlorobenzene. Arbete Och Halsa. No. 31 (1992)
(2) Chlorobenzene. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Vol. I. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991
(3) Health assessment document for chlorinated benzenes: final report. Report no. EPA/600/8-84/015F. US Environmental Protection Agency, Jan. 1985
(4) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Chlorobenzenes other than hexachlorobenzene. Environmental Health Criteria; 128. World Health Organization, 1991
(5) Chlorobenzenes (chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene). Scientific reviews of Soviet literature on toxicity and hazards of chemicals series; 108. Centre for International Projects, Moscow, 1988
(6) Kluwe, W.M., et al. Toxic responses to acute, subchronic, and chronic oral administrations of monochlorobenzene to rodents. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 15, no. 6 (1985). p. 745-767
(7) Den Besten, C., et al. The liver, kidney, and thyroid toxicity of chlorinated benzenes. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 111, no. 1 (Oct. 1991). p. 69-81
(8) Cometto-Muniz, J.E., et al. Sensory reactions of nasal pungency and odor to volatile organic compounds: the alkylbenzenes. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 55, no. 9 (Sept. 1994). p. 811-817
(9) Dilley, J.V. Toxic evaluation of inhaled chlorobenzene (monochlorobenzene). NIOSH Contract No. 210-76-0126. Final Report. US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1977
(10) Roe, F.J.C., et al. Effect of monochlorobenzene on rat liver. Letter. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 21, no. 4 (1987). p. 535-536
(11) Kluwe, W.M. Effect of monochlorobenzene on rat liver reconsidered. Letter. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 21, no. 4 (1987). p. 536-538
(12) John, J.A., et al. Inhalation teratology study on monochlorobenzene in rats and rabbits. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 76, no. 2 (Nov. 1984). p. 365-373
(13) Nair, R.S., et al. A two-generation reproduction study with monochlorobenzene vapor in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 4 (Nov. 1987). p. 678-686
(14) Vaghef, H., et al. Demonstration of chlorobenzene-induced DNA damage in mouse lymphocytes using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Toxicology. Vol. 96, no. 1 (Jan. 1995). p. 19-28
(15) Shelby, M.D., et al. Comparison of results from mouse bone marrow chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 25, no. 4 (1995). p. 302-313
(16) Emergency action guide for chlorobenzene. Association of American Railroads, Jan. 1988
(17) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for chlorobenzene. TP-90-06. US Public Health Service, 1990
(18) HSDB record for chlorobenzene. Last revision date: 97/03/27
(19) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989
(20) Bryant, J.G. Chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons: chlorinated benzenes. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 1993. p. 87-100
(21) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(22) Beck, U. Chlorinated hydrocarbons: chlorinated benzenes. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 6. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1986. p. 328-340
(23) Sullivan, D.A. Solvents, industrial. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. p. 538- 539, 551, 563
(24) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991
(25) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(26) Leo, A., et al. Partition coefficients and their uses. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 71, no. 6 (Dec. 1971). p. 568
(27) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995
(28) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985
(29) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(30) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(31) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004
(32) Bonnet, P., et al. Concentrations léthales 50 des principaux hydrocarbures aromatiques. Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médicine du travail et de Sécurité Sociale. Vol. 40, nos. 8-9 (1979). (août-sept. 1979). p. 805-810
(33) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organic Vapors. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(34) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Hydrocarbons, Halogenated. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(35) Zeneca Specialties. Eye irritation classification on monochlorobenzene in rabbits with cover letter dated 05/06/94. Stauffer Chemical Company. Date produced: Feb. 12 1982. EPA/OTS 8694000964. NTIS/OTS0557374.
(36) Eastman Kodak. Toxicity and health hazard summary of chlorobenzene with cover letter dated 04/05/94. Date produced: Aug. 23, 1978. EPA/OTS 86940000289. NTIS/OTS0572392.
(37) Chlorobenzene. European Commission. IUCLID Dataset. European Chemicals Bureau, Feb. 2000. Available at: <ecb.jrc.it/esis>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-03-26

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-03-01
First aid (inhalation) 1999-03-01
Firefighting instructions 1999-03-01
TDG 2002-05-29
NFPA (health) 2003-04-18
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
WHMIS classification comments 2004-02-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Mutagenicity 2004-07-12
WHMIS proposed classification 2004-07-12
WHMIS health effects 2004-07-12
Emergency overview 2004-07-12
Engineering controls 2004-09-28
Handling 2004-09-28
EU classification 2005-01-02
EU risks 2005-01-02
EU comments 2005-01-02
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-04-02
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-02
Bibliography 2006-02-22
Toxicological info 2006-03-01
Short-term skin contact 2006-03-01
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-03-01
Short-term eye contact 2006-03-01



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