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Chlorine

1. NAME
   1.1 Substance
   1.2 Group
   1.3 Synonyms
   1.4 Identification numbers
      1.4.1 CAS number
      1.4.2 Other numbers
   1.5 Main brand names, main trade names
   1.6 Main manufacturers, main importers
2. SUMMARY
   2.1 Main risks and target organs
   2.2 Summary of clinical effects
   2.3 Diagnosis
   2.4 First aid measures and management principles
3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
   3.1 Origin of the substance
   3.2 Chemical structure
   3.3 Physical properties
      3.3.1 Colour
      3.3.2 State/Form
      3.3.3 Description
   3.4 Hazardous characteristics
4. USES
   4.1 Uses
      4.1.1 Uses
      4.1.2 Description
   4.2 High risk circumstance of poisoning
   4.3 Occupationally exposed populations
5. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
   5.1 Oral
   5.2 Inhalation
   5.3 Dermal
   5.4 Eye
   5.5 Parenteral
   5.6 Other
6. KINETICS
   6.1 Absorption by route of exposure
   6.2 Distribution by route of exposure
   6.3 Biological half-life by route of exposure
   6.4 Metabolism
   6.5 Elimination and excretion
7. TOXICOLOGY
   7.1 Mode of action
   7.2 Toxicity
      7.2.1 Human data
         7.2.1.1 Adults
         7.2.1.2 Children
      7.2.2 Relevant animal data
      7.2.3 Relevant in vitro data
      7.2.4 Workplace standards
      7.2.5 Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
   7.3 Carcinogenicity
   7.4 Teratogenicity
   7.5 Mutagenicity
   7.6 Interactions
8. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS
   8.1 Material sampling plan
      8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection
         8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.2.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
   8.2 Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation
      8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material
         8.2.1.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s)
         8.2.1.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)
         8.2.1.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.1.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s)
      8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens
         8.2.2.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s)
         8.2.2.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)
         8.2.2.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.2.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.2.5 Other Dedicated Method(s)
      8.2.3 Interpretation of toxicological analyses
   8.3 Biomedical investigations and their interpretation
      8.3.1 Biochemical analysis
         8.3.1.1 Blood, plasma or serum
         8.3.1.2 Urine
         8.3.1.3 Other fluids
      8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses
      8.3.3 Haematological analyses
      8.3.4 Interpretation of biomedical investigations
   8.4 Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their interpretation
   8.5 Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and toxicological investigations
   8.6 References
9. CLINICAL EFFECTS
   9.1 Acute poisoning
      9.1.1 Ingestion
      9.1.2 Inhalation
      9.1.3 Skin exposure
      9.1.4 Eye contact
      9.1.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.1.6 Other
   9.2 Chronic poisoning
      9.2.1 Ingestion
      9.2.2 Inhalation
      9.2.3 Skin exposure
      9.2.4 Eye contact
      9.2.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.2.6 Other
   9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death
   9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects
      9.4.1 Cardiovascular
      9.4.2 Respiratory
      9.4.3 Neurological
         9.4.3.1 Central nervous system (CNS)
         9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system
         9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system
         9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle
      9.4.4 Gastrointestinal
      9.4.5 Hepatic
      9.4.6 Urinary
         9.4.6.1 Renal
         9.4.6.2 Other
      9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems
      9.4.8 Dermatological
      9.4.9 Eye, ear, nose, throat: local effects
      9.4.10 Haematological
      9.4.11 Immunological
      9.4.12 Metabolic
         9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances
         9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances
         9.4.12.3 Others
      9.4.13 Allergic reactions
      9.4.14 Other clinical effects
      9.4.15 Special risks
   9.5 Other
   9.6 Summary
10. MANAGEMENT
   10.1 General principles
   10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic/specific treatment
   10.3 Decontamination
   10.4 Enhanced elimination
   10.5 Antidote treatment
      10.5.1 Adults
      10.5.2 Children
   10.6 Management discussion
11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES
   11.1 Case reports from literature
12. Additional information
   12.1 Specific preventive measures
   12.2 Other
13. REFERENCES
14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE ADDRESS(ES)




    Chlorine

    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Poisons Information Monograph 947
    Chemical


    This Monograph contain the following sections
    completed: 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 4.2, 7.2, 9, 10 & 11.


    1.  NAME

        1.1  Substance

             Chlorine

        1.2  Group

             Chlorine and compounds
             Group VIIa (17) element

        1.3  Synonyms

             Chlore; Liquefied chlorine gas;
             Molecular chlorine

        1.4  Identification numbers

             1.4.1  CAS number

                    7782-50-5

             1.4.2  Other numbers

                    UN/NA number: 1017
                    RTECS number: FO2100000
                    EU EINECS/ELINCS number: 231-959-5

        1.5  Main brand names, main trade names

        1.6  Main manufacturers, main importers

    2.  SUMMARY

        2.1  Main risks and target organs

             Chlorine reacts with tissue water to form hydrochloric
             and hypochlorous acids, thus a potent irritant of the eyes,
             skin and mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. Injury is
             proportional to the concentration of the gas, duration of
             contact and water content of exposed tissues.  Evidence
             exists suggesting that patients with pre-existing respiratory
             disease may be at greater risk from chlorine exposure. The
             extent of the injury depends upon the concentration and
             duration of the exposure, as well as the water content of the
             tissue involved and the presence of underlying
             cardiopulmonary disease.

        2.2  Summary of clinical effects

             EXPOSURE  SYMPTOMS
    
             1 to 3 ppm     Mild mucous membrane irritation after 1 hour
             5 to 15 ppm    Moderate irritation of upper respiratory tract
             30 ppm         Immediate chest pain, vomiting, and coughing
             40 to 60 ppm   Toxic pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema
             430 ppm        Lethal after 30 minutes
             1,000 ppm      Fatal within a few minutes
    
             Inhalation:  Initially: irritation of the eyes, nose and
             throat, followed by coughing and wheezing, dyspnoea, sputum
             production and chest pain. Larger exposures may lead to
             hyperchloraemic acidosis; anoxia may lead to cardiac and/or
             respiratory arrest and pulmonary oedema.  Following chemical
             pneumonitis respiratory distress and chest pain generally
             subsides within 72 hours; cough may persist for up to 14
             days, however in one case reduced airway flow and mild
             hyopoxemia persisted for 14 months.
    
             Dermal:  Irritation, pain, erythema, blister and burns. 
             Liquid chlorine may cause burns on contact.
    
             Eyes:  Irritation and conjunctivitis.  Liquid chlorine may
             cause burns on contact.

        2.3  Diagnosis

             The specific odour of chlorine, the respiratory, eye and
             skin symptoms following exposure make the diagnosis.
             Measurement of the air levels of chlorine is of significance
             in occupational circumstances and case of accidental release.

        2.4  First aid measures and management principles

             Care workers must ensure adequate protection to prevent
             self-contamination when carrying out decontamination and
             medical treatment. Remove contaminated clothing and put in a
             sealed bag.
    
             Inhalation:
             Patients without immediate symptoms may require no treatment,
             but a full physical examination and a record of respiratory
             peak flow may be of use in assessing any subsequent
             respiratory effects.
    
             Patients with mild effects:  require a full physical
             examination and peak flow and discharge accordingly, and
             advised to return if symptoms recur or develop over the
             following 24 to 36 hours.
    

             Patients showing immediate moderate or severe effects:  Check
             lung function and perform chest x-rays.  Oxygen  and
             bronchodilators (e.g. salbutamol; orally or inhaled) are used
             for bronchospasm. Pulmonary oedema should be treated with
             Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), or Constant Positive
             Airway Pressure (CPAP). Corticosteroids may inhibit the
             inflammatory response and should be considered in severe
             cases. Monitor arterial blood gases, treat hyperchloraemic
             acidosis.
    
             Patients with pre-existing respiratory disease: assess and
             consider admission for at least 24 hours.
    
             Dermal: Wash thoroughly with running water or saline. Treat
             as a thermal burn, if necessary.
    
             Eyes: Irrigate thoroughly for 10 to 15 minutes.  Refer to
             an ophthalmologist.

    3.  PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

        3.1  Origin of the substance

        3.2  Chemical structure

             Chemical formula: Cl2
             Structural Formula: Cl-Cl
             Molecular weight: 70.906

        3.3  Physical properties

             3.3.1  Colour

                    Greenish-yellow

             3.3.2  State/Form

                    Gas

             3.3.3  Description

                    Melting Point: -101°C (-149.8 deg F)
                    Boiling Point: -34.1°C (-29.3 deg F) 
                    Relative Density (Specific Gravity):
                             1.467 at 0°C and 368.9 kPa (saturated
                             liquefied gas)
                             0.0032 at 0°C (gas)  (water = 1)
                    Solubility In Water: Slightly soluble (0.73 g/100 g
                    water at 20°C) (reacts)

                    Solubility In Other Liquids: Very soluble in
                    dimethylformamide; soluble in benzene, chloroform,
                    carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethane,
                    chlorobenzene, glacial acetic acid (99.84%), sulfuryl
                    chloride, phosphoryl chloride, silicon tetrachloride
                    and metal chlorides, such as chromyl chloride,
                    titanium tetrachloride and vanadium oxide
                    chloride.
                    Vapour Density: 2.48 (air=1) (27,28)
                    Vapour Pressure: 673.1 kPa (6.64 atm) at 20 deg C;
                             1427 kPa (14.1 atm.) (27)
                    pH Value: Not applicable (reacts with water to form an
                    acidic solution)
                    Critical Temperature: 144 deg C (291.2 deg F)
                    Critical Pressure:  7711 kPa (76.1 atm) (27,28)
    
                    Conversion Factor:
                             1 ppm = 2.89 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.346 ppm at
                    25 deg C (calculated)
    
                    Appearance and Odour:
                    Greenish-yellow gas or clear amber liquid (under
                    pressure) with a pungent suffocating odour.
                    Lachrymator (gas irritates the eyes and causes tears).
    
                    (CCOHS, 1998)

        3.4  Hazardous characteristics

             Chlorine is shipped in steel cylinders as a compressed
             liquefied gas under its own vapour pressure of 598 kPa (86.8
             psig or 5.9atm.) at 21.1°C. It is available in a number of
             grades having a purity of at least 99.5 wt%.  Contaminants
             are mainly carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and water, but
             may include traces of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as
             hexachloroethane and hexachlorobenzene, inorganic salts such
             as ferric chloride, bromine or iodine (CCOHS, 1998).

    4.  USES

        4.1  Uses

             4.1.1  Uses

             4.1.2  Description

                    The major uses of chlorine are in the
                    manufacture of chlorinated organic chemicals (such as
                    vinyl chloride monomer, carbontetrachloride,
                    perchlorethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane,
                    chlorobenzenes, chloroprene and epichlorohydrin),
                    organic chemicals (such as propylene oxide and
                    glycols) and chlorinated inorganic chemicals (such as
                    sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous

                    acid, sulfur chlorides, phosphorous chlorides,
                    titanium chlorides and aluminum chloride) (CCOHS,
                    1998).
    
                    It is also widely used as a bleaching agent in the
                    manufacture of pulp and paper; in bleaching textiles
                    and fabrics; in the manufacture of pesticides,
                    herbicides, refrigerants, propellants, household and
                    commercial bleaches, detergents for automatic
                    dishwashers, antifreeze, antiknock compounds,
                    plastics, synthetic rubbers, adhesives and
                    pharmaceuticals; for drinking and swimming water
                    purification; sanitation of industrial and sewage
                    wastes; and in the degassing of aluminum metal (CCOHS,
                    1998).

        4.2  High risk circumstance of poisoning

             Household exposures: The mixing of household cleaning
             agents (for example bleach and acids) may liberate chlorine
             gas.
    
             Environmental exposures:  spills and traffic accidents.

        4.3  Occupationally exposed populations

    5.  ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

        5.1  Oral

             Chlorine exists as a liquid under pressure.

        5.2  Inhalation

             Main route of exposure to chlorine.

        5.3  Dermal

             Chlorine gas and liquid exposure can lead to dermal
             irritation and burns.

        5.4  Eye

             Chlorine gas and liquid exposure can lead to ocular
             irritation and burns.

        5.5  Parenteral

             Unknown.

        5.6  Other

             Unknown.

    6.  KINETICS

        6.1  Absorption by route of exposure

        6.2  Distribution by route of exposure

        6.3  Biological half-life by route of exposure

        6.4  Metabolism

        6.5  Elimination and excretion

    7.  TOXICOLOGY

        7.1  Mode of action

        7.2  Toxicity

             7.2.1  Human data

                    7.2.1.1  Adults

                    7.2.1.2  Children

             7.2.2  Relevant animal data

             7.2.3  Relevant in vitro data

             7.2.4  Workplace standards

             7.2.5  Acceptable daily intake (ADI)

        7.3  Carcinogenicity

        7.4  Teratogenicity

        7.5  Mutagenicity

        7.6  Interactions

    8.  TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS

        8.1  Material sampling plan

             8.1.1  Sampling and specimen collection

                    8.1.1.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.1.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.1.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.1.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.1.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.2  Storage of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.2.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.2.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.2.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.2.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.2.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.3  Transport of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.3.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.3.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.3.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.3.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.3.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

        8.2  Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation

             8.2.1  Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material

                    8.2.1.1  Simple Qualitative Test(s)

                    8.2.1.2  Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)

                    8.2.1.3  Simple Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.1.4  Advanced Quantitative Method(s)

             8.2.2  Tests for biological specimens

                    8.2.2.1  Simple Qualitative Test(s)

                    8.2.2.2  Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)

                    8.2.2.3  Simple Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.2.4  Advanced Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.2.5  Other Dedicated Method(s)

             8.2.3  Interpretation of toxicological analyses

        8.3  Biomedical investigations and their interpretation

             8.3.1  Biochemical analysis

                    8.3.1.1  Blood, plasma or serum
                             "Basic analyses"
                             "Dedicated analyses"
                             "Optional analyses"

                    8.3.1.2  Urine
                             "Basic analyses"
                             "Dedicated analyses"
                             "Optional analyses"

                    8.3.1.3  Other fluids

             8.3.2  Arterial blood gas analyses

             8.3.3  Haematological analyses
                    "Basic analyses"
                    "Dedicated analyses"
                    "Optional analyses"

             8.3.4  Interpretation of biomedical investigations

        8.4  Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their
             interpretation

        8.5  Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and 
             toxicological investigations

        8.6  References

    9.  CLINICAL EFFECTS

        9.1  Acute poisoning

             9.1.1  Ingestion

             9.1.2  Inhalation

                    EXPOSURE SYMPTOMS
    
                    1 to 3 ppm      Mild mucous membrane irritation after
                                    1 hour
                    5 to 15 ppm     Moderate irritation of upper
                                    respiratory tract
                    30 ppm          Immediate chest pain, vomiting, and
                                    coughing
                    40 to 60 ppm    Toxic pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema
                    430 ppm         Lethal after 30 minutes
                    1,000 ppm       Fatal within a few minutes
    

                    Initially: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat,
                    followed by coughing and wheezing, dyspnoea, sputum
                    production and chest pain. Larger exposures may lead
                    to hyperchloraemic acidosis; anoxia may lead to
                    cardiac and/or respiratory arrest and pulmonary
                    oedema.  Following chemical pneumonitis respiratory
                    distress and chest pain generally subsides within 72
                    hours; cough may persist for up to 14 days, however in
                    one case reduced airway flow and mild hyopoxemia
                    persisted for 14 months.

             9.1.3  Skin exposure

                    Irritation, pain, erythema, blister and burns. 
                    Liquid chlorine may cause burns on contact.

             9.1.4  Eye contact

                    Irritation and conjunctivitis.  Liquid chlorine
                    may cause burns on contact.

             9.1.5  Parenteral exposure

             9.1.6  Other

        9.2  Chronic poisoning

             9.2.1  Ingestion

             9.2.2  Inhalation

             9.2.3  Skin exposure

             9.2.4  Eye contact

             9.2.5  Parenteral exposure

             9.2.6  Other

        9.3  Course, prognosis, cause of death

        9.4  Systematic description of clinical effects

             9.4.1  Cardiovascular

             9.4.2  Respiratory

             9.4.3  Neurological

                    9.4.3.1  Central nervous system (CNS)

                    9.4.3.2  Peripheral nervous system

                    9.4.3.3  Autonomic nervous system

                    9.4.3.4  Skeletal and smooth muscle

             9.4.4  Gastrointestinal

             9.4.5  Hepatic

             9.4.6  Urinary

                    9.4.6.1  Renal

                    9.4.6.2  Other

             9.4.7  Endocrine and reproductive systems

             9.4.8  Dermatological

             9.4.9  Eye, ear, nose, throat: local effects

             9.4.10 Haematological

             9.4.11 Immunological

             9.4.12 Metabolic

                    9.4.12.1  Acid-base disturbances

                    9.4.12.2  Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

                    9.4.12.3  Others

             9.4.13 Allergic reactions

             9.4.14 Other clinical effects

             9.4.15 Special risks

        9.5  Other

        9.6  Summary

    10. MANAGEMENT

        10.1 General principles

             Care workers must ensure adequate protection to prevent
             self-contamination when carrying out decontamination and
             medical treatment. Remove contaminated clothing and put in a
             sealed bag.
    

             Inhalation:
             Patients without immediate symptoms may require no treatment,
             but a full physical examination and a record of respiratory
             peak flow may be of use in assessing any subsequent
             respiratory effects.
    
             Patients with mild effects:  require a full physical
             examination and peak flow and discharge accordingly, and
             advised to return if symptoms recur or develop over the
             following 24 to 36 hours.
    
             Patients showing immediate moderate or severe effects:  Check
             lung function and perform chest x-rays.  Oxygen  and
             bronchodilators (e.g. salbutamol; orally or inhaled) are used
             for bronchospasm. Pulmonary oedema should be treated with
             Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), or Constant Positive
             Airway Pressure (CPAP). Corticosteroids may inhibit the
             inflammatory response and should be considered in severe
             cases. Monitor arterial blood gases, treat hyperchloraemic
             acidosis.
    
             Patients with pre-existing respiratory disease: assess and
             consider admission for at least 24 hours.
    
             Dermal: Wash thoroughly with running water or saline. Treat
             as a thermal burn, if necessary.
    
             Eyes: Irrigate thoroughly for 10 to 15 minutes.  Refer to
             an ophthalmologist.

        10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic/specific treatment

             See section 10.1

        10.3 Decontamination

             See section 10.1

        10.4 Enhanced elimination

             See section 10.1

        10.5 Antidote treatment

             10.5.1 Adults

                    No antidote available.

             10.5.2 Children

                    No antidote available.

    10.6 Management discussion

    11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES

        11.1 Case reports from literature

             The effcts of chronic exposure to chlorine amongst
             workers at a pulpmill have been reported by Bherer et al.
             (1994). Persistent respiratory symptoms, bronchial
             obstruction and  bronchial hyper-responsiveness were observed
             in 82%, 23% and 41 % of the workers respectively at 18 to 24
             months after exposure ended.
    
             The clinical effects of acute exposure to chlorine gas
             inhalation has been reviewed by Williams (1997).
    
             Acute exposure to chlorine in schoolchildren from swimming
             pools resulted from accidental maintenance procedures (Sexton
             and Pronchik, 1998). 13 children at two separate pools were
             treated with beta agonists and humidifies oxygen, with 5
             being admitted to hospital.

    12. Additional information

        12.1 Specific preventive measures

             Care workers must ensure adequate protection to prevent
             self-contamination when carrying out decontamination and
             medical treatment.

        12.2 Other

             The following references may be useful:
    
             Green TC (1997) Out of the blue and into the pink. A new
             litmus test for chlorine gas exposure. Med J Aust
             167(11-12):651
    
             Myers SJ (1997) Chlorine inhalation in a pediatric patient. J
             Emerg Nurs 23(6):583-585.

    13. REFERENCES

        Bherer L, Cushman R, Couteau JP, Quevillon M, Cote G,
        Bourbeau J, LœArcheveque J, Cartier A, & Malo JL (1994) Survey of
        construction workers repeatedly exposed to chlorine over a three
        to six month peroid in a pulpmill: II. Follow up of affected
        workers by questionnaire, spirometry, and assessmenrt of bronchial
        responsiveness 18 to 24 months after exposure ended. Occup Environ
        Med 51(4):225-228.
    

        CCOHS (1998) CHEMINFO Record Chlorine (No. 85). IPCS INTOX CD-ROM
        Issue 98-1. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety,
        Hamilton Canada.
    
        Sexton JD & Pronchik DJ (1998) Chlorine inhalation: the big
        picture. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 36(1-2):87-93
    
        Williams JG (1997) Inhalation of chlorine gas. Postgrad Med J
        73(865): 697-700.

    14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE
        ADDRESS(ES)

        Author:     Medical Toxicology Unit,
                    Guy's and St Thomas' Trust
                    Avonley Road, London SE14 5ER, UK
    
        Date:       March, 1996
    
        Review:     As for author. 1996
    
        Peer review:         INTOX meeting, March 1998, London, UK 
                             (Members of group: Drs G. Allridge, L.
                             Lubomovir, R. Turk, C. Alonso, S. de Ben, K.
                             Hartigan-Go, N. Bates)
    
        Editor:     Dr M.Ruse (September, 1998)
    



See Also:
        Chlorine (CHEMINFO)
        Chlorine (ICSC)
        Chlorine and hydrogen chloride (EHC 21, 1982)