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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 85
CCOHS Chemical Name: Chlorine

Synonyms:
Liquefied chlorine gas
Molecular chlorine
Chlore

Chemical Name French: Chlore
Chemical Name Spanish: Cloro
CAS Registry Number: 7782-50-5
UN/NA Number(s): 1017
RTECS Number(s): FO2100000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-959-5
Chemical Family: Inorganic halogen compound / inorganic chlorine compound / elemental chlorine / molecular chlorine
Molecular Formula: Cl2
Structural Formula: Cl-Cl

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Greenish-yellow gas or clear amber liquid (under pressure) with a pungent suffocating odour.(24,25) Lachrymator (gas irritates the eyes and causes tears).

Odour Threshold:
Reported odour threshold values are inconsistent. 0.08 ppm (detection).(26) Other reports give the odour threshold as 0.2-0.4 (method not given).(4,15)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - after repeated exposures, olfactory fatigue, olfactory deficiency and tolerance to the irritating effects may occur.(1,5,8)

Composition/Purity:
Chlorine is shipped in steel cylinders as a compressed liquefied gas under its own vapour pressure of 598 kPa (86.8 psig or 5.9 atm.) at 21.1 deg C.(24,25) It is available in a number of grades having a purity of at least 99.5 wt%. Contaminants are mainly carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and water, but may include traces of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as hexachloroethane and hexachlorobenzene, inorganic salts such as ferric chloride, bromine or iodine.(27)

Uses and Occurrences:
The major uses of chlorine are in the manufacture of chlorinated organic chemicals (such as vinyl chloride monomer, carbon tetrachloride, perchlorethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzenes, chloroprene and epichlorohydrin), organic chemicals (such as propylene oxide and glycols) and chlorinated inorganic chemicals (such as sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid, sulfur chlorides, phosphorous chlorides, titanium chlorides and aluminum chloride). It is also widely used as a bleaching agent in the manufacture of pulp and paper; in bleaching textiles and fabrics; in the manufacture of pesticides, herbicides, refrigerants, propellants, household and commercial bleaches, detergents for automatic dishwashers, antifreeze, antiknock compounds, plastics, synthetic rubbers, adhesives and pharmaceuticals; for drinking and swimming water purification; sanitation of industrial and sewage wastes; and in the degassing of aluminum metal.(24,28,29)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Greenish-yellow gas or clear amber liquid (under pressure) with a pungent suffocating odour. Will not burn. COMPRESSED GAS. STRONG OXIDIZER. Contact with combustible materials may cause fire or explosion. Reacts violently or explosively with many substances. Reacts with water to form corrosive hydrochloric and hypochlorous acids. Confined space hazard. VERY TOXIC CORROSIVE GAS. May be fatal if inhaled. Extremely irritating to the respiratory tract. Causes lung injury--effects may be delayed. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. Liquefied gas can cause frostbite and corrosive injury to the eyes and skin. Burns and permanent damage, including blindness may result.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Chlorine is a severe nose, throat and upper respiratory tract irritant. People exposed to chlorine, even for short periods of time, can develop a tolerance to its odour and irritating properties. In general, volunteers have experienced irritation of the nose, a weak cough, and increased dryness of the throat at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 2 ppm. Concentrations of 1 to 2 ppm produce significant irritation and coughing, minor difficulty breathing and headache. Concentrations of 1 to 4 ppm are considered unbearable.(1-4) Severe respiratory tract damage including bronchitis and pulmonary edema (a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs) has been observed after even relatively low, brief exposures (estimates range from 15 to 60 ppm).(3,5) The development of pulmonary edema may occur immediately or can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Numerous cases of chlorine exposure have been reported, but actual exposure levels have not been well documented.(1,3,5,6) Symptoms observed in non-fatal cases include difficulty breathing, cough, spitting up blood, tightness in the chest, a blue discolouration of the skin, severe headache, nausea, vomiting and fainting.(1,5,7) Even with severe exposures, complete recovery usually occurs within one week to a month, depending on the extent of injury to the respiratory tract and lungs. However, long-term respiratory system and lung disorders have been observed following severe short-term exposures to chlorine. One of the disorders observed is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome. With this condition, asthma-like symptoms and increased reactivity of the airways is experienced. In some other cases, permanently reduced lung function has been observed.(1,6-9) It is not possible to draw firm conclusions from one limited study which showed neurological effects (e.g. impaired balance and verbal recall) in 7 people with very high, short-term chlorine exposures.(10)
Individuals with pre-existing lung disorders (for example, asthma) are more sensitive to the irritating effects of chlorine.(3)

Skin Contact:
Chlorine gas is corrosive and may irritate or burn the skin if sufficient airborne concentrations are achieved. Any skin contact will also involve significant inhalation exposure.
Direct contact with the liquefied gas escaping from its pressurized cylinder can also cause frostbite. Symptoms of mild frostbite include numbness, prickling and itching in the affected area. Symptoms of more severe frostbite include a burning sensation and stiffness of the affected area. The skin may become waxy white or yellow. Blistering, tissue death and gangrene may also develop in severe cases. One report describes facial burns in victims exposed to high concentrations of chlorine gas.(1,3)

Eye Contact:
Chlorine gas is corrosive and is expected to produce severe eye irritation if sufficient airborne concentrations are achieved. Stinging, a burning sensation, rapid blinking, redness and watering of the eyes have been observed at concentrations of 1 ppm and higher.(1,4,11) Direct contact with liquefied chlorine escaping from its high pressure cylinder may cause frostbite. Burns and permanent damage, including blindness may result. Any eye contact will also involve significant inhalation exposure.

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Despite design limitations, the small number of human population studies conducted have not shown significant respiratory system effects in workers with long-term, low-level (typically less than 1 ppm) chlorine exposure.(1,2,6,7) One study examined 332 workers exposed to time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of between 0.006 and 1.42 ppm (0.15 ppm average) for an average of 10.9 years. No relationship was found between exposure to chlorine and the occurrence of colds, breathing difficulties, abnormal heart-beat or chest pain. Significant effects on lung function were not observed. Chlorine workers reported a higher incidence of tooth decay (based on medical history) but this finding was not verified upon physical examination.(12)
Other studies have followed up workers who have had experienced one or more exposures to chlorine which produced short-term health effects. These studies tend to show long-term lung dysfunction and conditions such as increased airways activity (Reactive Airways Dysfunction).(7,8,13)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. Carcinogenicity was not observed in the one animal study available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
One report indicates that pregnant women occupationally exposed to chlorine had normal pregnancies.(3) Study details are not available for evaluation. No conclusions can be drawn from one animal study that had significant design limitations.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no animal or human information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no information available.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
The most common route of exposure to chlorine is by inhalation. Due to its solubility and high reactivity, chlorine is principally absorbed by, and affects, the upper respiratory tract. At higher concentrations it may penetrate the respiratory system further, affecting the airways and lungs. Chlorine reacts with water and tissues to form corrosive hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid.(6,7)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g., wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
LIQUIFIED GAS: Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemically resistant protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly remove victim from source of contamination and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm the affected area on site. DO NOT rub area or apply dry heat. Gently remove clothing or jewelry that may restrict circulation. Carefully cut around clothing that sticks to the skin and remove the rest of the garment. Loosely cover the affected area with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Eye Contact:
LIQUIFIED GAS: Quickly remove victim from source of contamination. Immediately and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm. Cover both eyes with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its condition of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Does not burn. However, chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent and is a serious fire risk.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not available

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Specific information is not available. Liquefied chlorine can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation, since it has a very low electrical conductivity of 10(-2) pS/m at -70 deg C (27,28)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Toxic chemicals are formed when combustible materials burn in chlorine. These may include corrosive hydrogen chloride gas, free chlorine gas and other chlorine compounds.(30,31)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Chlorine does not burn. However, chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent and poses a serious fire and explosion risk due to its high reactivity. Most combustible materials will ignite and/or burn in chlorine atmospheres, forming irritating and toxic gases. Containers or cylinders may rupture violently due to over-pressurization, if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time. Intense local heat (above 200 deg C) on the steel walls of chlorine cylinders can cause an iron/chlorine fire resulting in rupture of the container. Chlorine gas is heavier than air and will collect and persist in pits, hollows, depressions, and other confined or low-lying areas.

Extinguishing Media:
Use extinguishing media appropriate to surrounding fire conditions, such as dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide, or foam.(30,32)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Use extreme caution. Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Isolate chlorine not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move cylinders or containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk. Use extreme caution since heat may rupture containers, which may possibly rocket. Apply water from as far a distance as possible, in flooding quantities as a spray or fog to keep fire-exposed cylinders, containers or equipment cool and absorb heat, until well after the fire is out.
If there is a chlorine leak, stop the flow of gas, if this can be done safely. Use water spray to protect personnel attempting to shut off the flow. Remove all flammable and combustible materials from the vicinity, especially oil and grease. Use water with caution. Do not apply water directly to the liquefied or gaseous chlorine. Reverse flow into cylinder may cause rupture. Take care not to block pressure relief valves. Stay away from ends of tanks (but realize that shrapnel may travel in any direction). Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tanks due to fire. In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated; use unmanned hoseholders or monitor nozzles.
Chlorine is an extremely hazardous and corrosive gas. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 4 - Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 0 - Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.
NFPA - Specific Hazards: Oxidizing material.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 70.906

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 2.89 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.346 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Gas
Melting Point: -101 deg C (-149.8 deg F) (24,27,28)
Boiling Point: -34.1 deg C (-29.3 deg F) (25,27,28)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not applicable (gas)
Solubility in Water: Slightly soluble (0.73 g/100 g water at 20 deg C) (reacts) (33)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in dimethylformamide; soluble in benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethane, chlorobenzene, glacial acetic acid (99.84%), sulfuryl chloride, phosphoryl chloride, silicon tetrachloride and metal chlorides, such as chromyl chloride, titanium tetrachloride and vanadium oxide chloride.(27,28)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable (reacts)
pH Value: Not applicable (reacts with water to form an acidic solution)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.346 mPa.s (0.346 centipoise) at 20 deg C (liquefied gas) (24); 0.385 mPa.s (0.385 centipoise) at 0 deg C (liquefied gas) (25); 0.0134 mPa.s (0.0134 centipoise) at 20 deg C and 101.33 kPa (gas) (24)
Surface Tension: 21.90 mN/m (21.90 dyes/cm) at 0 deg C (liquefied gas) (25)
Vapour Density: 2.48 (air=1) (27,28)
Vapour Pressure: 673.1 kPa (6.64 atm) at 20 deg C; 1427 kPa (14.1 atm.) (27)
Vapour Pressure at 50 deg C: 1450 kPa (14.3 atm) (estimated from graph) (24b)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable. Gas at normal temperatures.
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable. Gas at normal temperatures.
Critical Temperature: 144 deg C (291.2 deg F) (25,27,28)
Critical Pressure: 7711 kPa (76.1 atm) (27,28)

Other Physical Properties:
TRIPLE POINT: -100.98 deg C (-149.8 deg F) at 1.39 kPa.(24)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Chlorine is normally stable.(30) It reacts with water to form a corrosive solution of hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid, which can decompose to chlorine, oxygen and chloric acid.(28,30)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent capable of reacting vigorously, violently or explosively with many substances. For a review of the many substances chlorine can react with, consult references 31 to 34.
Chlorine gas can react explosively with alcohols, ammonia and compounds, hydrocarbon gases (e.g. acetylene and ethylene), hydrogen, antimony trichloride and tetramethylsilane, aziridine, bromine pentafluoride, dioxygen difluoride, oxygen difluoride, fluorine, diborane, dichloro(methyl)arsine, disilyl oxide, ethylphosphine, strong reducing agents, aqueous sulfamic acid, stibine, synthetic rubber, tetraselenium tetranitride and white phosphorus.(31-34)
Chlorine gas ignites on contact with mono and di-alkali metal acetylides, copper acetylides, halocarbons (e.g. dichloromethane), metals (e.g. finely powdered aluminum, brass and copper foil, iron, potassium, sodium, tin and titanium), non-metals (e.g. boron, active carbon, phosphorous and silicon), iron, uranium and zirconium carbides, diethyl ether, diethyl zinc, metal and non-metal hydrides, phosphorus compounds, sulfides, tellurium, trialkyl boranes and tungsten dioxide.(31-34)
Liquefied chlorine can react violently, explosively or ignite on contact with carbon disulfide and iron, bismuth, dibutyl phthalate, drawing wax, gasoline, glycerol, linseed oil, white phosphorus, polydimethylsiloxane, silicones, sodium hydroxide, tin, titanium and vanadium powder.(33,34)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Corrosive hydrogen chloride, hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid.

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures greater than 121 deg C, moisture

Corrosivity to Metals:
At ordinary temperatures, dry chlorine is not corrosive to most common metals, including steel, stainless steel, cast iron, nickel and its alloys, copper, brass, bronze, lead, platinum and tantalum. Dry chlorine attacks aluminum, tin and titantium at ordinary temperatures and is corrosive to most metals at high temperatures (121 deg C and up). Moist chlorine is strongly corrosive to most common metals. Platinum, tantalum and titanium are resistant. Tantalum is the most stable metal to both dry and wet chlorine.(24,25,28,35)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Chlorine reacts with certain plastics and rubbers.(30)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 147 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 293 ppm (1-hour exposure) (4,14,15); 690 ppm (cited as 2.0 g/m3) (30-minute exposure) (16); 1940 ppm (cited as 5.6 g/m3) (10-minute exposure) (16)
LC50 (mouse): 70 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 137 ppm (1-hour exposure) (4,14,15); 130 ppm (cited as 381 mg/m3) (30-minute exposure) (3); 1040 ppm (cited as 3.0 g/m3) (10-minute exposure) (16)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Short-term exposure has produced severe irritation and damage to the upper and lower respiratory systems in animals. The concentrations required to produce specific effects vary greatly and are dependent on many factors, including the duration of exposure, the experimental procedures, the methods used to measure gas concentration, and the animal species tested.(1,2,3) In general, a single 30-60 minute exposure to 130-1000 ppm has caused death in various animal species. A single exposure of several hours to 10-30 ppm has produced definite harmful effects, including high mortality in rodents.(2) The concentration of chlorine which reduces the respiratory rate of mice by 50% (RD50) has been reported as 3.5 ppm for a 60-minute exposure (17) and 9.3 ppm for a 10-minute exposure (18). These results indicate that chlorine is a very strong irritant of the eyes, nose, and throat. Male rats and mice exposed to chlorine at concentrations near the RD50 (9-11 ppm) for 1, 3 or 5 days developed lesions of the nasal passages, larynx, trachea and lungs. The most severe damage was observed in the nasal passages and included extensive erosion and ulceration, as well as a partial to complete degeneration of the cells which provide the sense of smell.(19) Similar results were obtained in another study in which male mice were exposed to the RD50 (9.3 ppm) for 5 days.(20)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Repeated exposure to 0.4 to 9 ppm for several weeks to two years has caused dose-related upper and lower respiratory system damage and other harmful effects in animals.(21,22,23) In one study, rats were exposed to 1, 3, or 9 ppm chlorine for 6 weeks. Decreased body weight was observed at 1 ppm (females) and 3 or 9 ppm (both sexes). Death occurred in 3/10 females in the high exposure group before the study ended. Significant damage to the upper and lower respiratory tracts was observed in animals exposed to 9 ppm. Less severe respiratory system damage was observed at 1 and 3 ppm. Kidney and liver effects were observed in both sexes exposed to 3 and 9 ppm. Ulceration and swelling of the stomach wall were observed in animals exposed to 9 ppm.(21) In another study, monkeys were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 or 2.3 ppm chlorine for 1 year. At the two lower concentrations, minor lesions (very slight increased cell growth, with loss of cilia and decreased numbers of goblet cells) were observed in the nasal passages of a few animals. At 2.3 ppm, this effect was more pronounced and more consistently observed in the nasal passages and the trachea.(22) Mice and rats were exposed to 0.4, 1.0 and 2.5 ppm chlorine for two years. Statistically significant exposure-dependent lesions of the upper nasal passages were observed at all test concentrations in both species.(23) Some studies have shown that repeated exposure to chlorine can increase the susceptibility of animals to bacterial infections.(1,2,3)

Carcinogenicity:
No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in mice and rats exposed to up to 2.5 ppm chlorine for 2 years.(23)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No conclusions can be drawn from the one reported study due to significant design limitations.
In this study, rabbits were exposed to 0.6-1.5 ppm chlorine for 9 months. Six rabbits had normal offspring and 2 had dead fetuses. No controls were used and an unidentified infectious disease was observed in the animals.(2,3,6)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for a recommended standard:occupational exposure to chlorine. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1976
(2) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Chlorine and hydrogen chloride. Environmental health criteria 21. World Health Organization, 1982
(3) National Research Council. Chlorine and hydrogen chloride. National Academy of Sciences, 1976
(4) AIHA Emergency Response Planning Guideline Committee. Emergency response planning guidelines: chlorine. American Industrial Hygiene Association, Apr. 1988
(5) Perry, W.G., et al. The halogens: chlorine. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part F. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 4482-4487
(6) Anonymous. Recommended health-based occupational exposure limits for respiratory irritants. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 707. World Health Organization, 1984
(7) Das, R., et al. Chlorine gas exposure and the lung: a review. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 9, no. 3 (May 1993). p. 439-455
(8) Chlorine/chlorine dioxide: review of health effects. Project No. 4-02- 461. Forest Industry Health Research Program, Feb. 1997
(9) Salisbury, D.A., et al. First-aid reports of acute chlorine gassing among pulpmill workers as predictors of lung health consequences. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 20, no 1 (July 1991). p. 71-81
(10) Kilburn, K.H. Evidence that inhaled chlorine is neurotoxic and causes airways obstruction. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. Vol. 4, no. 2 (Apr.-June 1995). p. 267-276
(11) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th edition. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 359-360
(12) Patil, L.R.S., et al. The health of diaphragm cell workers exposed to chlorine. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 31, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1970). p. 678-86
(13) Bherer, L., et al. Survey of construction workers repeatedly exposed to chlorine over a three to six month period in a pulpmill: II. Follow up of affected workers by questionnaire, spirometry, and assessment of bronchial responsiveness 18 to 24 months after exposure ended. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 51, no. 4 (Apr. 1994). p. 225-228
(14) RTECS database record for chlorine. Last updated: 9704
(15) Chlorine. In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 252-255
(16) Zwart, A., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of chlorine in rats and mice: time-concentration-mortality relationships and effects on respiration. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. 19, no. 2 (Sept. 1988). p. 195-208
(17) Gagnaire, F., et al. Comparison of the sensory irritation response in mice to chlorine and nitrogen trichloride. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 14, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1994). p. 405-409
(18) Kane, L.E., et al. A short-term test to predict acceptable levels of exposure to airborne sensory irritants. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 40, no. 3 (Mar. 1979). p. 207-229
(19) Jiang, X.Z., et al. Pathology of toxic responses to the RD50 concentration of chlorine gas in the nasal passages of rats and mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 71, no. 2 (Nov. 1983). p. 225- 236
(20) Buckley, L.A., et al. Respiratory tract lesions induced by sensory irritants at the RD50 concentration. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 74, no. 3 (July 1984). p. 417-429
(21) Barrow, C.S., et al. An inhalation toxicity study of chlorine in Fischer 344 rats following 30 days of exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 49, no. 1 (June 15, 1979). p. 77-8
(22) Klonne, D.R., et al. One-year inhalation toxicity study of chlorine in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 3 (Oct. 1987). p. 557-572
(23) Wolf, D.C., et al. Two-year inhalation exposure of female and male B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats to chlorine gas induces lesions confined to the nose. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 24, no. 1 (Jan. 1995). p. 111- 131
(24a) Compressed Gas Association. Handbook of compressed gases. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1990. p. 310-321
(24b) Compressed Gas Association. Handbook of compressed gases. 4th ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. p. 321
(25) Braker, W., et al. Matheson gas data book. 6th edition. Matheson Gas Products, 1980. p. 155-163
(26) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 15, 50-51
(27) Schmittinger, P, et al. Chlorine. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 6. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1986. p. 399-481
(28) Curlin, L.C., et al. Alkali and chlorine products: chlorine. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, 1991. p. 938-940, 995-1004
(29) HSDB record for chlorine. Last revision date: 97/04/23
(30) Emergency action guide for chlorine. Association of American Railroads, Aug. 1994
(31) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma- Aldrich, 1988. p. 725B
(32) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(33) Environmental Protection Service. Environmental and technical information for problems spills (EnviroTIPS): chlorine. Environment Canada, Mar. 1984
(34) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 1294-1308
(35) Liening, E.L. Materials of construction for the halogens. In: Process industries corrosion. Edited by B.J. Moriz, et al. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1975. p. 329-336
(36) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 58-59
(37) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(38) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-01-27

Revision Indicators:
Transport (US) 1998-02-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
EU Classification 1998-11-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
EU Safety 1998-11-01
TDG 2002-05-29
WHMIS proposed classification 2002-06-13
Fire hazard summary 2002-06-13
WHMIS detailed classification 2002-07-23
WHMIS classification comments 2003-05-23
Carcinogenicity 2003-07-28
PEL-TWA transitional 2003-12-19
PEL-C transitional 2003-12-19
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
PEL-STEL final 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
Bibliography 2006-01-18
Vapour pressure at 50 deg C 2006-01-18
Short-term skin contact 2006-03-01
Short-term eye contact 2006-03-01
Relative density 2006-09-28



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