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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION             FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                          ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE     ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                          VBC/DS/78.36
				          ORIGINAL:  ENGLISH


    CHLORDANE


         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food and Agriculture               des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.


    CLASSIFICATION:

    Primary Use: Insecticide

    Secondary Use: None

    Chemical Group: Organochlorine compound 

    Date Issued: June, 1978

    1.  GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1       COMMON NAME: Chlordane (ISO)

    1.1.1 Identity: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-
          methano-1H-indene 

          Structure

    1.1.2  Synonyms:  
          M.140
          Velsicol 1068
          Ent 9932
          HCS 3260
          AG Chlordane
          OCTACHLOR (R)

          Local synonyms:

    1.2       SYNOPSIS

          Chlordane is a persistent organochlorine insecticide of moderate 
          toxicity that may be stored in body fats. 

    1.3       SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1 Physical characteristics - The technical product is a viscous 
          amber coloured liquid usually containing 70% cis-, 25% trans-
          isomers and less than 1% heptachlor, with a melting point of 103-
          105°C. 

    1.3.2 Solubility - Insoluble in water, but stable in most organic 
          solvents, including petroleum oils. 

    1.3.3 Stability - Unstable in the presence of weak alkalis.

    1.3.4 Vapour pressure - The refined product has a vapour pressure of 1 
          x 10-5 torr at 25°C. 

    1.4       AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1 Common formulations - Emulsifiable concentrates 50% and 70%, 
          kerosin solutions 2% and 20%; dusts and granules 5% and 10%; 
          wettable powders 40% and 50%; 20% oil solutions for dilution with 
          petroleum distillate. 

    1.4.2 Pests mainly controlled - Earthworms in turf, ants, termites, 
          wireworms, cutworms, thrips, grasshoppers, crickets. 

    1.4.3 Use pattern - Termites - 1% water emulsions, very good results.         
          Wireworms - on medium loams use 3 lb per acre - less on light 
          soils. All formulations satisfactory incorporate in soil.  
          Cutworms 5 lb to 10 lb of active ingredient per acre depending on 
          soil type.  Crickets 20 lb of 5% dust per acre.  Army worm lb per 
          100 gallons of water spray. 

    1.4.4 Unintended effects - Should not be used on plants in bloom, 
          because of toxicity to pollinating insects.  Leafy vegetables
          may be tainted.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMMES

         Has been used against mosquitos as a 2% residual spray in 
         dwellings. Also used for flea control as 2-4% dust. 


    1.6       HOUSEHOLD USE

              Against ants, cockroaches, silver fish, spiders, ticks, wasps 
              use 2% to 3% spray or 5% dust. 

    2.        TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS

    2.1       TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1 Absorption route - Chlordane may be absorbed from the 
          gastrointestinal tract, by inhalation or through the intact skin. 

    2.1.2 Mode of action - The mechanism of toxic action of chlordane is 
          not fully understood; it causes stimulation of the central 
          nervous system. 

    2.1.3 Excretion products - Weekly doses of gamma-chlordane (the trans-
          isomer), administered by stomach tube to rabbits, resulted in 
          47.2% of the total administered dose being excreted in the urine 

          and 22.7% in the faeces, with only about 4% being retained in 
          fatty tissues.  Unchanged Á-chlordane could be detected only in 
          subcutaneous fat, while all other tissues contained hydrophilic 
          metabolites. Two hydrophilic metabolites have been isolated from 
          urine, these include trans-1-hydroxy-2-chloro-dihydrochlordene and 
          trans-1,2-dihydroxydihydrochlordene. A third metabolite, 
          oxychlordane, has also been isolated from the fat and milk of 
          several species. 

    2.1.4 Toxicity, single dose

              Oral: LD50 rats (M) 335 mg/kg
                        rats (F) 430 mg/kg

              Dermal:  LD50 rats (M) 840 mg/kg
                             rats (F) 690 mg/kg

              Most susceptible species:  man and goat, approximate oral 
              LD50:  100 mg/kg. 

    2.1.5 Toxicity, repeated doses

           Oral: Daily oral doses of 6.25 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg were 
           given to rats for 15 days.  6.25 and 25 mg/kg produced no 
           tremors or convulsions. 50 mg/kg produced toxic symptoms and two 
           out of five animals died.  At 100 mg/kg all animals died. 
           Intracytoplasmic bodies in the liver cells were found at all 
           levels and their number was in proportion to the dose given. 

           Inhalation: No information available on the more recent 
           formulations.  A high vapour toxicity to mice reported with 
           earlier formulations was due to unreacted hexachloro-
           cyclopentadiene. 

           Cumulation of compound: Chlordane fed at 25 mg/kg diet to 
           calves and sheep reached a maximum level in fat of 18 mg/kg and 
           12 mg/kg respectively.  After feeding was stopped, the residue 
           was eliminated from calves in 20 weeks and from sheep in four 
           weeks. 

           Cumulation of effect: Chlordane has a cumulative effect on 
           the liver, initially causing liver enlargement and microsomal 
           enzyme induction and eventually causing liver damage and bile-
           duct proliferation.  Damage to the optic nerve has been reported 
           in animals. 

    2.1.6 Dietary studies

           Long-term: Groups of 40 rats were given chlordane in their 
           diet at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg diet.  
           Changes involving food consumption, growth and mortality were 
           seen only in the 300 mg/kg diet group.  Liver cell changes were 
           not seen in the group given 2.5-25 mg/kg diet and at 50 mg/kg 
           diet only "cytoplasmic peripheralization" was present.  At 
           higher doses liver damage was observed in the form of 
           hypertrophy of centrolobular cells.  Cytoplasmic oxyphylia and 
           hyalinization nuclear karyorhexis or cellular pyknosis, presence 
           of fat in the cytoplasm and some bile-duct proliferation. 

           In a second experiment, groups of four to seven male and four to 
           seven female dogs were fed chlordane for two years at levels of 
           0, 0.3, 3, 15 and 30 mg/kg diet. Abnormalities of clinical liver 
           function tests were seen in the 15 and 30 mg/kg groups.  In 
           animals selected for necropsy at the end of the first year, 
           increased liver weights and associated hepatocellular changes 
           were found at 30 ppm.  At the end of two years, similar changes 
           were observed at 15 ppm.  No adverse effects were seen on 
           behaviour, appearance, survival, weight gain, blood picture or 
           the results of periodic physical examination at any level. 

    2.1.7 Supplementary studies of toxicity

           Carcinogenicity: In a number of long-term feeding experiments 
           with chlordane there has been no evidence of increased 
           tumorigenicity. 

           Teratogenicity: In a three generation feeding study in male 
           and female rats with technical chlordane at levels of 0, 0.3, 3, 
           15, 30 and 60 mg/kg diet, levels up to and including 30 mg/kg 
           had no effect on fertility, numbers of young, or litters, 
           weight, growth or mortality of the young animals up to weaning 
           age.  Autopsy of animals post weaning showed no gross or 
           microscopic difference between the groups.  At 60 mg/kg diet 
           there was a high mortality in the second F3 generation litters 
           during the latter part of the nursing period.  These animals 
           showed gross and microscopic pathology comparable to that 
           characteristic for chlordane intoxication. 
           
           Mutagenicity: No information available. 

    2.1.8 Modification of toxicity - The toxicities of bihydroxycoumarin, 
          phenylbutazone and parathion were reduced after pretreatment with 
          chlordane.  Rats were fed for 28 days from weaning on either (a) 
          a diet containing 3.5% protein as casein, (b) a diet containing a 
          normal amount of protein as casein, or (c) a standard laboratory 
          diet.  A single oral dose of chlordane was administered after the 
          feeding period.  The LD50 values for the three groups were 137, 
          267 or 311 mg/kg body weight respectively.  Clinical symptoms and 
          pathology were the same in all groups. 

    2.2       TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1 Absorption - Chlordane may be absorbed from the gastrointestinal 
          tract, by inhalation or through the intact skin. 

    2.2.2 Dangerous doses

          Single: Convulsions followed by recovery occurred in an infant 
          ingesting a dose of 10 mg kg and in an adult following ingestion 
          of 32 mg/kg., The fatal dose for man has been estimated between 6 
          and 60 g. A dose of 104 mg/kg proved fatal when taken with 
          suicidal intent. 

          Repeated: Multiple doses of 2.4 g are stated to be dangerous.

    2.2.3 Observations of occupationally exposed workers - Workers engaged 
          in the manufacture and formulation of chlordane for periods of up 
          to 15 years, have exhibited no evidence of harmful effects 
          attributable to this insecticide. 

          In a survey of more than 1105 persons who had been engaged in 
          pest control operations for 1-30 years, three cases of chlordane 
          poisoning were reported, the only symptoms specified being 
          dizziness and headache.  Isolated cases of poisoning have 
          resulted from careless handling of chlordane and one death has 
          been recorded in a fomulator.  In these cases exposure was by 
          inhalation of sprays or by the dermal route. 

    2.2.4 Observations on exposure of the general population - Dietary 
          intake of chlordane in the United States of America, England and 
          Wales has been shown to be negligible. In most cases the residues 
          were less than the analytical detection limits of 0.02-0.002 
          mg/kg material. 

    2.2.5 Observations of volunteers - No information available.

    2.2.6 Reported mishaps - Poisoning with chlordane has occurred by 
          dermal, inhalation and gastrointestinal absorption. Generalized 
          congestion, oedema, haemorrhage, irritation and chemical burns of 
          the gastrointestinal tract have been observed in poisoned people. 

    2.3       TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    2.3.1 Fish - Harmful.

    2.3.2 Birds - Moderately toxic.

    2.3.3 Other species - Harmful to livestock; toxic to pollinating 
          insects.

    3.  FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF 
        COMPOUND 

    3.1       RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY

              (for definition of categories, see introduction)

              All formulations above 10%, Category 3.

              All formulations 10% or less, Category 5.

    3.2       TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

         Formulations in Category 3 - Should be transported or stored 
         in clearly labelled impermeable containers, under lock and key, 
         secure from access by unauthorized persons and children.  No food 
         or drink should be stored in the same compartment. 

         Fomulations in Category 5 - Should be transported or stored in 
         clearly labelled, leakproof containers, out of reach of children 
         and away from food and drink. 

    3.3  HANDLING

         Formulations in Category 3 - Full protective clothing (see Part 4) 
         should be used by all those handling the compound. Adequate 
         washing facilities should be available at all times during 
         handling and should be close to the site of handling.  Eating, 
         drinking and smoking should be prohibited during handling and 
         before washing after handling. 

         Formulations in Category 5 - No facilities other than those needed 
         for the handling of any chemical need be required. 

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER

         Containers may be decontaminated (for method, see para. 4.2 in 
         Part 4).  Decontaminated containers should not be used for food 
         and drink.  Containers that are not decontaminated should be 
         burned or should be crushed and buried below the topsoil.  Care 
         must be taken to avoid subsequent contamination of water sources. 

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

         Formulations in Category 3 - Pre-employment and periodic medical 
         examination of workers desirable.  Workers suffering from active 
         hepatic or renal disease should be excluded from contact.  Special 
         account should be taken of the workers' mental ability to 
         comprehend and follow instructions.  Training of workers in 
         techniques to avoid contact essential. 

         Formulations in Category 5 - Warning of workers to minimize 
         contact essential. 

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

         All formulations - Pilots and loaders should have special training 
         in application methods and early symptoms of poisoning and must 
         wear a suitable respirator.  Use of flagmen not recommended.  
         Flagmen, if used, should wear protective clothing and be located 
         well away from the dropping zone. 

    3.7  LABELLING

         Formulations in Category 3 - Minimum cautionary statement: 
         "Chlordane is a toxic substance.  Avoid contamination of 
         foodstuffs, empty foodstuff containers and animal feed; and 
         excessive inhalation of dusts and mists containing this  
         insecticide.  In case of spillage on skin, wash with soap and 
         water.  Keep out of reach of children." 

         Formulations in Category 5 - Minimum cautionary statement: "This 
         formulation contains chlordane, a toxic substance. It is poisonous 
         if swallowed and may cause convulsions.  Keep the material out of 

         reach of children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and 
         their containers." 

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD - Maximum residue limits have been recommended
         for chlordane by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues.  
         These are subject to change at annual reviews. 

     
    4.   PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1       PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1 General - Chlordane is an organochlorine insecticide of moderate 
          toxicity that may be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, by 
          inhalation or through the intact skin.  It is persistent and may 
          be stored in body tissue. 

    4.1.2 Manufacture and formulation - TLV: (ACGIH) 0.5 mg/m3, (USSR) 0.01 
          mg/m3.  Closed systems and forced ventilation may be required to 
          reduce as much as possible the exposure of workers to the 
          chemical. 

    4.1.3 Mixers and applicators - When opening the container and when 
          mixing, protective impermeable boots, clean overalls, gloves and 
          respirator should be worn. Mixing, if not mechanical should 
          always be carried out with a paddle of appropriate length.  When 
          spraying tall crops or during aerial application a face mask 
          should be worn as well as an impermeable hood, clothing, boots, 
          and gloves.  The applicator should avoid working in a spray mist 
          and avoid contact with the mouth. 

          Particular care is needed when equipment is being washed after 
          use.  All protective clothing should be washed immediately after 
          use, including the insides of gloves.  Splashes must be washed 
          immediately from the skin or eyes with large quantities of water.  
          Before eating, drinking or smoking, hands and other exposed skin 
          should be washed. 

    4.1.4 Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial operations) 
          - Persons exposed to chlordane and associated with its 
          application should wear protective clothing and observe the 
          precautions described above in 4.1.3 under "mixers and 
          applicators". 

    4.1.5 Other populations likely to be affected - With good agricultural 
          practice subject to 4.2  below, other populations should not be 
          exposed to hazardous amounts of chlordane. 

    4.2       ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS - Unprotected persons 
              should be kept out of treated areas for at least one day. 

    4.3       DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS - Residues in 
              containers should be emptied in a diluted form into a deep 
              pit, taking care to avoid contamination of groundwaters.  The 

              empty container may be decontaminated by rinsing two or three 
              times with water and scrubbing the sides.  An additional 
              rinse should be carried out with 5% sodium hydroxide solution 
              which should remain in the container overnight.  Impermeable 
              gauntlets should be worn during this work and a soakage pit 
              should be provided for the rinsings.  Decontaminated 
              containers should not be used for food and drink. 

              Spillage of chlordane and its formulations should be removed 
              by washing with 5% sodium hydroxide solution and then rinsing 
              with large quantities of water. 

    4.4       EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1 Early symptoms of poisoning - Early symptoms of poisoning may 
          include apprehension and agitation, abdominal pain, vomiting with 
          blood, coughing, hoarseness, blurred vision, noisy respiration, 
          incoherent speech and irrational behaviour, muscle twitching may 
          also occur. 

    4.4.2 Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these symptoms 
          appear following exposure - The person should stop work 
          immediately, remove contaminated clothing and wash the affected 
          skin with soap and water, if available, and flush the area with 
          large quantities of water.  If swallowed, vomiting should be 
          induced, if the person is conscious. 


    5.        FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1       MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASES OF POISONING

    5.1.1 General information - An organochlorine insecticide of moderate 
          toxicity which may be absorbed through the intact skin quite 
          rapidly, as well as by inhalation and from the gastrointestinal 
          tract.  Poisoning incidents have occurred by all routes of 
          exposure.  Its mode of action is stimulation of the central 
          nervous system. Tremors and convulsions are typical signs of 
          poisoning with this compound.  The metabolite oxychlordane which 
          may be formed in animal tissues is considerably more toxic than 
          the parent compound.  Chlordane may persist in body fats. 

    5.1.2 Symptoms and signs - Symptoms of poisoning may 
          include apprehension and agitation, coughing, hoarseness, noisy 
          respiration and moist rales, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, blood 
          stained vomiting, incoherent speech and irrational behaviour.  
          Inflammation of the mucus membranes of the mouth and pharynx may 
          follow oral ingestion.  More advanced signs may include tremor, 
          tonic and clonic convulsions, diffuse broncho-pneumonia, delirium 
          and mania. 

    5.1.3 Laboratory - Blood levels of chlordane associated with poisoning 
          are not known.  The finding of chlordane or its metabolites in 
          urine will confirm exposure.  After exposure there may be changes 
          in both EEG and ECG recordings.  Changes in liver function, as 
          measured by plasma enzyme levels, may occur if liver damage is 
          present. 

    5.1.4 Treatment - If the pesticide has been ingested, gastric lavage 
          should be performed with two to four litres of water, followed by 
          saline purgatives. Barbiturates (preferably phenobarbitone or 
          phentobarbitone) or diazepam should be given intramuscularly or 
          intravenously in sufficient dosage to control restlessness or 
          convulsions.  Mechanical respiratory assistance with oxygen may 
          be required.  Calcium gluconate, 10% in 10 ml injected 
          intramuscularly four-hourly may be helpful.  Contraindicated are 
          oily purgatives, epinephrine and other adrenergic drugs and 
          central stimulants of all types. 

    5.1.5 Prognosis - If the acute effects are survived the prognosis is 
          reasonably good, however, complications such as bronchopneumonia, 
          liver damage and optic nerve damage might occur. 

    5.1.6 References of previously reported cases - Stormont, R. T. & 
          Clonley, B. E. (1955) Jour.  Amer.  Med.  Ass., 158 (15), 1364; 
          Derbes, V. J. et al. (1955) Jour.  Amer.  Med.  Ass., 158 (15), 
          1367; Hayes, W. J. (1963) Clinical Handbook on Economic Poisons, 
          US Dept.  Hlth, Educ. & Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia. 

    5.2       SURVEILLANCE TESTS - There are no readily available 
              surveillance methods.  Monitoring of the excretion of 
              chlordane and its metabolites in urine may give some 
              indication of the degree of exposure, although anuria has 
              occurred in some cases of chlordane poisoning. 

    5.3       LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1 Detection and assay of compound - References only are given.

              Chlordane residues may be estimated colorimetrically by the 
              reaction of chlordane, methanolic KOH and diethanolamine with 
              heat to yield a red colour with an absorbance maximum at 550 
              mu.  The sensitivity by this method is in the order of 0.006-
              0.04 ppm. 

              Ordas et al. (1956) J. Ag.  Food Che., 4, 444, or Analytical 
              methods for pesticides plant growth regulators and food 
              additives.  Edited by G. Zweig, Vol.  II, Insecticides, 
              Academic Press, New York and London (1964) Bowery, T.G., p. 
              49. 

              Methods involving GLC are given in Analytical methods for 
              pesticides and plant growth regulators, Vol. VI, Gas 
              chromatographic analysis, edited by G. Zweig and J. Sherma, 
              Academic Press, New York and London, 1972, p. 315; and Yeo & 
              Bevenue (1969) J. Ass. Off.  Anal.  Chem., 52, 1206. 

    5.3.2 Other tests in cases of poisoning - No specific tests, see 
          5.1.3 - Laboratory. 




See Also:
        Chlordane (EHC 34, 1984)
        Chlordane (PIM 574)