The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 716
CCOHS Chemical Name: Phosphine

Synonyms:
Hydrogen phosphide
Phosphane
Phosphoretted hydrogen
Phosphorous hydride
Phosphorus hydride
Phosphorous trihydride
Phosphorus trihydride

Chemical Name French: Phosphine
Chemical Name Spanish: Fosfina
CAS Registry Number: 7803-51-2
UN/NA Number(s): 2199
RTECS Number(s): SY7525000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 232-260-8
Chemical Family: Phosphorus and compounds / inorganic phosphorus compound / non-metal hydride / phosphorus hydride
Molecular Formula: H3-P
Structural Formula: H-P(H)-H P-H3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless gas; pure phosphine has no odour, but impurities cause a decaying fish or garlic-like odour.(1,22,23)

Odour Threshold:
Wide variation in values reported; 0.010-5 ppm (various methods). Acceptable range: 0.010-2.014 ppm. Geometric mean odour threshold: 0.14 ppm (recognition).(24) Pure phosphine is reported to be odourless at least up to 200 ppm.(1,22) Olfactory fatigue may occur.

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE Wide range of reported odour threshold values, some higher than TLV; olfactory fatigue may occur.

Composition/Purity:
Phosphine is shipped as a compressed liquefied gas in steel cylinders, either pure (under its own vapour pressure of 4086 kPa at 21.1 deg C), or as a gas mixture. It is supplied in a number of grades, primarily as an electronic grade, with a purity of 99.999% or greater (excluding hydrogen). Typical impurities include arsine, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and water.(22) The technical product can contain other impurities including higher phosphines (e.g. up to 5% diphosphine (P2H4)) and substituted phosphines.(1) Phosphine is available for semiconductor uses as a gas mixture of 1 to 15% in hydrogen or inert gases, such as argon, helium or nitrogen. It is also available as 0.1-20% in silane.(25) For some uses, phosphine is produced on-site from metal phosphides (e.g. zinc phosphide, aluminum phosphide) which are reacted with water or acid to produce the gas.(1,26)

Uses and Occurrences:
Phosphine is commonly used in the electronics industry in high purity as a doping agent in the manufacture of n-type semiconductors, light-emitting diodes and lasers. It is also used in the fumigation of storage facilities and stored products, such as grain. For this purpose, the gas is often produced on-site. Other uses include the production of organophosphines and organophosphonium derivatives; and as an intermediate for the preparation of several flame retardants.(1,22,26,27)
Phosphine may occur naturally in the anaerobic degradation of phosphorus- containing organic matter.(1) Atmospheric phosphine can also occur as a by- product during the manufacture and use of acetylene; the use of inorganic phosphorous compounds; the welding of steel coated with phosphate rust-proofing agents; the conversion of yellow phosphorous to red phosphorous; the drilling, machining and grinding of ductile iron; the pickling of impure and metals with phosphoric acid; and from the use of phosphine as a fumigant. Phosphine has also been accidentally produced when ferro-silicon has been contaminated with water (ferro-silicon can contain phosphide impurities).(1,27)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless gas. Pure phosphine has no odour, but impurities cause a decaying fish or garlic-like odour. FLAMMABLE GAS. Pyrophoric. Pure, dry phosphine or phosphine contaminated with traces of certain impurities, can ignite spontaneously in cold air. Forms flammable hydrogen gas when heated above 375 deg C. Phosphine forms explosive mixtures with air over an extremely wide range. Gas is heavier than air and can travel a to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. COMPRESSED GAS. Strong reducing agent which will react violently with oxidizing materials, with the possibility of fire or explosions on contact. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled. Severe respiratory tract and lung irritant. Causes lung injury -- effects may be delayed. Central nervous system depressant. May cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, incoordination, unconsciousness and death. Rapid evaporation of the liquefied gas may cause frostbite.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Phosphine is an extremely toxic gas. It easily forms high airborne concentrations and poses a very high inhalation hazard. Phosphine is a severe respiratory tract and lung irritant and a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Low exposures (in some cases, less than 2 ppm) cause irritation of the nose and throat, coughing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, tightness in the chest, and difficulty breathing.(1-5) As the concentration and/or exposure time increase, the degree of injury becomes more severe. Longer exposures (several hours) or higher concentrations can produce severe lung injury, including a potentially life-threatening accumulation of fluid (pulmonary edema). Pulmonary edema, as well as liver and kidney injury, have been observed in fatally exposed people.(1,3,6) The development of pulmonary edema, can be delayed for up to 48 hours after exposure.
Numerous cases of toxicity developing following occupational exposure to phosphine have been reported, including deaths.(1-7) In one case, an acetylene generator operator died from pulmonary edema following exposure to 1-14 ppm (8 ppm average) phosphine for 1-2 hours/day over 6 weeks.(6) In animals, exposures above 5 ppm have resulted in deaths.

Skin Contact:
There are no reports of skin irritation following exposure to phosphine gas.
Liquefied phosphine rapidly becomes a gas at room temperature and pressure. The gas poses a serious inhalation hazard (see "Inhalation" above). Contact with the liquefied gas escaping from its high pressure cylinder may cause frostbite. Symptoms of mild frostbite include numbness, prickling and itching in the affected area. Symptoms of more severe frostbite include a burning sensation and stiffness of the affected area. The skin may become waxy white or yellow. Blistering, tissue death and gangrene may also develop in severe cases.

Eye Contact:
There are no reports of eye irritation following exposure to phosphine gas.
Liquefied phosphine rapidly becomes a gas at room temperature and pressure. The gas poses a serious inhalation hazard (see "Inhalation" above). Contact with liquefied gas escaping from its high pressure cylinder may cause freezing of the eye. Permanent eye damage or blindness could result.

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is very little information available on the possible effects of long- term, low-level phosphine exposure.
Phosphine is very irritating to the respiratory tract and it is unlikely that long-term exposure would be tolerated. Nevertheless, long-term exposure could lead to chronic respiratory disorders such as bronchitis.
It has been reported that long-term low-level exposure may result in symptoms of chronic phosphorus poisoning (toothache, swelling of the jaw, weight loss and anemia).(8) However, no reliable reports of phosphorus poisoning following phosphine exposure have been located in the literature.(1,8,9)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No conclusions can be drawn from a very limited human study which examined the risk of having a miscarriage with employment in the electronics industry. Only 3 women reported being exposed to phosphine and the reported incidence of miscarriage was no higher than women not exposed to phosphine.(10) One animal study showed no effects in the offspring of pregnant rats exposed by inhalation.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
No firm conclusions can be drawn based on the limited information available. In one study, increased chromosomal aberrations were observed in 20 fumigators exposed to phosphine. Only 9 men were exposed to phosphine only.(11) In another study, evaluation of 31 fumigators with long-term exposure to phosphine did not show mutagenic effects.(12) These studies involved a very small number of employees and other factors (e.g. other pesticide exposures) may have contributed to or been responsible for the observed effect. Animal information suggests that phosphine may be mutagenic at concentrations which also produce significant other toxicity. Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Inhaled phosphine is readily absorbed into the body and is distributed to the central nervous system, liver and kidneys. In animals, phosphine is slowly oxidized to oxyacids. Absorbed phosphine is eliminated either unchanged in the expired air, or excreted as hypophosphite or phosphite in the urine.(1)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment and use the "buddy" system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by a person trained in its use, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport the victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
GAS: No skin effect expected. Refer to advice for inhalation exposures. LIQUID: Quickly remove the victim from the source of contamination and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm the affected area on site. DO NOT rub area or apply dry heat. Gently remove clothing or jewelry that may restrict circulation. Carefully cut around any clothing that sticks to the skin and remove the rest of the garment. Loosely cover the affected area with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow the victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport the victim to an emergency care facility.

Eye Contact:
GAS: No eye effects expected. Refer to advice for inhalation exposures. LIQUID: Quickly remove the victim from the source of contamination. Immediately and briefly, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm. Cover both eyes with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Flammable gas.(28) Pure, dry phosphine or phosphine contaminated with traces of certain impurities, can ignite spontaneously in cold air.(22,29)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.6% (28); 2.1% at 10 deg C; 1.85% at 50 deg C (0.39 vol% water vapour) (29)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
98% (estimated) (28)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
38 deg C (100 deg F) (1,8) (pure); 100 deg C (212 deg F).(30) Fluctuates due to impurities and conditions of measurement.(1)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable gas.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
No specific information is available on the electrical conductivity of liquefied phosphine. It is a flammable gas and can be ignited by a static discharge.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Phosphorus oxides (27), and phosphorus and hydrogen in the absence of oxygen.(30)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable gas. Pyrophoric. In the presence of moisture, pure phosphine does not spontaneously ignite in air below 150 deg C. Dry phosphine can ignite at room temperature. The presence of traces (0.2%) of diphosphine cause it to spontaneously ignite in air, even below -15 deg C. Forms hydrogen when heated above 375 deg C. The gas forms explosive mixtures with air over an extremely wide range. Gas is heavier than air and can travel a to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant" foam, or water spray or fog.(27) Use flooding quantity of water as spray. DO NOT USE halogenated extinguishing agents.(28)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid extremely hazardous gas and toxic decomposition products.
It is best to stop the flow of gas before attempting to extinguish the fire. To extinguish the fire, while allowing continued flow of the gas, is extremely dangerous. The gas could form an explosive mixture with air and reignite, which may cause far more damage than if the original fire had been allowed to burn. In some cases, extinguishing the fire with carbon dioxide or dry chemical powder may be necessary to permit immediate access to shut-off valves. However, this must be done carefully.
If it is not possible to stop the flow of gas and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, it is preferable to allow continued burning, while protecting exposed materials with water spray until the flow of gas can be stopped. Isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel.
Gas clouds may be controlled by water spray or fog. Water spray may be used to dilute a liquid spill to a nonflammable mixture. The addition of water to pools of liquefied phosphine may increase evolution of toxic gas.
Move cylinders or containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. No part of a cylinder or container should be subjected to a temperature higher than 52 deg C (approximately 125 deg F). For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. After the fire has been extinguished, explosives atmospheres may linger. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device.
Phosphine is very toxic. Do not enter fire area without wearing specialized protective/equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full- body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self- contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 4 - Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 34.00

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.39 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.72 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Gas
Melting Point: - 133 to -133.8 deg C (-207.4 to -208.8 deg F) (1,22,26,31)
Boiling Point: -87.8 deg C (-126.04 deg F) (26,31)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not applicable (gas)
Solubility in Water: Slightly soluble (26 mL/100 mL) at 17 deg C and 101.33 kPa (1 atm) (22,31,32)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in trifluoroacetic acid, carbon disulfide, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, acetic acid and aniline; soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether.(1,31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Neutral in aqueous solution (1)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.010 mPa.s (0.010 centipoise) at 0 deg C and 101.33 kPa (gas) (26,32); 0.18 mPa.s (0.18 centipoise) at -75 deg C (liquid) (32)
Surface Tension: 25.5 mN/m (25.5 dynes/cm) at -125 deg C (32); 70 mN/m (70 dynes/cm) at 0 deg C (26) (liquid)
Vapour Density: 1.184 at 25 deg C and 101.33 kPa (air = 1) (22,32)
Vapour Pressure: 4020 kPa (583 psig; 39.67 atm) at 21.1 deg C (22)
Vapour Pressure at 50 deg C: Greater than 7000 kPa (69 atm) (estimated from graph) (22b)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable; gas at normal temperatures
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable; gas at normal temperatures
Critical Temperature: 51.6 deg C (124.9 deg F) (22,32)
Critical Pressure: 6536 kPa (64.5 atm) (22,31,32)

Other Physical Properties:
TRIPLE POINT: -133.8 deg C (-208.8 deg F or 139.4 deg K) at 3.64 kPa (32)
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 2.9 at 15 deg C (31)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Phosphine is stable at normal temperatures. It begins to decompose at about 375 deg C (707 deg F), with complete decomposition at about 600 deg C (1112 deg F).(22)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


Phosphine is a strong reducing agent which will react violently with oxidizing materials, with the possibility of fire or explosions on contact.(28,29,33). See specific examples below.
OXYGEN - can produce explosive mixture, in which autoignition occurs at ordinary temperatures and low pressures.(28,29)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine or aqueous solutions) - ignition occurs upon contact.(28,29)
NITRIC ACID - ignites explosively in concentrated nitric acid; explodes following contact with warm fuming nitric acid.(28,29)
DINITROGEN MONOXIDE, DINITROGEN TRIOXIDE or NITROUS ACID - make phosphine pyrophoric (ignite spontaneously in air) (28,29)
METAL NITRATES (e.g. silver nitrate or mercury (II) nitrate) - can react explosively.(28,29)
NITROUS OXIDE - ignites explosively if sparked.(28)
DICHLORINE OXIDE (CHLORINE MONOXIDE) or NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE - explodes on contact.(28,29)
ALIPHATIC AMINES (e.g. ethylamine), AROMATIC AMINES (e.g. aniline) or ALKANOLAMINES (monoethanolamine) - react violently (30,33)
HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS (e.g. chloroform) - react violently.(23)
POTASSIUM and AMMONIA - phosphine and potassium react in liquid ammonia to form potassium dihydrophosphide, a spontaneously flammable solid.(28)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen, phosphorus and phosphorus oxides.

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, sparks, open flames and other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Corrodes copper or copper-containing alloys, especially in the presence of ammonia, or moisture and salt. Less corrosive to steel, galvanized steel, aluminum, iron, nickel, gold, platinum, silver and lead, under these conditions.(1) Pure phosphine appears to be non-corrosive to the common metals, such as steel, stainless steel and iron. Types 316 and 316L stainless are recommended for use with phosphine.(22)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (male rat): 11 ppm (4-hour exposure) (13)
LC50 (female rat): 32 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 28 ppm (5.2-hour exposure) (14)
LC50 (female rat): 45.3 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 33.3 ppm (7.4-hour exposure) (14)
LC50 (male mouse): 26.5-33.4 ppm (4-hour exposure) (15)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Many animal studies have shown that phosphine is very toxic following inhalation. Symptoms of toxicity have included initial restlessness, sleepiness, salivation, tearing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, vomiting, diarrhea and muscle incoordination. Examination of fatally exposed animals has revealed severe lung and respiratory system injury, as well as liver and kidney injury.(13,14,16,17) Exposure to 5 ppm resulted in the death of all cats after 35.5 to 45.5 hours, all guinea pigs after 24 to 32 hours and all rats after 27 to 36 hours. A potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) was observed in all species. Higher concentrations caused deaths in shorter times. No significant effects were seen in animals exposed to 2.5 ppm for up to 820 hours.(16) Reduced weight gain and signs of mild respiratory irritation were observed in rats exposed to approximately 4 ppm, 4 hours/day for 12 days.(13) Rabbits and guinea pigs died during or following their second 4-hour exposure to 20 ppm.(18) In recent studies, rats and mice were exposed to 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 ppm for 2 weeks. Lung weights were decreased in male rats and mice. Heart weights were increased in female rats and mice. No other significant toxic effects were noted. In a 4-day study, exposure to 10 ppm resulted in minimal to mild liver and kidney damage and the death of some of the exposed male mice and rats.(17) Rats were exposed to 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 ppm for 6 hours. No significant treatment related effects were observed except a red or mucous coloured nasal discharge.(19)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Exposure of rats to 10 ppm has resulted in deaths. Lower concentrations (4.5 ppm and less) have resulted in decreased weight gain, organ weight effects in rats and mice. Rats were exposed to 0, 0.3, 1 or 3 ppm for 13 weeks. At 4 weeks, an additional group of animals was added to the study with exposure at 10 ppm. In this group, 4/10 females died after the third exposure. Kidney damage was observed in animals exposed to 10 ppm. Lung congestion was observed in the animals that died. Body weight and food consumption was decreased at 1 ppm and higher. Some blood chemistry effects were observed in males exposed to 3 ppm.(19) Mice were exposed to 0.3, 1.0 or 4.5 ppm for 13 weeks. Decreased body weight gain, and organ weight effects were observed.(20)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No harmful effects were observed in the one available study. Rats were exposed to 0, 0.03, 0.3, 3, 5 or 7.5 ppm on days 8 to 15 of pregnancy. Death occurred in 14/24 animals at 7.5 ppm. No effects on the offspring or the mothers were observed at the other exposure concentrations.(19)

Mutagenicity:
There is not enough information available to conclude that phosphine is mutagenic in live animals. Some marginally positive results have been produced in studies in which animals were exposed by inhalation to concentrations which produced toxicity.(20,21) Negative results have been produced in other in vivo studies (a dominant lethal test, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberration and micronuclei tests).(21)
Positive and negative results have been produced in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.(21)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Phosphine and selected metal phosphides. Environmental Health Criteria; 73. World Health Organization, 1993
(2) Misra, U.K., et al. Occupational phosphine exposure in Indian workers. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 42, no. 3 (Sept. 1988). p. 257-263
(3) Flury, F. Phosphine. Anzeiger fuer Schaedlingskunde. Vol. 13 (1937). p. 26-28. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00054579)
(4) Modrzejewski, J. Phosphine poisoning during extermination of corn vermin in a port elevator. Medycyna Pracy. Vol. 18 (1967). p. 78-82. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00118349)
(5) Geryk, B., et al. Phosphine in foundries. Pracovni Lekarstvi (1957). p. 6-10. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00054582)
(6) Harger, R.N., et al. Toxicity of phosphine, with a possible fatality from this poison. American Medical Association Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 18 (Dec. 1958). p. 497-504
(7) Wilson, R., et al. Acute phosphine poisoning aboard a grain freighter. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 244, no. 2 (July 11, 1980). p. 148-150
(8) Phosphine. In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 1248-1249
(9) Eichler, O. Phosphine poisoning: chronic, occupational? Sammlung von Vergiftungsfaellen. Vol. 5 (1934). p. 23-26. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00136718)
(10) Shusterman, D., et al. Employment in electronics manufacturing and risk of spontaneous abortion. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 35, no. 4 (Apr. 1993). p. 381-386
(11) Garry, V.F., et al. Human genotoxicity: pesticide applicators and phosphine. Science. Vol. 246 (Oct. 13, 1989). p. 251-255
(12) Barbosa, A., et al. Evaluation of phosphine genotoxicity at occupational levels of exposure in New South Wales, Australia. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 51, no. 10 (Oct. 1994). p. 700-705
(13) Waritz, R.S., et al. Acute and subacute inhalation toxicities of phosphine, phenylphosphine and triphenylphosphine. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 35, no. 6 (June 1975). p. 452-458
(14) Muthu, M., et al. A study on the acute inhalation toxicity of phosphine to albino rats. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 24, no. 3 (1980). p. 404-410
(15) Omae, K., et al. Acute and subacute inhalation toxicity of highly purified phosphine (PH3) in male ICR mice. Journal of Occupational Health. Vol. 38, no 1 (Jan. 1996). p. 36-42
(16) Klimmer, O.R. Contribution to the study of the action of phosphine (PH3). Archive fuer Toxikologie. Vol. 24, no. 2/3 (1969). p. 164-187. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00117725)
(17) Morgan, D.L., et al. Inhalation toxicity of phosphine for Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Inhalation Toxicology. Vol. 7, no. 2 (Mar. 1995). p. 225-238
(18) Mueller, W. Phosphine intoxication (animal experimentation). I. Acute and subacute intoxication. Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 195 (1940). p. 184-193. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00054580)
(19) Newton, P.E., et al. Inhalation toxicity of phosphine in the rat: acute, subchronic, and developmental. Inhalation Toxicology. Vol. 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1993). p. 223-239
(20) Barbosa, A., et al. Determination of genotoxic and other effects in mice following short term repeated-dose and subchronic inhalation exposure to phosphine. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 24, no. 2 (1994). p. 81-88
(21) Kligerman, A.D., et al. Cytogenetic and germ cell effects of phosphine inhalation by rodents. II. Subacute exposures to rats and mice. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 24, no. 4 (1994). p. 301-306
(22a) Compressed Gas Association. Phosphine. In: Handbook of compressed gases. 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall, 1990. p. 543-548
(22b) Compressed Gas Association. Handbook of compressed gases. 4th ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. p. 577
(23) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(24) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 27, 73
(25) Matheson gas products. Matheson, 1990. p. 94, 100, 103
(26) Rickelton, W.A. Phosphine and its derivatives. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 18. John Wiley and Sons, 1996. p. 656-668
(27) HSDB data base record for phosphine. Last revision date: 98/03/18
(28) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(29) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann, Ltd., 1995. p. 1562-1564
(30) Chemical safety sheets. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 703
(31) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 3.44, 5.128, 6.144
(32) Braker, W., et al. Phosphine. In: Matheson gas data book. 6th ed. Matheson, 1980. p. 601-606
(33) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Rapid guide to chemical incompatibilities. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997. p. 659
(34) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(35) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2000-04-04

Revision Indicators:
ERPG 2001-03-01
TDG 2002-05-29
WHMIS classification comments 2003-05-24
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-08
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-08
PEL-STEL final 2004-01-08
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Bibliography 2006-01-17
Vapour pressure at 50 deg C 2006-01-17
Relative density 2006-09-28



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6