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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION             FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                          ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE     ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                                    
                                           VBC/DS/75. 3 (Rev.1)
                                           ORIGINAL : ENGLISH


    DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 3 Rev.1


    CARBARYL


                                    CLASSIFICATION:

                                     Primary use: Insecticide

                                     Secondary use: None

                                     Chemical group: Carbamate

                                     Data sheet No. 3 Rev.1 (8/78)




         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food and Agriculture               des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

    1.    GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1   COMMON NAME: Carbaryl

    1.1.1 Identity: 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate
                    
    Figure 1

                    
    1.1.2 Synonyms: Sevin<F;S>³</F>
                    OMS 29
            
          Local synonyms:

            
    1.2   SYNOPSIS - A moderately toxic carbamate insecticide which is 
          rapidly metabolized in man and does not accumulate in the 
          tissues. 

       
    1.3   SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1 Physical characteristics - A white crystalline solid mp 142°C -
          the technical product is 99% pure.  Non-corrosive. 

    1.3.2 Solubility - Water 40 mg/l at 30°C; practically insoluble;
          soluble in most organic solvents. 

    It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a particular 
    pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by WHO or FAO for 
    any particular use, or exclude its use for other purposes not stated. 
    While the information provided is believed to be accurate according to 
    data available at the time when the sheet was compiled, neither WHO nor 
    FAO are responsible for any errors or omissions, or any consequences 
    therefrom. 


    The issue of this document does not constitute formal publication.  
    It should not be reviewed, abstracted or quoted without the   
    agreement of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the  
    United Nations or of the World Health Organization.           

    Ce document ne constitue pas une publication. Il ne dolt faire l'objet
    d'aucun compte rendu ou résumé ni d'aucune citation sans l'autorisation
    de l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et
    l'Agriculture ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. 


    R 885 - 1285

    1.3.3 Stability - Stable under normal conditions to hydrolysis, light 
          and heat.  Decomposes to 1-naphthol in the presence of alkaline 
          materials. 

    1.3.4 Vapour pressure (volatility): Very low: less than 4 x 10-5 
          torr at 25°C. 

            
    1.4 AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1 Common formulations - Water dispersible powders 500, 800 and 850 
          g/kg; dusts 50100 g/kg; granules 50 and 100 g/kg, oil and water 
          based liquid suspensions 400-500 g/l.  Sprayable powders and 
          dusts are the most used formulations.  There are FAO 
          specifications for the technical material, dusts and dispersible 
          powders. 

    1.4.2 Susceptible pests - A contact insecticide with some systemic 
          properties, effective against a wide range of insect pests of 
          field and forage crops, fruit and vegetables; ticks, lice and 
          fleas. 

    1.4.3 Use pattern - Pre-harvest treatment of many crops, particularly 
          cotton, rice, maize, vegetables, potatoes and fruit.  Also used 
          on ornamentals, turf and forest and shade trees.  The usual 
          application rates are 0.25-2 kg/ha, but up to 10 kg/ha may be 
          used for tree fruits. 

          Used on cattle, mainly for the control of ticks, lice and fleas, 
          some of which are disease vectors, and on poultry, cats and dogs. 

    1.4.4 Unintended effects - No accumulation in the environment.  No 
          evidence of general phytotoxicity when used at recommended rates, 
          but damage to apples, pears and watermelons has been reported.  
          Excessive application may retard germination of grasses.  
          Hazardous to honeybees when applied to corn during pollen shed. 

          
    1.5   PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMMES - The 50 g/kg formulated powder has been 
          used for rodent flea control. 

        
    1.6    HOUSEHOLD USE - Used in home gardens.


    2.    TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS
            
    2.1   TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1 Absorption route - Absorbed by all routes although absorption by 
          the skin is slow as evidenced by the low dermal toxicity. 

    2.1.2 Mode of action - Inhibition of cholinesterase which is relatively 
          rapidly reversible, the half life of the inhibited enzyme being 
          about 30 minutes. 

    2.1.3 Excretion products - Vary according to the species.  For the rat, 
          guinea-pig, ewe and man carbaryl is excreted as conjugates of 1-
          naphthol.  For the monkey and pig there is little hydrolysis of 
          the ester and the metabolites are conjugates of 4-hydroxycarbaryl 
          and carbaryl.  The major rat metabolites are not found in the 
          dog. Excretion is largely in the urine. 

    2.1.4 Toxicity, single dose

          Oral: LD50 rat (M): 850 mg/kg
                     rat (F): 500 mg/kg

          Dermal: LD50 rabbit: > 4000 mg/kg

          Most susceptible species:  possibly guinea-pig LD50 (oral) 280 
          mg/kg. 
                                                            
    2.1.5 Toxicity, repeated doses

          Oral: In a dog which received a total of 88.3 mg/kg of carbaryl 
          intravenously in 11 doses, typical symptoms of-cholinesterase 
          inhibition occurred after 10 and 15 mg/kg but only a slight 
          reaction was seen after 5 mg/kg. 

          Inhalation: Dogs were "acutely poisoned" when exposed in a
          chamber at a concentration of 75 mg/m3 for five hours.

          Cumulation of compound: Does not accumulate in mammalian tissues. 

          Cumulation of effect: Dug to its rapid metabolism the repeated 
          dose necessary to cause cholinesterase depression may only be 
          slightly less than the single dose. 

    2.1.6 Dietary studies

          Short-term: Survival rate was unaffected by feeding a maximum 
          of 400 mg/kg diet (60 (mg kg)/day) of carbaryl to mice for 80
          weeks. 

          Increased kidney weights were observed in rats fed 1500 mg/kg (75 
          (mg/kg)/day) for 96 days. 

          In dogs given 7.2 mg/kg by capsule on five days a week for one 
          year there was diffuse cloudy swelling in the kidney tubules. The 
          no effect level was 1.8 mg/kg (equivalent to a dietary level of 
          100 mg/kg). 

          Long-term: Cloudy swelling of the kidney tubules and the central 
          hepatic cords occurred in rats fed 400 mg/kg (20 (mg/kg)/day) 
          carbaryl for two years.  There was no effect at 200 mg/kg diet 
          (10 (mg/kg)/day). 

    2.1.7 Supplementary studies of toxicity

          Carcinogenicity

          Mouse: No increase in tumour incidence in mice given a maximum 
          dietary level of 400 mg/kg (20 (mg/kg)/day) for 80 weeks, or in 
          other studies exposed by dietary, subcutaneous or dermal 
          applications. 

          Teratogenicity: Teratogenic effects were observed in the 
          offspring of dogs given 6.35 mg/kg daily from mating until 
          weaning but not when given 3.125 mg/kg. in another study terata 
          were seen from dogs given 5 mg/kg daily but not 2 mg/kg. 

          Very high doses given to guinea-pigs (300 mg/kg, equivalent to 
          the LD50) for 10 days during gestation produced abnormal 
          offspring from the surviving animals. 

          No terata were observed in offspring from the following pregnant 
          animals given the maximum dose indicated in parenthesis: mouse 
          (200 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 10 (mg/kg)/day from day six of 
          gestation through term), rat (500 (mg/kg)/day throughout 
          pregnancy), hamster (250 (mg/kg)/day during organogenesis), 
          rabbit (200 (mg/kg)/day for 10 days) and monkey (0.2, 2.0 and 20 
          (mg/kg)/day from days 20-38 of gestation). 

          Mutagenicity: In a dominant lethal study on rats, no evidence of 
          mutagenic potential was found. 

          Other effects of reproduction: Changes in the enzymic activity 
          of the testes and ovaries and reduced female fertility appear in 
          rats given 5 mg/kg of carbaryl or higher daily for one year. 

          Neurotoxicity: No delayed neurological lesions in hens 
          surviving doses up to 2000 mg/kg subcutaneously. 

    2.1.8 Modifications of toxicity: There was no indication of
          potentiation or antagonism when carbaryl was administered 
          perorally to rats in combination with each of 10 organophosphorus 
          pesticides. 

          Association with chlorpromazine produced more than an additive 
          effect on the suppression by carbaryl of the avoidance response 
          in rats.  The acute toxicity of carbaryl was increased by a 
          factor of 6.5 when rats were fed a low protein diet. 

            
    2.2   TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1 Absorption - See 2.1.1; ingestion is the main route of
          absorption.

    2.2.2 Dangerous doses

          Single: A man who swallowed 250 mg of carbaryl had violent 
          epigastric pain 20 minutes after the dose and later profuse 
          sweating.  He developed great lassitude and vomited twice.  A 
          total of 0.3 mg of atropine sulfate was given and recovery was
          complete two hours after ingestion. 

          Repeated: Not known - because of the rapid metabolism it has
          been suggested that the dangerous dose may only be slightly
          smaller than the dangerous single dose. 

    2.2.3 Observations of occupationally exposed workers - Workers exposed 
          to air concentrations of 0.23 to 31 mg/m3 excreted large 
          amounts of 1-naphthol.  Whole blood cell cholinesterase activity 
          was slightly depressed but there were no clinical signs.  
          Healthy men with occupational exposure have been found to excrete
          conjugated plus free 1-naphthol at the rate of 10 mg/l or higher
          in the urine while unexposed men excrete 1.5 to 4.0 mg/l. 

    2.2.4 Observations on exposure of the general population - Total diet 
          studies in one country have demonstrated that man ingests 0.15 mg 
          per day or less of carbaryl in his diet.  This is equivalent to 
          0.002 mg/kg for a 70 kg man. 

    2.2.5 Observations of volunteers - In men given 0.12 mg/kg of carbaryl 
          daily for six weeks there was an increase in the ratio of urinary 
          amino acid nitrogen to that of creatinine (0.18 compared to 0.15 
          for the control group).  It is suggested that carbaryl might 
          decrease the ability of the proximal convoluted tubules to 
          reabsorb amino acids.  This effect was not observed at a dose 
          level of 0.06 mg/kg.  At neither dose was there any effect on 
          plasma or erythrocyte cholinesterase. 

    2.2.6 Reported mishaps - Blurred vision, headache, stomach ache and 
          vomiting have been reported among workers using carbaryl without 
          proper precautions.  In general recovery was rapid and there were 
          no deaths. 

            
    2.3   TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

          (The entries in these sections are intended to draw attention to 
          special risks and to give warnings of any needs for special 
          presentation.) 

    2.3.1 Fish - Toxic to some fish;  96 hours TLm values usually in the 
          range of 1-10 mg/l. 

    2.3.2 Birds - Low toxicity to most birds (usually in the range 800 -> 
          2000 mg/kg). 

    2.3.3 Other species - Toxic to bees and crustaceans.

                                              
     3.    FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF 
           COMPOUND

    3.1   RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY

          (For definition of categories, see introduction.)

          Liquids 250 g/i or more, category 4.

          All other formulations, category 5.

       
    3.2   TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

          Formulations in category 4 - Should be transported or stored in 
          clearly labelled rigid and leakproof containers and away from 
          containers of food and drink.  Storage should be under lock and 
          key and secure from access by unauthorized persons and children. 

          Formulations in category 5 - Should be transported or stored in 
          clearly labelled leakproof containers out of reach of children 
          away from food. 

       
    3.3   HANDLING

          Formulations in category 4 - Protective clothing (see sheet 4)
          should be provided for those handling concentrates.  Adequate
          washing facilities should be available close at hand.  Eating,
          drinking and smoking should be prohibited during handling and
          before washing after handling.

          Formulations in category 5 - No special facilities other than
          those needed for handling of any chemical need be required. 

        
    3.4   DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER - If not 
          decontaminated container must either be burned or crushed and 
          buried below topsoil.  Care must be taken to avoid subsequent 
          contamination of water sources.  Container may be decontaminated 
          (for method see paragraph 4.3 on sheet 4).  Decontaminated 
          containers should not be used for food and drink. 

        
    3.5   SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

          Formulations in category 4 - Pre-employment medical examination 
          for workers desirable.  Workers suffering from active hepatic or 
          renal disease should be excluded from contact.  Pre-employment           
          and routine cholinesterase tests for workers desirable.  If
          exposure is considerable, urinary I-naphthol test is advisable.  
          Training of workers in techniques to avoid contact essential. 

          Formulations in category 5 - Warning of workers to avoid contact 
          essential. 

        
    3.6   ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

          All formulations - Pilot and loaders should have special 
          training in application methods and early symptoms of poisoning.
          Flagmen, if used, should wear overalls and be located well away
          from the dropping zone. 

        
    3.7   LABELLING

          Formulations - Formulations in category 4

          Minimum cautionary statement - Carbaryl is a carbamate 
          insecticide which inhibits cholinesterase.  It is poisonous if 
          swallowed.  It may be absorbed through the skin.  Avoid skin 
          contact; wear protective gloves, clean protective clothing and a 
          respirator when handling the material.  Wash thoroughly with soap 
          and water after using.  Keep the material out of reach of 
          children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and their 
          containers.  If poisoning occurs, call a physician.  Atropine is 
          a specific antidote and artificial respiration may be needed.  
          Pralidoxime and opiates should not be used. 

          Formulations - Formulations in category 5.

          Minimum cautionary statement - This formulation contains 
          carbaryl, a carbamate insecticide, which inhibits cholinesterase. 
          It is poisonous if swallowed.  Keep the material out of the reach 
          of children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and their 
          containers. 

          If poisoning occurs, call a physician.  Atropine is a specific 
          antidote and artificial respiration may be needed. 

            
    3.8   RESIDUES IN FOOD

    3.8.1 Maximum residue levels - The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide 
          Residues has recommended maximum residue levels.

            
    4.    PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1   PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1 General - Carbaryl is a moderately toxic carbamate insecticide 
          which is quickly metabolized and is therefore likely only to be a 
          hazard as an acute poison.  It can be absorbed by mouth, by 
          inhalation of the dust and also to some extent through the intact 
          skin.  It is important that concentrated formulations be washed 
          immediately from the skin and eyes. 

    4.1.2 Manufacture and formulation

          T.L.V.: (ACGIH) 5 mg/m3;  (USSR) 1 mg/m3.

          Although volatility is low, vapour and dusts should be controlled 
          preferably by mechanical means.  Protective equipment for the 
          skin and respiratory protection should be worn. 

    4.1.3 Mixers and applicators - When opening the container and when 
          mixing care should be taken to avoid contact with the mouth and 
          eyes.  If necessary a facial visor and gloves should be worn.  
          Mixing, if not mechanical, should always be carried out with a 
          paddle of appropriate length.  The applicator should avoid 
          working in spray mist and avoid contact with the mouth. Splashes 
          must be washed immediately from the skin or eyes with large 
          quantities of water.  Before eating, drinking or smoking, hands 
          and other exposed skin should be washed. 

    4.1.4 Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial operations)
          - Persons exposed to carbaryl and associated with its application 
          should observe the precautions described above in 4.1.3 under 
          "mixers and applicators". 

    4.1.5 Other populations likely to be affected - With good agricultural 
          practice subject to 4.2 below other populations should not be 
          exposed to hazardous amounts of carbaryl. 

        
    4.2   ENTRY OF PERSON INTO TREATED AREAS - The general population 
          should be kept out of sprayed areas until the spray has dried. 


    4.3   DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS - The contents of 
          containers should be emptied in a diluted form into a deep pit 
          taking care to avoid ground waters.  The empty container may be 
          decontaminated by rinsing two or three times with water and 
          scrubbing the sides.  An additional rinse should be carried out 
          with 5% sodium hydroxide solution which should remain in the 
          container overnight.  Impermeable gauntlets should be worn during 
          this work and a soakage pit should be provided for the rinsings.  
          Decontaminated containers should not be used for food and drink. 

          Spillage of carbaryl and its formulations should be removed by 
          washing with 5% sodium hydroxide solution, if available, and by 
          rinsing with large quantities of water. 

            
    4.4   EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1 Early symptoms of poisoning - Early symptoms may include 
          excessive sweating, headache, weakness, giddiness, nausea, 
          vomiting, stomach pains, blurred vision, slurred speech and 
          muscle twitching. 

    4.4.2 Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these symptoms
          appear following exposure - The person should stop work 
          immediately, remove contaminated clothing, wash the affected skin 
          with soap, if available, and flush the area with large quantities 
          of water.  If swallowed, vomiting should be induced if the person 
          is conscious. 


            
    5.    FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1   MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASES OF POISONING

    5.1.1 General information - Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide of 
          moderate acute toxicity.  It is absorbed via the gastrointestinal 
          tract and by inhalation.  To a lesser extent it is also absorbed 
          by the intact skin.  Its mode of action is by reversibly 
          inhibiting acetyl cholinesterase.  Because of its rapid 
          metabolism and excretion it does not accumulate in the tissues. 
          It has been suggested that the dangerous repeated dose may be 
          only slightly smaller than the dangerous single dose. 

    5.1.2 Symptoms and signs - Symptoms of poisoning may include excessive 
          sweating, headache, weakness, giddiness, nausea, vomiting, 
          stomach pains, blurred vision, slurred speech and muscle 
          twitching. 

    5.1.3 Laboratory - Because carbaryl is a reversible inhibitor of 
          cholinesterase, measurements of blood cholinesterase in cases of 
          poisoning must be made by a method which minimizes reactivation, 
          if a depression of cholinesterase is to be demonstrated.  The 
          presence of more than trace amounts of 1-naphthol in the urine is 
          also indicative of absorption of carbaryl.  Men with occupational 
          exposure to carbaryl have been found to excrete conjugated and 
          free I-naphthol at the rate of 10 mg/l or slightly higher 
          compared to levels of 1.5 to 4.0 mg/l in unexposed men.  A level 
          of 31 mg/l in urine in an 18-month-old child 18 hours after 
          ingestion of an unknown quantity of carbaryl was compatible with 
          recovery. 

    5.1.4 Treatment - If the pesticide has been ingested in excess of 1 g 
          carbaryl equivalent, unless the patient is vomiting, rapid 
          gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate if 
          available.  For skin contact the skin should be washed with soap 
          water.  If the compound has entered the eyes they should be 
          washed with water or isotonic saline. Since the symptoms of 
          poisoning with carbaryl disappear comparatively rapidly, atropine 
          treatment is often not necessary by the time the patient reaches 
          the place where the antidote is available.  In the case of 
          accidental poisoning or of manifest symptoms 1-2 mg of atropine 
          sulfate (adult dose) may be given intramuscularly or even 
          intravenously and repeated as necessary.  Care should be taken to 
          avoid overdosage of atropine in the case of carbaryl poisoning 
          especially in children.  In extreme cases if the patient is 
          unconscious or in respiratory distress, mechanical respiratory 
          assistance with oxygen may be required.  Contraindications are 
          oximes such as pralidoxime, barbiturates and central stimulants 
          of all kinds. 

    5.1.5 Prognosis - If the acute toxic effect is survived the chances of 
          complete recovery are very good. 
                
    5.1.6 References of previously reported cases - Case histories and 
          general methods for treatment are given in:

          Hayes, W. J., jr (1963) Clinical Handbook on Economic Poisons, 
              U.S. Publ. Hlth Ser. Publn., No. 476 (revised)

          Best, E. M., jr & Murray, B. L. (1962) J. occup. Med., 
              4, 507-517 

        
    5.2   SURVEILLANCE TESTS - Due to the lability of inhibition, 
          measurements of the blood cholinesterase level are not suitable 
          for surveillance.  Monitoring of levels of I-naphthol in urine 
          gives better indication of the degree of absorption. 

    Test              Normal     Hazard     Symptomatic
                        level     level       level

    Urinary            1.5-4 mg/l   > 10 mg/l     > 30 mg/l

    1-naphthol and conjugates

            
    5.3   LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1 Detection and assay of compound - Because of its rapid metabolism
          it is unlikely that measurable amounts of carbaryl will be found 
          in human tissues.  Free and conjugated 1-naphthol will, however, 
          appear in urine after exposure to carbaryl.  A method which can 
          determine carbaryl and I-naphthol separately is described by 
          Stansbury & Miskus (1964).  The official AOAC (1970) method is 
          suitable for regulatory purposes and this method has recently 
          been extended by Union Carbide Co. (1973) to include the major 
          plant metabolites as "total toxic residues".  A gas 
          chromatographic method (Cohen et al., 1970) has also been used 
          successfully. 

    5.3.2 Other tests in cases of poisoning - Cholinesterase levels in 
          blood are unreliable as a routine test to detect poisoning by 
          carbaryl.  However, shortly after absorption, depression of 
          cholinesterase may be demonstrated by: 

          Fleisher, J. H. & Pope, E. J. (1954) A.M.A. Arch. Industr. 
            Hyg, 9, 323 

          Ellman, G. L., Courtney, K. D., Andres, V., jr & Featherstone, R. 
              M. (1961) Biochem. Pharmacol., 7, 88-95 

          Urinary levels of 1-naphthol may also be used to determine the 
              degree of absorption see: 

          Carpenter et al. (1961) and Best & Murray (1962)

                                     REFERENCES

    Stansbury, N. A., jr & Miskus, R. (1964) In: Zweig, G. (ed.) Analytical 
          Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators and Food 
          Additives, Vol.  II, Academic Press, New York & London, p. 437 

    AOAC (1970) Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC, 11th ed., p. 493

    Union Carbide Co. (1973) Summary of Carbaryl Residues, Section V 
          (private communication). 

    Cohen, I. C., Norcup, J., Ruzicka, J. H. A. & Wheals, B. B. (1970) An 
          Electron-capture Gas Chromatographic Method for the Determination 
          of some Carbamate Insecticides as 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Derivatives 
          of their Phenol Moieties, J. Chromate., 49, 215 

    Carpenter, C. P., Weill, C. S., Palm, P. E., Woodside, M. W., Nair, J. 
          H., III & Smythe, H. F., jr (1961) Mammalian Toxicity of 1-
          Naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate (Sevin Insecticide), J. Agric. Fd 
          Chem., 9, 30

    Best, E. M., jr & Murray, M. L. (1962) observations on Workers Exposed
          to Sevin Insecticide: a preliminary reort, J. occup. Med., 4, 
          507



See Also:
        Carbaryl (EHC 153, 1994)
        Carbaryl (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 12, 1976)
        Carbaryl (ICSC)
        Carbaryl (PIM 147)