INTOX Home Page

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION            FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                         ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE    ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                         ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                                      VBC/DS/75.20

                                                      ORIGINAL: ENGLISH






    DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 20

    1975

    CAMPHECHLOR






         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food  and Agriculture              des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

    Part 1 - General information

                                       CLASSIFICATION

                                       Primary use:  insecticide

                                       Secondary uses:  acaricide

                                       Chemical group:  organochlorine
                                                        compound

                                       Data sheet No. 20

                                       Date issued:  December 1975

    1.1  COMMON NAME: Camphechlor (ISO)

         Identity: Chlorinated camphene containing 67-69% of chlorine.
    The number of individual chemicals comprising camphechlor and their
    structure is unknown.

         Synonyms: Toxaphene              Local synonyms

         (Toxaphene is a registered trade mark in some countries, but is
    a common name in others.)

    1.2  SYNOPSIS:

         A mixture of organochlorine pesticides of moderate mammalian
    toxicity which is stored to some degree in body fat.

    1.3  SELECTED PROPERTIES:

    1.3.1  Physical characteristics:

         A yellow to amber waxy solid with an aromatic pine-like smell,
    melting range 65-90°C.

    1.3.2  Solubility:

         Water at 20°C practically insoluble (ca 3 ppm) alcohol at
    25-30°C, moderately soluble (12%), soluble in acetone, benzene and
    most organic solvents.

    1.3.3  Stability:

         Dechlorinated by exposure to strong sunlight, in alkaline
    media, in the presence of iron and some other catalysts and above
    155°C. Non-corrosive in the absence of moisture. Incompatible with
    strongly alkaline pesticides.

    1.3.4  Vapour pressure (volatility):

         0.2-0.4 mm.Hg at 25°C.

    1.4  AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1  Common formulations

         Emulsifiable concentrates, 40, 60 and 80% (often with 0.5%
    epichlorohydrin to improve stability); wettable powders, 40%; dusts
    and granules, 5, 10 and 20%; baits, 1% in bran; oil solutions. Often
    mixed with other pesticides. There are FAO specifications for
    camphechlor technical, emulsifiable concentrates and solutions, and
    draft specifications for dusts and granules. There are provisional
    draft specifications for mixed e.c. formulations with DDT and DDT +
    parathion-methyl.

    1.4.2  Susceptible pests

         Effective by stomach and contact action against a wide range of
    insects and mites. Used particularly against armyworms, cutworms,
    earworms, budworms, thrips, beetles, weevils, grasshoppers and
    ectoparasites of sheep, cattle and pigs.

    1.4.3  Use pattern

         Widely used as pre-harvest treatment on cotton, cereal grain,
    oil-seed, vegetable, fruit and nut crops. The main worldwide crop
    use is on cotton. Most treatments are by foliar application of
    sprays, dusts and granules, except for the use of bran baits to
    control cutworms. Camphechlor is often applied to crops as a mixture
    with other pesticides. There are no post-harvest uses.

         Camphechlor has a major worldwide use for the control of
    ectoparasites of sheep, cattle (not lactating dairy cattle) and
    pigs, particularly ticks and mites causing scabies. Treatment is
    usually by emulsion sprays or dips, or solutions applied by
    backrubbers.

    1.4.4  Unintended effects

         Not phytotoxic except to cucurbits. May cause off-flavours in
    tobacco.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMMES

         Camphechlor has been used as a rodenticide spray on field mice.
    It has no public health use at present.

    1.6  HOUSEHOLD USE

         Camphechlor is too toxic for household use.

    Part 2 - Toxicology and risks

    2.1  TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1  Absorption route:

         Absorbed by the intact skin and from the gastrointestinal
    tract, the degree of absorption depending upon the vehicle. Also
    absorbed by inhalation.

    2.1.2  Mode of action:

         Diffuse stimulation of the brain and spinal cord resulting in
    generalized convulsions of a tonic or clonic character.

    2.1.3  Excretion products:

         Although camphechlor is reported to be fairly readily
    eliminated from the body no information is available on the chemical
    nature of the excretion products.

    2.1.4  Toxicity, single dose

         Oral LD50 rat (M) 90 mg/kg
                      rat (F) 80 mg/kg

         Dermal LD50 rat (M) 1075 mg/kg
                         rat (F) 780 mg/kg

         Most susceptible species: Dog, oral LD50 25 mg/kg

    2.1.5  Toxicity; repeated doses

         Oral: A dose of 25 mg/kg daily for five days per week was
    fatal to dogs; when two dogs were administered 10 mg/kg, one dog
    died after 33 days, the other survived and was sacrificed after
    3-1/2 years. Four dogs administered 5 mg/kg all survived. There is
    no information on the pathology in this study.

         In another study camphechlor was administered to dogs in
    capsules at 4 mg/kg per day for 44 days or 106 days. There was some
    indication of central nervous system stimulation after
    administration on certain occasions. No gross abnormalities were
    evident but histopathology revealed some liver and kidney damage.

         Inhalation: The mouse LC50 for two hour exposures is about
    2000 mg/m3 of air per minute.

         Dermal: Repeated dermal applications to rabbits at 40 mg/kg
    led to death of 50% of the animals within a short time.

         Cumulation of compound: Camphechlor although stored to some
    extent in fat; after termination of exposure residues in fat
    disappear rapidly.

         Cumulation of effect: Due to the low level of storage of fat
    and the relatively rapid excretion, the cumulation of camphechlor
    can be expected to be low compared to most organo-chlorine
    compounds.

    2.1.6  Dietary studies

         Short term: Rats were fed dietary levels of 50 or 200 ppm
    (2.5 or 10 mg/kg/day) for nine months. The only abnormalities were
    histological changes in the liver in three out of 12 rats fed 50 ppm
    (2.5 mg/kg/day) and six out of 12 fed 200 ppm (10 mg/kg/day). There
    are conflicting reports of the chronic toxicity of camphechlor to
    rats; thus at 25 ppm 1.25 mg/kg/day) in the diet there was no
    effect; at 100 ppm (5 mg/kg/day) there was liver damage. At dietary
    levels of 1200 ppm (60 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks there were no
    toxic effects; 250 ppm (12.5 mg/kg/day) was tolerated for 12 weeks.

         Dogs were fed 0 (control), 5, 10 or 20 ppm (0, 0.125, 0.25 or
    0.5 mg/kg/day) of camphechlor to their diet for periods up to 24
    months. None of the feeding levels produced any changes either gross
    or histological nor were there any clinical abnormalities.

         Long term: Rats were fed unspecified levels of camphechlor
    throughout their lifetime. There was increase in liver weights at
    25 ppm (1.25 mg/kg/day) in the diet and a minimal degree of hepatic
    cell enlargement with peripheral migration of granules.

    2.1.7  Supplementary studies of toxicity

         Reproduction: A 3-generation, 6-litter reproduction study was
    conducted whereby rats were fed dietary levels of 25 or 100 ppm
    (1.25 or 5 mg/kg/day) starting 79 days before mating and continuing
    for 36 to 39 weeks. The only abnormalities found were slight liver
    alterations in the group fed 100 ppm (5 mg/kg/day). The progeny were
    viable normal in size and in anatomical structure.

    2.1.8  Modifications of toxicity

         No information.

    2.2  TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1  Absorption:

         See 2.1.1, ingestion is an important route of absorption in
    cases of poisoning with camphechlor.

    2.2.2  Dangerous doses

         Single: The estimated and minimum acute lethal oral dose of
    camphechlor for man is reported to be 2-7 g. Dermal application of
    46 g as a single dose is very dangerous. It appears that 10 mg/kg
    oral or less leads to non-fatal convulsions in some cases, but no
    effect in others.

         Repeated: Repeated daily dermal doses of 2.4 g are very
    dangerous.

    2.2.3  Observations of occupationally exposed workers

         No information reported.

    2.2.4  Observations on exposure of the general population

         Camphechlor was not among the 15 pesticides most frequently
    found in the 888 total diet studies conducted from 1964 to 1967.
    When found camphechlor usually occurred in leafy vegetables at an
    average level of 0.005 ppm.

    2.2.5  Observations of volunteers

         Human subjects were exposed in a closed chamber to an aerosol
    of camphechlor for 30 minutes a day for 10 consecutive days at an
    average concentration of 500 mg/m3 of air. After three weeks they
    received the same exposure in three consecutive days. Based upon an
    assumed retention of 50% of the inhaled camphechlor each individual
    received a dose of 75 mg daily or about 1 mg/kg/day. Complete
    physical and laboratory examination failed to reveal any toxic
    manifestations.

    2.2.6  Reported mishaps

         There are a number of isolated reports of convulsions and death
    resulting from the ingestion of camphechlor. In one case, among 10
    persons in a family who had eaten collards recently sprayed with 9%
    camphechlor emulsion, seven developed symptoms consistent with
    camphechlor poisoning. All individuals recovered. Analysis of the
    greens revealed extremely heavy levels of camphechlor. Doses of 9.5
    to 45 mg/kg of camphechlor were estimated to have been consumed.

    2.3  TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

         The entries in these sections are intended to draw attention to
    special risks and to give warnings of any needs for special
    precautions.

    2.3.1  Fish

         Toxic to fish.

    2.3.2  Birds

         Variable. Toxic to several species.

    2.3.3  Other species

         Low toxicity to bees.

    Part 3 - For regulatory authorities

    RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF COMPOUND

    3.1  RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY

         (For definition of categories see introduction.) Liquid
    formulations over 50%, category 3, and over 5%, category 4. Solid
    formulations over 20% category 4. All other formulations, category
    5.

    3.2  TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

    All formulations, categories 3 and 4

         Should be transported or stored in clearly labelled rigid and
    leakproof containers under lock and key secure from access by
    unauthorized persons and children. No food and drink should be
    stored in the same compartment.

    Formulations, category 5

         Should be transported or stored in clearly labelled leakproof
    containers, out of reach of children, away from food and drink.

    3.3  HANDLING

    All formulations, categories 3 and 4

         Full protective clothing (see part 4) should be provided for
    all handling of the compound. Adequate washing facilities should be
    available at all times during handling and should be close to the
    site of handling. Eating, drinking and smoking should be prohibited
    during handling and before washing after handling.

    Formulations, category 5

         No facilities other than those needed for the handling of any
    chemical are required.

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINERS

    All formulations

         Container must either be burned or crushed and buried below
    topsoil. Care must be taken to avoid subsequent contamination of
    water sources. Decontamination of containers in order to use them
    for other purposes should not be permitted.

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

    All formulations, categories 3 and 4

         Pre-employment and periodic medical examination of workers
    desirable. Special account to be taken of the workers' mental
    ability to comprehend and follow instructions. Training of workers
    in techniques to avoid contact essential.

    Formulations, category 5

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

    All formulations

         Pilots and loaders should have special training in application
    methods and recognition of early symptoms of poisoning. Use of
    flagmen not recommended. Flagmen, if used, should wear overalls and
    be located well away from the dropping zone.

    3.7  LABELLING

    Formulations

         All formulations, categories 3 and 4.

    Minimum cautionary statement

         "Camphechlor is a toxic substance and may cause convulsions. It
    may be absorbed through the skin or inhaled as dusts or mists. Avoid
    skin contact; wear protective gloves and clean protective clothing
    while using this material. Wash thoroughly with soap and water after
    using. Keep the material out of reach of children and well away from
    foodstuffs, animal feed and their containers."

    Formulations

         Formulations, category 5.

    Minimum cautionary statement

    "This formulation contains camphechlor, a toxic substance which is
    poisonous if swallowed. Keep the material out of reach of children
    and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and their containers."

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD

         Maximum residue limits have been established by the Joint
    FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. As these are subject to
    change at annual reviews, the latest data will be found in the
    report of the 1973 Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues.

    Part 4 - Prevention of poisoning in man and emergency aid

    4.1  PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1  General

         Camphechlor is an organochlorine pesticide of moderate toxicity
    which penetrates the intact skin, and is absorbed by inhalation and
    from the gastrointestinal tract. Most formulations should be handled
    by trained personnel wearing protective clothing.

    4.1.2  Manufacturers and formulations

    T.L.V.

    (A.C.G.I.H.) 0.5 mg/m3;

         Closed systems and forced ventilation may be required to reduce
    as much as possible the exposure of workers to the chemical.

    4.1.3  Mixers and applicators

         When opening the container and when mixing, protective
    impermeable boots, clean overalls, gloves and respirator should be
    worn. Mixing, if not mechanical, should always be carried out with a
    paddle of appropriate length. When spraying tall crops or during
    aerial application, a face mask should be worn as well as an
    impermeable hood, clothing boots and gloves. The applicator should
    avoid working in spray mist and avoid contact with the mouth.
    Particular care is needed when equipment is being washed after use.
    All protective clothing should be washed immediately after use,
    including the insides of gloves. Splashes must be washed immediately
    from the skin or eyes with large quantities of water. Before eating,
    drinking or smoking, hands and other exposed skin should be washed.

    4.1.4  Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial
           operation)

         Persons exposed to camphechlor and associated with its
    application should wear protective clothing and observe the
    precautions described above in 4.1.3 under "Mixers and Applicators".

    4.1.5  Other populations likely to be affected

         With good agricultural practice subject to 4.2 below, other
    populations should not be exposed to hazardous amounts of
    camphechlor. Camphechlor was not among the 15 pesticides most
    frequently found in total diet studies. When found it was usually in
    leafy vegetables at an average level of 0.005 ppm.

    4.2  ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS

         Unprotected persons should be kept out of treated areas for at
    least one day.

    4.3  SAFE DISPOSAL OF CONTAINERS AND SPILLAGE

         Residues in containers should be emptied in a diluted form into
    a deep pit taking care to avoid contamination of ground waters.
    Decontamination of containers in order to use them for other
    purposes should not be permitted. Spillage should be removed as much
    as possible into a deep dry pit and the remainder washed away with
    large quantities of water.

    4.4  EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1

         Early symptoms of poisoning are characterized by nausea, mental
    confusion, jerking of the arms and legs and by convulsions. In some
    instances convulsions have begun suddenly without any warning signs
    or symptoms.

    4.4.2  Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these
           symptoms appear following exposure

         The person should stop work immediately, remove contaminated
    clothing and wash the affected skin with soap and water if
    available, and flush the area with large quantities of water. If
    swallowed vomiting should be induced if the person is conscious.

    Part 5 - For medical and laboratory personnel

    5.1  MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CASES OF POISONING

    5.1.1  General information

         An organochlorine pesticide of moderate mammalian toxicity
    which may be absorbed through the intact skin as well as by
    inhalation and from the gastrointestinal tract. Its mode of action
    is as a central nervous system stimulant producing convulsions. It
    tends to accumulate in body tissues but to a lesser extent than many
    other organochlorine compounds.

    5.1.2  Symptoms and signs

         Non-fatal poisoning has been characterized by nausea, mental
    confusion, jerking of the arms and legs and by convulsions. Fatal
    poisoning has been characterized by frequent repeated violent
    convulsions and by cyanosis. The cyanosis may result from
    interference of respiration by the convulsions although there is a
    report of cyanosis appearing before convulsions.

    5.1.3  Laboratory

         There are no practical laboratory methods for determining the
    extent of exposure to camphechlor.

    5.1.4  Treatment

         If the pesticide has been ingested, gastric lavage should be
    performed with 2-4 litres of tap water followed by saline purgatives
    (30 g sodium sulfate in 250 ml of water). Barbiturates (preferably
    phenobarbitone or pentobarbitone) or diazepam should be given I.M.
    or I.V. in sufficient dosage to control restlessness or convulsions.
    Mechanical respiratory assistance with oxygen may be required.
    Calcium gluconate, 10% in 10 ml should be injected I.V. four hourly.
    Contraindications are oily purgatives, epinephrine and other
    adrenergic drugs and central stimulants of all types.

    5.1.5  Prognosis

         If the convulsions are survived the chances of complete
    recovery are good. However, in very severe cases there is a
    possibility of permanent brain damage secondary to continued anoxia
    resulting from prolonged convulsions.

    5.1.6  References of previously reported cases

         Several incidences of poisoning by camphechlor are described
    in:

    McGee, L. C. & Reed, H. L. (1952) J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 149, 1124

         Descriptions of poisoning cases are also given in:

    Hayes, W. J.. Jr (1963) "Clinical Handbook on Economic Poisons",
         U.S. Dept. Hlth Educ. Welfare Publ. Hlth Ser. Publ., No. 476,
         pp. 49, 50, 73

    5.2  SURVEILLANCE METHODS

         There are no readily available techniques to determine the
    degree of absorption prior to the appearance of symptoms.

    5.3  LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1  Detection and analysis

         Residues of camphechlor in foodstuffs can be determined by gas
    chromatography after removal of interferences by passage through a
    sulfuric acid-Celite column and dehydro-chlorination: the
    dehydrochlorinated camphechlor gives a characteristic pattern of
    gas-chromatographic peaks. The method is described, with others, by
    Zweig (1972). Additional clean-up procedures are given by the United
    States Food and Drug Administration (1971). Camphechlor is also
    detected and semi-quantitatively determined by the method of Abbott
    et al. (1969).

    5.3.2  Other tests in cases of poisoning

         No information available.

    REFERENCES

    Zweig, G. in
    Zweig, G., (Ed.) "Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth
    Regulators and Food Additives", Vol. VI, Academic Press, New York
    and London, 1972, p. 514

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration
    Pesticide Analytical Manual, Vol. I, 1971, Sections 211, 212

    Abbott, D.C., Holmes, D. C. & Tatton, J. O'G.
    Pesticide Residues in the Total Diet in England and Wales,
    1966-1967.
    II. - Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Total Diet, J. Sci.
    Fd Agric., 1969, 20, 245
See Also:
        Camphechlor (EHC 45, 1984)