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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 340
CCOHS Chemical Name: Calcium cyanide

Synonyms:
Black cyanide
Ca(CN)2
Calcyanide
Hydrocyanic acid, calcium salt
Calcium cyanide (Ca(CN)2)
Calcyan
Calcid
Cyanide of calcium

Chemical Name French: Cyanure de calcium
Chemical Name Spanish: Cianuro cálcico

Trade Name(s):
Cyanogas

CAS Registry Number: 592-01-8
UN/NA Number(s): 1575
RTECS Number(s): EW0700000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 209-740-0
Chemical Family: Calcium and compounds / inorganic calcium compound / alkaline-earth compound / inorganic nitrogen compound / inorganic cyanide / alkaline-earth cyanide / cyanide salt
Molecular Formula: C2-Ca-N2
Structural Formula: (C#N).Ca.(C#N) (# represents a triple bond)

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless crystals or white powder; the technical material is a gray-black flake or powder. Odourless when dry; faint odour of bitter almonds when damp or exposed to moisture.(3,7)

Odour Threshold:
Pure dry calcium cyanide is odourless but gives off hydrogen cyanide in the presence of moisture. Hydrogen cyanide odour threshold is 0.6-4.5 ppm.(3,12,13)

Warning Properties:
POOR - neither calcium cyanide nor hydrogen cyanide are detectable by odour or irritation at concentrations providing a significant margin of safety.

Composition/Purity:
Calcium cyanide is manufactured by two different methods: by heating calcium lime with coke and nitrogen, and by neutralizing lime with hydrogen cyanide. The most common commercial product, called black cyanide, is made by heating calcium lime with coke and nitrogen, and contains 40-50% calcium cyanide. The balance of this product is made up of other chemicals, including sodium chloride (approximately 30%), calcium oxide (12%), calcium chloride, calcium cyanamide, carbon, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide (2.3%) and silica (0.9%). It may also contain up to 3% calcium carbide.(7,8) When calcium carbide reacts with moisture, it releases flammable acetylene gas.(7) Calcium cyanide made by neutralizing lime with hydrogen cyanide does not contain calcium carbide. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet for specific ingredient information.

Uses and Occurrences:
Calcium cyanide is used mainly for the extraction or cyanidation of gold and silver ores. It is also used in the production of prussiates or ferrocyanides; in the froth flotation of minerals; in processes where gold complexes are adsorbed on carbon; in the manufacture of stainless steel; as a fumigant and rodenticide; and as a cement stabilizer.(7,15)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless crystals or white powder; the technical material is a gray-black flake or powder. Odourless when dry; faint odour of bitter almonds when damp or exposed to moisture. Does not burn. Contact with acid quickly releases extremely toxic and very flammable hydrogen cyanide gas. Decomposes to hydrogen cyanide in presence of moisture and/or carbon dioxide in moist air. Some types of calcium cyanide contain up to 3% calcium carbide, which releases flammable acetylene gas when wet. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if absorbed through the skin or swallowed. Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide, which forms when calcium cyanide reacts with moisture or carbon dioxide, may be fatal. The early symptoms of cyanide poisoning may include headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, anxiety, rapid breathing, incoordination and confusion. More severe exposures can cause red skin colour, laboured breathing, convulsions, collapse and death. Inhalation of the dust can be very irritating to the nose and throat. CORROSIVE to the skin and eyes. Can cause severe skin burns and permanent eye injury.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Calcium cyanide is a solid that does not form a vapour at room temperature. However, inhalation can occur following exposure to the dust and to mists or vapours from heated or misted solutions. In general, dusts can be very irritating to the nose and throat. More importantly, calcium cyanide releases hydrogen cyanide when combined with acid or water. Hydrogen cyanide is extremely toxic and causes death at very low concentrations. It is a rapidly absorbed and fast-acting poison, which poses a very serious inhalation hazard.
The odour threshold of hydrogen cyanide is relatively low (0.6-4.5 ppm), but it does not provide a reliable warning of exposure. Some people (up to 20% of the population) are unable to smell cyanide, even at highly toxic concentrations.(10)
The early symptoms of cyanide poisoning may include anxiety and excitement, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, metallic taste, chest tightness, facial flushing, drowsiness, dizziness, irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, rapid breathing, a rise in blood pressure and a decrease in pulse. Laboured breathing, falling blood pressure, rapid, weak irregular heartbeat, unconsciousness, and convulsions follow these symptoms. In severe cases, cardiovascular collapse, shock, and fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema) are followed by death.(4,5,6,9) With massive doses, many of the signs and symptoms may not be seen, and there is rapid onset of poisoning with convulsions, collapse, and death.(9) A characteristic sign of cyanide poisoning is the bright red colour of the blood, which may result in red skin colour.(5)
There are many reports of cyanide poisoning from accidental, suicidal and homicidal exposure to hydrogen cyanide or its salts (most commonly potassium or sodium cyanide). The majority of people who survive acute cyanide poisoning do not have long-lasting effects. However, depending on the degree of exposure, there may be enduring effects from low oxygen, including impaired memory and mathematical abilities, personality changes, and altered control and coordination of movement.(10)

Skin Contact:
Calcium cyanide is very toxic if absorbed through the skin. Skin contact with calcium cyanide solutions can cause symptoms similar to those described under "Inhalation" above.
Calcium cyanide solutions are expected to be corrosive, based on its pH, the fact that it forms corrosive calcium hydroxide and on comparison to sodium cyanide. Corrosive materials can cause severe skin burns with blistering, permanent scarring and, in severe cases, death.

Eye Contact:
Calcium cyanide is very toxic if absorbed through the eye. Eye contact can cause symptoms, as described under "Inhalation" above.
Calcium cyanide solutions are expected to be corrosive to the eyes, based on its pH, the fact that it forms calcium hydroxide and on comparison to sodium cyanide. Corrosive materials can cause very severe eye irritation and, in some cases, permanent damage to vision, including blindness.

Ingestion:
Calcium cyanide is very toxic if ingested. It is rapidly absorbed through the digestive tract resulting in the symptoms, as described under "Inhalation" above. Immediately following ingestion, there is rapid ventilation and shortness of breath, the stomach lining is irritated and nausea and vomiting may occur. Then, unconsciousness, convulsions, muscular contraction of the jaw, rapid and irregular pulse, gasping, paralysis and death may occur.(3,9) In humans, the average lethal dose of hydrogen cyanide is estimated to be 60-90 mg.(5) A few cases of Parkinsonism (a syndrome characterized by decreased mobility, muscular rigidity, and tremor) have been reported in survivors of acute cyanide poisoning. All case reports involved non-occupational exposure to high oral doses (where specified) of potassium or sodium cyanide. There is a case report of an 18 year old boy who ingested 2 g of calcium cyanide, in an insecticide, and who survived when treatment was given after 45 minutes.(11) Ingestion is not a typical route for occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is no specific information available for calcium cyanide.
Several human population studies have evaluated the potential health effects of long-term cyanide exposure. In general, these studies are limited by factors such as the small number of employees evaluated and the possibility of concurrent exposure to other potentially harmful chemicals (particularly in the electroplating industry). In addition, few studies report reliable measurements of cyanide exposures and even when airborne concentrations are reported, exposure may also have occurred by skin absorption. Despite these limitations, the available evidence suggests that long-term occupational cyanide exposure may be associated with harmful effects on the thyroid gland and the nervous system. Less consistently, there have been reports of effects on the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, blood chemistry and the skin and eyes.
For more information on the available studies, refer to the CHEMINFO reviews of hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide.

Nervous System:
Limited information suggests that long-term exposure to cyanides may be associated with harmful effects on the nervous system. Some of the symptoms observed are non-specific (e.g. headaches) and could be associated with many causes. Nevertheless, there does seem to be an association between some nervous system symptoms and cyanide exposure. The types of nervous system symptoms observed in the available studies include: headaches, dizziness, weakness, and nervous instability.

Endocrine System:
Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that long-term exposure to cyanide can result in impaired thyroid function and enlargement of the thyroid (goiter). Thiocyanate, the main metabolite of cyanide, is believed to cause these effects by inhibiting the uptake of iodine by the thyroid.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available for calcium cyanide. However, it is not expected to be a developmental toxin, based on animal information for potassium cyanide.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available for calcium cyanide. In animal studies with sodium cyanide, changes suggestive of reproductive effects were observed in rats and in dogs. However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn because fertility was not assessed.

Mutagenicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available. Calcium cyanide is not expected to be mutagenic, based on the results from tests with hydrogen, potassium and sodium cyanide.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Co-exposure to hydrogen cyanide and 5% carbon dioxide (not lethal by itself) resulted in an increase in the lethality of hydrogen cyanide.(10) Oral pre-treatment of guinea pigs with ascorbate enhanced the toxic effects of oral administration of potassium cyanide. It was suggested that the ascorbate interfered with the reaction to detoxify cyanide.

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. The most important route for cyanide detoxification is by a mitochondrial enzyme, rhodanese, which adds sulfur to the cyanide ion to form thiocyanate. Thiocyanate is less toxic and is excreted in the urine.(2) This enzyme is widely distributed in the tissues, but has its greatest activity in the liver. The body has a large capacity to detoxify cyanide but the reaction is dependent on an adequate supply of sulfur.(5) The maximum detoxification rate for humans is 0.6-0.9 micrograms/kg body weight/minute, which is considerably lower than for lab rodents or dogs. Most absorbed cyanide is excreted in the urine as thiocyanate, but small amounts are eliminated in exhaled air and urine as HCN, carbon dioxide and other metabolic products. The average half time for excretion of thiocyanate has been reported to be 2.7 days in healthy volunteers.(4)

Health Comments:
The cyanide ion binds with iron ions in the enzyme cytochrome oxidase, which prevents body cells from using oxygen. Thus, cyanide impairs the body's ability to use oxygen and the primary target organs for acute cyanide poisoning are the central nervous system and the heart.(2,3) Cyanides also inhibit other enzyme systems, especially those containing iron or copper, which contributes to the symptoms observed.(2,4,6)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is very toxic. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility. See First Aid Comments below for antidote information.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods. NOTE: This chemical is very toxic by skin absorption. See "inhalation" for general procedures. See First Aid Comments below for antidote information.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. NOTE: This chemical is very toxic by eye absorption. See "inhalation" for general procedures. See First Aid Comments below for antidote information.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water is given. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. See First Aid Comments below for antidote information.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.

ANTIDOTE: Amyl nitrite, which can be used as a first aid measure, is antidotal to cyanide toxicity. Consult with a doctor familiar with cyanide toxicity to determine the appropriateness of using amyl nitrite as first aid measure in your workplace and to arrange training for first aiders who may be required to administer amyl nitrite.

Note to Physicians:
There are antidotes available for cyanide toxicity. Specific information on antidotes which can be used as first aid and therapeutically in a medical setting is available in references 6 and 21.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible (does not burn).

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Calcium cyanide will not accumulate static charge and is not a combustible dust. Since it does not burn, calcium cyanide will not be ignited by a static discharge.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not applicable

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, calcium oxide and oxides of carbon.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Calcium cyanide does not burn or support combustion. It decomposes in a fire to form very flammable and extremely toxic hydrogen cyanide and toxic and irritating nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen cyanide can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. The heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside closed containers, which may cause explosive rupture. If small amounts of water come into contact with large amounts of solid calcium cyanide, dangerous amounts of hydrogen cyanide can be formed. NOTE: One type of calcium cyanide (black cyanide) may contain up to 3% calcium carbide, which releases flammable acetylene gas when wet.

Extinguishing Media:
Calcium cyanide does not burn. Use extinguishing agents compatible with calcium cyanide and appropriate for surrounding fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.(16)

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
DO NOT use carbon dioxide or acidic dry chemical extinguishers since very toxic and extremely flammable hydrogen cyanide will be released.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a protected location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid extremely hazardous vapours and very toxic decomposition products, such as hydrogen cyanide. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See Protection of Firefighters.
If possible, isolate containers exposed to heat, but not directly involved in the fire. Move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, use water in flooding quantities as a spray to keep fire-exposed containers and tanks cool and absorb heat to help prevent rupture. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. Water spray may also be used to knock down irritating/toxic combustion products which may be produced in a fire. Note that the resulting water solutions of hydrogen cyanide may be flammable. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal.
Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank. In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated.
Containers should not be approached after they have been involved in a fire until they have completely cooled down. After the fire has been extinguished, explosives and toxic atmospheres may linger. Before entering such an area, especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Calcium cyanide decomposes to extremely toxic and flammable hydrogen cyanide and toxic and irritating nitrogen oxides when heated in a fire. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical protective suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 0 - Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 92.12

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: Decomposes above 350 deg C (662 deg F) (16)
Boiling Point: Not applicable
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.8-1.9 (commercial product) (3,7) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Very soluble (100 g/100 mL at 25 deg C (17)) with gradual release of hydrogen cyanide.(3,15)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol.(15)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -2.41 (estimated) (18)
pH Value: 11.8 (10% solution); 12.3 (90%) (calculated)
Basicity: Reacts slowly with water to form calcium hydroxide, which is a strong base.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = approximately 9.2 (Ka = 2.51 x 10 (-5)) (sodium cyanide) (22); pKb = approximately 4.8 (1.6 x 10(-5)) (calculated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Very low at room temperature (0.005 kPa (0.035 mm Hg) at 25 deg C) (17)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approx. 46 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Reacts slowly with water or moist air to form extremely toxic and flammable hydrogen cyanide.(7,16) In some cases, this reaction may produce enough hydrogen cyanide to pose a health hazard, but not usually a flammability hazard.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Flammable Gases Released Upon Contact with Water:
Hydrogen cyanide is slowly released in the presence of moisture or in water solutions of calcium cyanide at room temperature.(7,16) However, this reaction does not pose a flammability hazard because the reaction is slow and not enough hydrogen cyanide is given off. NOTE: If calcium carbide is present as an impurity, flammable acetylene is evolved in the presence of moisture.(7)

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid or acetic acid) - very flammable and extremely toxic hydrogen cyanide is released.(7,16)
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chlorates, nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates or peroxides) - violent or explosive reaction occurs.(14)
MERCURY(II) NITRATE - may explode when heated, based on comparison to sodium and potassium cyanide.
NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE - can explode on contact, based on comparison to sodium and potassium cyanide.
PERCHLORYL FLUORIDE - react explosively at 100 deg C, based on comparison to sodium and potassium cyanide.
HALOGEN GASES - react exothermically to form toxic cyano halide compounds.
ORGANIC HALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride, ethyl chloroacetate) - depending on the type of halide, may react rapidly under normal conditions.(22)
CARBON DIOXIDE - reacts slowly to produce hydrogen cyanide and calcium carbonate.(7,14)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, calcium hydroxide.

Conditions to Avoid:
Moisture, moist air, heat, acidic conditions

Corrosivity to Metals:
Calcium cyanide is not corrosive to steel, gray cast iron and nickel cast iron.(19) No specific information is available regarding corrosivity to aluminum, but calcium cyanide is expected to be corrosive to aluminum, based on comparison to sodium and potassium cyanide.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No information is available.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
When water solutions of calcium cyanide are stored for a long time or heated, calcium cyanide is slowly converted to toxic and corrosive ammonia and calcium formate. The decomposition rate accelerates with increasing temperature. This situation can pose a hazard in closed containers because of possible pressure build-up.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 39 mg/kg (cited as 0.039 g/kg) (1)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

There is almost no specific information for calcium cyanide. However, in general, cyanide compounds are very toxic. Toxic effects are primarily caused by the cyanide ion binding with iron ions in the enzyme cytochrome oxidase, thereby preventing cells from using oxygen. The primary target organs for acute cyanide poisoning are the central nervous system (CNS) and the heart, because they are the most sensitive to oxygen deprivation.(2,3) Cyanide also inhibits other enzyme systems, especially those containing iron or copper, which contributes to the symptoms observed.(3,4,6)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1969). p. 470-476
(2) Basu, D.K., et al. Drinking water criteria document for cyanides (final draft). US Environmental Protection Agency, 1985
(3) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for cyanide (update). US Department of Health and Human Services, 1997
(4) Consensus report for hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide. Scientific Basis for Swedish Occupational Standards XXII. Edited by J. Montelius. Arbete Och Halsa. No. 20 (2001). p. 43-59
(5) Gosselin, R.E., et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1984. p. II-14, III-123-III-130
(6) Beasley, D.M.G., et al. Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. Occupational Medicine. Vol. 48, no. 7 (1998). p. 427-431
(7) Pesce, L.D. Cyanides: calcium cyanide. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 7. John Wiley and Sons, 1993. p. 777-779
(8) Klenk, H, et al. Cyano compounds, inorganic: alkaline-earth-metal cyanides. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 8. VCH Publishers, 1987. p. 170-171
(9) Ballantyne, B. Toxicology of cyanides. In: Clinical and experimental toxicology of cyanides. Edited by B. Ballantyne, et al. Wright, 1987. p. 41-126
(10) Hall, A.H., et al. Clinical toxicology of cyanide. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 15, no. 9 (Sept. 1986). p. 1067-1074
(11) Mascaranhas, B.R., et al. Cyanide poisoning, medical emergency. New York State Journal of Medicine. Vol. 69, no. 12 (June 1969). p. 1782-1784
(12) Amoore, J.E., et al. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 3, no. 6 (1983). p. 278-279
(13) Ruth J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (Mar. 1986). p A-147
(14) US National Library of Medicine. Calcium cyanide. Last revision date: 2003-02-14. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Issue: 2003-2. Also available from World Wide Web: <http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>
(15) Calcium cyanide. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 280
(16) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49
(17) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(18) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(19) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 140-4
(20) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2001/59/EC. Aug. 6, 2001
(21) IPCS/CEC Evaluation of Antidotes Series. Vol. 2. Antidotes for poisoning by cyanide. Edited by T.J. Meredith, et al. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the World Health Organization and of the Commission of European Communities. Cambridge University Press, 1993. Also available from World Wide Web: <http://www.inchem.org/pages/antidote.html>
(22) Handbook of hazardous material spill technology. Edited by M. Fingas. McGraw Hill, 2002
(23) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Cyanides in the Workplace. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(24) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Cyanides, Aerosol and Gas. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(25) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Hydrogen Cyanide. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-11-30

Revision Indicators:
pH 2006-01-05
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-01-05



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