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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 654
CCOHS Chemical Name: Calcium propionate

Synonyms:
Calcium propanoate
Propanoic acid, calcium salt
Propionic acid, calcium salt
Propionate de calcium

CAS Registry Number: 4075-81-4
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 223-795-8
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic carboxylic acid salt / saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid salt / alkanoic acid salt / propionic acid salt / propionate / calcium salt
Molecular Formula: C6-H10-Ca-O4
Structural Formula: (CH3-CH2-CO2-)2.Ca++

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless or white crystals or crystalline powder.(2)

Odour Threshold:
Information not available

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Occurs in a monohydrate or trihydrate form.(1)

Uses and Occurrences:
Major use as an inhibitor of mold, rope and other microorganisms in foods, such as bread, baked goods and processed cheese, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, medicine (anti-fungal agent) and animal feed. Also used in butyl rubber to improve processing and heat resistance. Occurs naturally in some cheeses (e.g. Swiss cheese).(1,2)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless or white crystals or crystalline powder. COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Can form explosive dust-air mixtures. Practically non-toxic.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
The available information indicates that calcium propionate is practically non-toxic.(3,4) High concentrations of dust or mist (from solutions) may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation.

Skin Contact:
There is no human or animal information available. However, dusts or mists (from solutions) are probably not irritating.

Eye Contact:
There is no human or animal information available. However, dusts or mists (from solutions) may cause slight eye irritation.

Ingestion:
Based on animal information, calcium propionate is practically non-toxic. A related chemical, sodium propionate, was ingested by an adult male at a rate of 6000 mg daily, resulting in faintly alkaline urine but no other effects. Calcium propionate is generally recognized as safe for ingestion at low levels.(3)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

SKIN: Prolonged or repeated contact with concentrated solutions may cause redness, drying and cracking of the skin (dermatitis).

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information available. Probably not carcinogenic.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No animal or human information is available. Probably not teratogenic or embryotoxic.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No animal or human information is available. Probably not a reproductive hazard.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal information available. Probably not mutagenic.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Information not available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. Propionic acid is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Animal studies show that propionate is incorporated into the body fat or tissues. Propionic acid is metabolized like other fatty acids in the mammalian body. Fifty percent of the propionate fed to mice was rapidly converted to carbon dioxide, which is excreted in the expired air, and the reminder incorporated into body tissues.(3,4)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. If irritation does occur, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately.

Eye Contact:
SOLID: Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If the particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eye(s). SOLUTIONS: Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
No health effects expected. If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a physician familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable. Calcium propionate does not form a vapour.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Stable material. Probably not sensitive.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
May produce calcium oxides.

Flammable Properties:

Extinguishing Media:
Use extinguishing media suitable for surrounding fire.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of explosion. Water can be used in the form of spray or fog to prevent dust formation, absorb heat, keep containers cool and protect fire-exposed material. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
As in any fire, wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), pressure-demand, (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full protective equipment (Bunker Gear).



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 186.22

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: Not available
Boiling Point: Not available
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not available
Solubility in Water: Very soluble (49 g/100 mL at 0 deg C) (hydrate) (2)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Slightly soluble in ethanol and methanol; practically insoluble in acetone and benzene.(1)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Not available
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Zero (does not form vapour)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING MATERIALS - increased risk of fire and explosion.
STRONG ACIDS - can decompose calcium propionate and produce propionic acid vapours.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Static charge, sparks, heat and other ignition sources, generation of dust.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 3920 mg/kg (5;unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 2350 mg/kg (5;unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
No effects on growth were observed in rats after daily doses of 1 to 3 g of calcium propionate for 4 to 5 weeks. In a 1-year study, propionate at 4% in the diet (plus high levels of other common food additives), caused no toxic effects.(4)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 11th edition. Merck & Co., Inc., 1989. p. 256
(2) HSDB record for calcium propionate. Date of last update: 9412
(3) Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 5. World Health Organization, 1974. p. 110-118
(4) CRC handbook of food additives. 2nd edition. Volume 1. CRC Press, 1977. p. 137-141
(5) RTECS record for calcium propionate. Date of last update: 9504
(6) Field, P. Explosibility assessment of industrial powders and dusts. Building Research Establishment, 1983
(7) Grossel, S.S. Safety considerations in conveying of bulk solids and powders. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Vol. no. 1 (April, 1988). p. 62-74
(9) Schwab, R.F. Dusts. In: Fire protection handbook. Edited by A.E. Cote. 18th edition. National Fire Protection Association, 1991. p. 4-174 to 4-181
(10) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated, Total. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(11) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated, Respirable. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(12) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metal and Metalloid Particulates in Workplace Atmospheres (Atomic Absorption). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at:
<www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(13) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). CALCIUM and compounds, as Ca. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1995-10-02

Revision Indicators:
HANDLING AND STORAGE 1995-10-01
EU class 1996-06-01
US transport 1996-06-01
Resistance of materials 1996-06-01
Bibliography 2005-03-24
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-24
UFL/UEL 2006-10-04
LFL/LEL 2006-10-04



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