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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 100
CCOHS Chemical Name: Calcium hypochlorite

Synonyms:
Bleaching powder
Calcium chlorohydrochlorite
Calcium oxychloride
Ca(OCl)2
Chloride of lime
Chlorinated lime
Chlorolime chemical
Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt
Lime chloride

Chemical Name French: Hypochlorite de calcium

Trade Name(s):
B-K powder
HTH
Pittchlor

CAS Registry Number: 7778-54-3
UN/NA Number(s): 1748 2208 2880
RTECS Number(s): NH3485000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-908-7
Chemical Family: Inorganic halogen oxygen acid salt / inorganic halogen oxo acid salt / chlorine oxygen acid salt / chlorine oxo acid salt / hypochlorous acid salt / hypochlorite / inorganic calcium compound / calcium salt
Molecular Formula: Ca-Cl2-O2
Structural Formula: Ca.(OCl)2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
White powder or crystalline or granular solid, with a slight chlorine odour.(8,12,13)

Odour Threshold:
Not applicable. Odour is due to decomposition products such as chlorine.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Calcium hypochlorite can exist as the anhydrous material and as a dihydrate. The strength of calcium hypochlorite products is often expressed in terms of percent available chlorine (% av Cl2). The dihydrate is produced on a large scale and marketed as a 65-70% av Cl2 product. The commercial product is a complex mixture containing variable amounts of related salts, such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride, calcium chlorate, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and other impurities. Calcium hypochlorite is also sold with 75-80% or 50% av Cl2, 35-37% av Cl2 (bleaching powder) and 33-35% (tropical bleach).(4,9) Historically, calcium hypochlorite sometimes contained impurities such as magnesium hypochlorite, which made the product dangerously reactive.(9,15)

Uses and Occurrences:
Calcium hypochlorite is used mainly (about 80%) for swimming pool sanitation. It is also used for disinfection of drinking water supplies; treatment of industrial cooling water for slime control of bacterial, algal and fungal origin; for disinfection and odour control in sewage and waste water effluents and as a bleaching agent in the textile, pulp and paper industries; as a sanitizer in households, schools, hospitals and other public buildings; for microbial control in restaurant and other public eating places; for disinfection, odour control and general sanitation in dairies, wineries, breweries, canneries, food processing plants and beverage bottling plants; and as a mildewcide.(4)
Bleaching powder can be used for general sanitation and may also be used to disinfect seawater, reservoirs and drainage ditches. It can also be used a decontaminating agent for areas sprayed with chemical warfare agents, such as mustard gas.(4)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
White powder or crystalline or granular solid, with a slight chlorine odour. Does not burn. Calcium hypochlorite can decompose with the release of significant heat , oxygen and corrosive chlorine gas. Decomposition is more likely in the presence of small amounts of water, heat or contamination. Decomposition can lead to self-heating followed by explosion. Contact with combustible materials may cause a fire and/or explosion. Decomposes during a fire, or upon contact with combustible materials and other incompatible materials such as acids. During a fire, corrosive hydrogen chloride gas, corrosive chlorine gas and oxygen will be generated. MODERATE TO STRONG OXIDIZER. Promotes combustion. Reacts with primary and aromatic amines, ammonia and ammonium salts to form explosively unstable compounds. May be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. May cause blindness and permanent scarring.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Calcium hypochlorite is a solid, but is also used in water solution. Solutions release corrosive chlorine gas at normal temperatures.(3) The amount of chlorine released depends on the concentration, pH and ionic strength of the solution, temperature, light and the presence of metals (e.g. copper, nickel or cobalt) and other impurities (e.g. acids and amines).(1,3,4) Solid calcium hypochlorite also decomposes and releases chlorine gas. The rate of decomposition depends on a number of factors including the water content, temperature and the presence of impurities.(3) Depending on the concentration, chlorine gas can cause nose, throat and respiratory tract irritation and/or severe lung injury and death. Refer to the CHEMINFO review of chlorine for further information.
Mists formed from calcium hypochlorite solutions are probably moderately to severely irritating. The dust is probably severely irritating to the nose, throat and upper respiratory tract, based on the limited information available for calcium hypochlorite and information for related hypochlorites. Powdered calcium hypochlorite has reportedly caused intense irritation and injury to the nasal passages including tissue death (necrosis) and injury to the throat (laryngeal edema).(2) It is not clear if these observations were in humans or in animals.

Skin Contact:
Calcium hypochlorite solutions are corrosive, based on animal information. The irritation hazard increases with increasing concentration of the solution and duration of contact. Dusts will form concentrated solutions on wet or sweaty hands. Corrosive materials can cause burns, blisters and permanent scarring. With severe exposures, death could result.

Eye Contact:
Calcium hypochlorite solid and solutions are corrosive, based on animal information. Corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness. An unconfirmed report indicates that powdered calcium hypochlorite caused irritation of the inner eyelids and injury to the cornea (ulcers).(2) It is not clear if these effects were observed in animals or humans.
Solutions of calcium hypochlorite release corrosive chlorine gas at normal temperatures. The amount of chlorine gas released depends on the concentration of the solution, pH, temperature, ionic strength, exposure to light and the presence of metals and other impurities.(1,4) Airborne chlorine can produce severe eye irritation at concentrations of 1 ppm and above.

Ingestion:
Ingestion of calcium hypochlorite solid or solutions can cause death. As little as 1 ounce may be lethal if the available chlorine concentration is 15% or more. Lower concentrations can also be lethal and cause vomiting and severe irritation and/or damage to the gastrointestinal tract.(2) A man who intentionally ingested calcium hypochlorite tablets (dose unspecified) experienced vomiting and difficulty breathing and was treated for chemical injury to the respiratory tract and lungs. Calcium hypochlorite can react with stomach acids to release chlorine gas, which likely caused the injuries.(25, unconfirmed) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Calcium hypochlorite slowly decomposes to release chlorine gas. Refer to the CHEMINFO review of chlorine for a discussion of the potential health effects from long-term exposure to chlorine.

Skin:
Long-term skin contact could cause dry, red, itchy, cracked skin (dermatitis).

Skin Sensitization:
No conclusions can be drawn from a single, non-occupational case report of suspected skin sensitization. Signs of skin sensitization appeared in a child who had used Eusol soaks (calcium hypochlorite and boric acid), apparently without incident for several years. Patch tests were positive for multiple agents, including calcium hypochlorite. However, the symptoms persisted even after discontinuing use of the soaks.(26)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no specific human or animal information available for calcium hypochlorite. For hypochlorites in general, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has that there is inadequate evidence of the carcinogenicity in experimental animals and no human carcinogenicity data available.(1)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

(hypochlorite salts)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for calcium hypochlorite.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for calcium hypochlorite.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available and there are no studies using live animals available. Calcium hypochlorite was mutagenic in bacteria and cultured mammalian cells.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Based on comparison with related hypochlorites, sodium hypochlorite and lithium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite is probably rapidly absorbed into the body and is distributed evenly throughout the body. It probably does not accumulate in the body and is excreted in urine.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Can release corrosive chlorine gas. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible (does not burn).

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Pure, dry calcium hypochlorite is not sensitive to friction or impact.(4,9) However, in the presence of small amounts of water, calcium hypochlorite can decompose to form dangerously unstable dichlorine monoxide. Dichlorine monoxide is sensitive to friction, shock or static spark.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Calcium hypochlorite will not accumulate static charge. Since it does not burn, it will not be ignited by a static discharge.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Chlorine, hydrogen chloride gas, oxygen gas and calcium oxides.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Calcium hypochlorite is not combustible (does not burn). However, calcium hypochlorite is a strong oxidizing agent (can support combustion) and can increase the risk of fire or the intensity of a fire. Calcium hypochlorite can undergo accelerated decomposition with the release of significant amounts of heat, chlorine and oxygen, forming an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The heat from the decomposition of calcium hypochlorite combined with an oxygen-rich atmosphere can cause flammable materials to ignite. Fires and explosions involving calcium hypochlorite have occurred.(4,9,11,13,15) Calcium hypochlorite is a serious fire and explosion hazard when contaminated with or comes in contact with oxidizable, combustible materials (e.g. cloth, greases, leather, oils and solvents, paper, sawdust, rubber, plastics and wood). In these situations, there may be spontaneous ignition and explosion. It decomposes explosively under intense fire conditions and closed containers may rupture violently due to rapid decomposition, if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time. During a fire, corrosive chlorine and hydrogen chloride gases may be generated.

Extinguishing Media:
Calcium hypochlorite does not burn. Extinguish fire using extinguishing agents suitable for the surrounding fire and not contraindicated for use with calcium hypochlorite. Calcium hypochlorite is an oxidizing agent. Therefore, flooding quantities of water spray or fog should be used to fight fires involving calcium hypochlorite.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
DO NOT use dry chemical fire extinguishing agents containing ammonium compounds (such as some A:B:C agents), since an explosive compound can be formed. DO NOT use carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder or other extinguishing agents that smother flames, since they are not effective in extinguishing fires involving oxidizers.(14)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Extreme caution is required in a fire situation. Evacuate area and fight fire from a protected, explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous decomposition products, such as chlorine and hydrogen chloride. Wear full protective suit if exposure is possible. See Protection of Firefighters.
If possible, isolate materials not involved in the fire, if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. If calcium hypochlorite is not involved in the fire, move calcium hypochlorite containers from the fire area only if they have not been exposed to heat. Use extreme caution since explosive decomposition can occur under fire conditions with the release of large amounts of oxygen. Otherwise, apply water from as far a distance as possible, in flooding quantities as a spray or fog to keep fire-exposed containers or equipment cool and absorb heat, until well after the fire is out. DO NOT get water inside containers.
Remove all flammable and combustible materials from the vicinity, especially oil and grease. Do not direct water directly on leak as this may cause leak to increase. Stay away from ends of tanks, but realize that shrapnel may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tanks due to fire. In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated. Use unmanned hoseholders or monitor nozzles.
Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire or heated by exposure, until they have been completely cooled down. Clean-up or salvage operations should not be attempted until the calcium hypochlorite is cooled.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The decomposition products of calcium hypochlorite, such as chlorine and hydrogen chloride are extremely hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent)) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 0 - Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.
NFPA - Specific Hazards: Oxidizing material.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 143

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: Not applicable. Decomposes at varying temperatures. See Self-heating Properties.
Boiling Point: Not applicable
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 2.35 (water=1) (16)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (21 g/100 mL at 25 deg C).(4) Reacts slowly, releasing chlorine gas.(3,13,16)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Insoluble in ethanol.(16)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -2.46 (estimated) (17)
pH Value: 10.8 (10% solution); 10.9 (21% solution) (calculated)
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Not applicable. Does not form vapour.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable.

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Inherently unstable. The rate of decomposition of the pure, dry material is extremely low at room temperature. Decomposition is accelerated in the presence of small amounts of water, moist air, carbon dioxide (also present in the air) and/or the presence of contaminants (e.g. rust from container corrosion or the use of a contaminated scoop).(3,10,13) When it decomposes, the vigorous reaction generates a great deal of heat, oxygen and very corrosive chlorine gas.(9,11)

Oxidizing Properties:
The NFPA lists calcium hypochlorite (50 percent or less by weight) as a Class 2 oxidizer and calcium hypochlorite (over 50 percent by weight) as a Class 3 oxidizer. A Class 2 oxidizer will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate or cause spontaneous ignition of combustible materials with which it comes in contact. A Class 3 oxidizer will cause a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact or that will undergo vigorous self-sustained decomposition due to contamination or exposure to heat.(14)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Self-Heating Materials:
Small quantities will not usually undergo self-heating or spontaneous ignition under normal conditions of storage and handling. However, small quantities may spontaneously ignite, either through self-heating due to decomposition or due to the presence of contaminants.(15) Self-heating materials can eventually ignite through progressive accelerating decomposition if they are stored or processed above the Self Accelerating Decomposition Temperature (SADT). The SADT varies with quantity and moisture content. The decomposition temperature is much lower for bulk quantities than for small quantities. For example, the SADT of bulk quantities (20 foot container packed with 200 kg drums) can be as less than 30 deg C.(28) A single 50 kg drum can have a SADT of 77-80 deg C.(24)

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS (e.g. grease, oils, fat, paper, straw, wood, sugars) - readily ignite in contact with anhydrous (dry) calcium hypochlorite. Addition of 16-22% water will prevent this.(9) Anhydrous calcium hypochlorite may undergo self-sustained decomposition when initiated by a lit cigarette or organic contamination. The normal commercial product contains 6-12% moisture to stabilize it against decomposition.(4)
AMMONIA, PRIMARY AMINES (e.g. ethylamine), AROMATIC AMINES (e.g. aniline) and UREA - react to form explosively unstable N-mono- or di-chloramines.(4,12)
ACIDS (especially hydrochloric acid) - contact releases corrosive chlorine gas.(12,13)
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE - forms explosive nitrogen trichloride.(9)
ETHANOL or METHANOL - may explode due to the formation of the alkyl hypochlorites.(9)
HYDROXY COMPOUNDS (e.g. ethanediol (ethylene glycol), glycerol, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, polyethylene glycol, or phenol) - contact causes ignition and may explode.(9,10,12).
ACETYLENE - contact of acetylene with calcium hypochlorite or bleaching powder may read to formation of explosive chloroacetylenes.(9)
ACETIC ACID and POTASSIUM CYANIDE - can explode.(9)
REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. hydrides, such as lithium aluminum hydride) - cause a violent reaction.(13)
METAL OXIDES (e.g., iron (rust), nickel, cobalt or magnesium oxides) - can cause violent oxygen-evolving decomposition of hypochlorites.(9,12)
CHARCOAL - a confined intimate mixture of calcium hypochlorite and finely divided charcoal exploded on heating.(9,12)
METALS (especially cobalt, copper, nickel and manganese) - catalyze the decomposition of calcium hypochlorite.(3,4,11)
ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS - (e.g. organic thiols, such as 1-propanethiol and isobutanethiol, or sulfides) - may cause a violent reaction and flash fire and/or explosion.(9,12)
SULFUR - a mixture of damp sulfur and solid 'swimming pool chlorine' caused a violently exothermic reaction, and ejection of molten sulfur.(9,12)
TURPENTINE - can explode.(9,12)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Chlorine, oxygen, dichlorine monoxide, calcium chlorate, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate.(3,4,9,13)

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, sunlight (a heat source), contamination with combustible materials, moisture/high humidity, acidic conditions, the presence of metals and other impurities.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Calcium hypochlorite (30%) is corrosive to cast iron, carbon steel, stainless steel types 304/347 and 400 series, aluminum, copper, bronze, aluminum bronze, silicon bronze, brass, Hastelloy, Monel, Inconel, Incolloy, and nickel and its alloys. The corrosion rate is greater than 1.27 mm per year. It is not corrosive to titanium, tantalum, gold and platinum.(18,19)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Calcium hypochlorite attacks some plastics (such as furan, nylon, polyamide-imide and phenolic), elastomers (such as butyl GR-1 (30%), ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPT), hard and soft rubber, nitrile Buna N (NBR), polyurethane and SBR styrene (Buna -S)), and coatings (such as coal tar epoxy, epoxy polyamide and vinyls). It does not attack plastics such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), E-CTFE (Halar), ETFE (Tetzel), FEP, PFA and TFE (Teflon), polyesters, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), PVDF (Kynar) and styrene-acrylonitrile, and elastomers (such as butyl and fluorine rubber, Hypalon (chlorosulfonyl-polyethylene (CSM)), ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM), FKM (Viton), Kalrez (FPM) and neoprene-GR-M.(18,20)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
When small amounts of water are present, calcium hypochlorite has been reported to decompose to dichlorine monoxide, oxygen, chlorine and chlorine compounds. Dichlorine monoxide is not formed when water is in excess. Dichlorine monoxide is a dangerous, unstable compound, which can decompose explosively when heated, exposed to light, by friction, shock, or a static spark. It has been suggested that some of the hazardous reactions of calcium hypochlorite may have been initiated by traces of dichlorine monoxide.(9,11)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (rat, oral): 850 mg/kg (5, unconfirmed)
LD50 (rat, oral): 1900 mg/kg (10% water solution) (27)

LD50 (rabbit, dermal): greater than 2000 mg/kg (40% water solution) (27)

Eye Irritation:

Calcium hypochlorite is corrosive to the eyes.

Application of finely ground calcium hypochlorite produced corrosive injury in rabbits. The dosage was described as "equivalent to 0.1 mL/volume - 70 mg sample").(27) Superficial injury was observed in rabbits when a 5% calcium hypochlorite solution in water (pH 11.5) was applied for 30 seconds and then was rinsed off with water. Within one day, the injury had healed except for slight residual redness of the inner eyelids.(6)

Skin Irritation:

Calcium hypochlorite is corrosive to the skin.

Application of 0.5 g finely ground calcium hypochlorite moistened with water for 24 hours produced corrosive injury in rabbits. Healing did not occur within 21 days.(27)

Carcinogenicity:
There is no specific animal information available for calcium hypochlorite. Based on information for related compounds, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of hypochlorite salts (including calcium hypochlorite) in experimental animals.(1)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is no specific information available for calcium hypochlorite.
No harmful effects on growth or survival were observed in seven generations of rats given chlorinated drinking water containing free chlorine at 100 mg/L.(1, unconfirmed) There are no further details available in English.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific information available for calcium hypochlorite.
No harmful effects on fertility were observed in seven generations of rats given chlorinated drinking water containing free chlorine at 100 mg/L.(1, unconfirmed) There are no further details available in English.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Hypochlorite salts. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 52. Chlorinated drinking-water; chlorination by-products; some other halogenated compounds; cobalt and cobalt compounds. World Health Organization, 1991. p. 159-176
(2) Gosselin, R.E., et al. Hypochlorite. In: Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, 1984. p III-202 to III-205
(3) Vogt, H., et al. Chlorine oxides and chlorine oxygen acids: hypochlorite solutions. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely rev. ed. Vol. A 6. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1986. p. 488-496
(4) Wojtowicz, J.A. Chlorine oxygen acids and salts: hypochlorites. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 5. John Wiley and Sons, 1993. p. 943-968
(5) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt. Last updated: 1999-10. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html>
(6) Grant, W.M., et al. Calcium hypochlorite. In: Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 304
(7) Ishidate, Jr, M., et al. Primary mutagenicity screening of food additives currently used in Japan. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 8 (1984). p. 623-636
(8) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Calcium hypochlorite. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. [CD-ROM]. 14th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002
(9) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(10) Clancey, V.J. Calcium hypochlorite: a fire and explosion hazard. In: Hazards of pressure: exothermic reactions, unstable substances, pressure relief and accidental discharge. The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 102. Pergamon, 1987. p. 11-23
(11) Cane, R.F. Calcium hypochlorite: a potentially hazardous product. Chemistry in Australia. Vol. 45, no. 9 (Sept. 1978). p. 313-314
(12) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(13) Calcium hypochlorite. In: Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 180
(14) NFPA 430. Code for the storage of liquid and solid oxidizers. 1995 ed. National Protection Association, 1995. p. 430-1 to 430-16
(15) Clancey, V.J. Fire hazards of calcium hypochlorite. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. 1 (1976). p. 83-94
(16) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 3.22
(17) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(18) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 633-640
(19) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 30-2 to 31-2
(20) Corrosion data survey: nonmetals section. 5th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1983. p. 95 (1-12), 96 (1-14)
(21) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr 29, 2004
(22) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metal and Metalloid Particulates in Workplace Atmospheres. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(23) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Elemental Analysis by AAS. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(24) Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Twenty-first session, 1-10 July 2002, agenda item 8 (c)). Miscellaneous amendment proposals (Parts 2 and 3). Comment to the German proposal (ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2002/5). Transmitted by the Expert from Japan. UN/SCETDG/21.INF.8. Available at: <www.unece.org/trans/doc/2002/ac10c3/UN-SCETDG-21- inf08e.pdf>
(25) Shiba, M., et al. A case of calcium hypochlorite poisoning accompanied with pharyngolaryngitis and pneumonitis. [English Abstract]. Japanese Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 11 (1998). p. 137-140
(26) Salphale, P.S., et al. Contact sensitivity to calcium hypochlorite. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 48, no. 3 (Mar. 2003). p. 162
(27) Younger Laboratories. Initial submission: toxicological investigation of calcium hypochlorite with cover letter dated 081392. Monsanto Co. Date produced: Oct. 15, 1976. EPA/OTS 88-920007992. NTIS/OTS057606.
(28) Gray, B.F., et al. The thermal decomposition of hydrated calcium hypochlorite (UN 2880). Fire Safety Journal. Vol. 35 (2000). p. 223-239

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-04-13

Revision Indicators:
Self-heating properties 2004-10-13
Bibliography 2004-11-21
EU classification 2004-11-21
pH 2006-01-05



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