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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 176
CCOHS Chemical Name: 1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol

Synonyms:
1-Butoxyethoxy-2-propanol
4,7-Dioxaundecan-2-ol
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)propan-2-ol
1-(Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol
1-Butoxyethoxypropan-2-ol
Butoxyethoxy propanol (non-specific name)
2-Butoxy-1-(2-hydroxypropoxy)ethane
2-Propanol, 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-
Propylene glycol butoxyethyl ether

Chemical Name French: 1-(2-butoxyèthoxy)propane-2-ol
Chemical Name Spanish: 1-(2-butoxietoxi)propan-2-ol
CAS Registry Number: 124-16-3
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 197530-05-5
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 204-684-3
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy alkanol / diglycol ether / alkyl diglycol ether / aliphatic diglycol ether / aliphatic diglycol monoether / alkoxyalkyl glycol ether / monoalkoxyalkyl glycol ether / propylene glycol ether / propylene glycol alkoxyalkyl ether / propylene glycol monoalkoxyalkyl ether / mono propylene glycol monoalkoxyalkyl ether / ethylene propylene diglycol alkyl ether
Molecular Formula: C9-H20-O3
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild odour.(2)

Odour Threshold:
Information not available.

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Specifications for 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol are not available. Based on the purity of other diethylene and dipropylene glycol ethers, and the manufacturing methods used, this product is expected to be an isomeric mixture of 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol (alpha isomer, CAS no. 124-16-3) as the major component and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-1-propanol (beta isomer, CAS no. 95873-46-4) as the minor component. The purity of the alpha and beta isomeric mixture is expected to be minimum of 97%. The identity of these substances may be reported either with their individual CAS numbers or with the CAS number 197530-05-5, which has been assigned to the isomeric alpha and beta mixture. Depending on the preparation method, one or more of the following impurities may also be present: ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, 1,2-di(2-butoxyethoxy)propane, dipropylene glycol ethers, tripropylene glycol ethers, and other organic trace impurities.(16)

Uses and Occurrences:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is used as a replacement for the more toxic diethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether. The primary use is in the manufacture of hydraulic fluid, as an anti-stall additive for automotive fuels, as a plasticizer, and as a solvent.(2)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild odour. Little or no hazard if spilled. This material will burn when strongly heated and when involved in fire. May form explosive peroxides on prolonged storage or exposure to air. During a fire, very toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde are formed. EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol does not readily form a vapour at room temperature. Therefore, inhalation exposure is unlikely to occur unless it is heated or misted. Other than slight irritation of the eyes or nose, health effects are not expected following inhalation exposure, based on limited animal information and comparison to other propylene glycol ethers. No human information was located.

Skin Contact:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is a mild skin irritant, based on animal information. No human information was located.
An animal study indicates that this material can be absorbed through the skin but is not expected to produce harmful effects by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is a severe eye irritant, based on animal information. No human information was located.

Ingestion:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is not expected to be toxic if ingested, based on an animal toxicity value. Ingestion of large amounts may produce symptoms of central nervous system depression, such as headache, nausea, drowsiness and incoordination. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No human or animal information was located. Based on comparison to other propylene glycol ethers, 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is not expected to produce significant harmful effects following long-term exposure.

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Mutagenicity:
There is no information available.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Not expected accumulate based on comparison to other propylene glycol ethers.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
121 deg C (250 deg F) (open cup) (3)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.6% (estimated) (5)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
25% (estimated) (5)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
265 deg C (509 deg F) (3)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol liquid may accumulate static charge.

Electrical Conductivity:
Less than 1 x 10(4) (estimated)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition releases gaseous hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Combustion releases carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and other irritating and toxic fumes.(9)

Fire Hazard Summary:
This material will burn when strongly heated and when involved in fire. May form explosive peroxides on prolonged storage and exposure to air. During a fire, very toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde are formed. Heat from a fire can cause a build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, dry chemical or alcohol resistant foam. Water or foam may cause frothing. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. Dike to prevent spread of liquid. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out.
Water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of combustible or flammable liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to cool and disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water or foam may cause frothing. However, a water spray or fog that is gently applied to the surface of the liquid, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on vapour space and any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The combustion and decomposition procucts of this material are hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 176.29

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 7.19 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.139 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: -90 deg C (-130 deg F) (2)
Boiling Point: 230.3 deg C (446.5 deg F) (2)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.9310 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (2)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble to soluble (5-50 g/100 mL) (estimated).(5,6)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be soluble in polar organic solvents (e.g. methanol and ethanol) and non-polar organic solvents (e.g. methylene chloride and n-hexane).
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.71 (estimated) (7)
pH Value: 7-8 (estimated)
Acidity: Very weak organic acid.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 15 (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 4.9 mPa.s ( 4.9 centipoises) at 25 deg C (estimated) (5)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 5.44 mm2/s (5.44 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 43.7 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 29 mN/m (29 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (5)
Vapour Density: 6.1 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: Less than 0.004 kPa (0.03 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (estimated) (5)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Less than 40 ppm (0.004%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Less than 0.01 (butyl acetate = 1) (5,6)
Henry's Law Constant: 2 x 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 2 x 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (5,8); log H = -5.1 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: Less than 5 at 25 deg C (dimensionless) (estimated)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol with other substances is moderate because 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol reacts with several chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, some of these reactions may be severe.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites, metal oxides) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Carbon dioxide gas may be released, which will cause pressurization in the container. Reaction with hypochlorites may form alkyl hypochlorites, which are explosive, and chloroform, which is toxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans.(13,14)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium); ZINC or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(15,16,17)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. thionyl chloride, phosphorous tribromide) - Reaction evolves heat. Very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride) are released.(15,16,17)
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction may evolve heat and forms very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(15,17)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(15,17)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids evolves heat.(15,16,17)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat (15,17)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine) - Reaction may be delayed and releases heat.(15,16,17)
ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ANHYDRIDES (e.g. formaldehyde, acetone) - Reaction may evolve heat.(15,17)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol can form peroxides on prolonged exposure to air. Light and or heat increase the rate of peroxide formation. Peroxides accumulate at hazardous levels during distillation, evaporation, or any other method that will cause concentration of the peroxide impurities.(10,11,12)

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures of 121 deg C or above, sparks including electrostatic discharges, direct sunlight, open flame, hot surfaces, or prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. 1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is expected to be slightly corrosive to aluminum. It is expected to be either slightly corrosive or corrosive to carbon steel and stainless steel alloys, and corrosive to copper. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol as well as corrosion data for carbitol.(18)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. 1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is expected to attack polyimide, polyurethane, and polystyrene. 1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)2-propanol is not expected to attack fluorinated plastics such as Teflon, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, thermoset epoxy, and thermoset chlorinated polyester. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of 1-(2-Butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol as well as corrosion data for diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(19)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 3725 mg/kg (cited as 4.00 mL/kg) (3,4)

LD50 (dermal): 2635 mg/kg (cited as 2.83 mL/kg) (3,4)

Eye Irritation:

1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is a severe eye irritant.

Application of 0.02 mL of undiluted 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-1-propanol caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 4 where 5 is severe injury; graded 5/10).(3,4)

Skin Irritation:

1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol is a mild skin irritant.

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted 1-(2-butoxyethoxy)-2-propanol produced mild irritation in rabbits (graded 3/10).(3,4)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
No deaths (0/6) and no changes in red blood cells were observed in rats exposed for 8 hours to a concentrated vapour generated at 19 deg C (estimated as 35 ppm).(3,4)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cragg, S.T., et al. Glycol ethers: ethers of propylene, butylene glycols and other glycol derivatives. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 7 (Chpt. 87). John Wiley and Sons, 2001
(2) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 179 (1-butoxyethoxy-2-propanol)
(3) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(4) Huntingdon Research Center. Health and safety studies for 19 chemicals with cover letter dated 06/02/89. Produced June 29, 1972. Union Carbide. EPA/OTS 86-890000263. NTIS/OTS0515797.
(5) DOWANOL DPnB and Butyl CARBITOL Solvent (Dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether and diethylene glycol n-butyl ether). The Dow Chemical Company Website. The Dow Chemical Company. Technical data sheet. Available at: <www. dow.com/oxysolvents.html>
(6) Turcotte, G.M., et al. Solvents. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 1997. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(7) Syracuse Research Corporation. Environmental science estimation software, LOGKOW / KOWWIN Program Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <http://www.syrres.com/esc/est_kowdemo.htm >
(8) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm> (diethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether)
(9) Bruneau, C. Thermal behavior of some glycol ethers. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development. Vol. 21, no. 1 (1982). p. 74-76
(10) Clark, E.D. Peroxides and peroxide-forming compounds. Chemical Health and Safety. Vol. 8, no. 5 (2001). p. 12-21
(11) Glastrup, J. Stabilisation of polyethylene and polypropylene glycol through inhibition of a beta-positioned hydroxyl group relative to an ether group. A study of modified triethylene and tripropylene glycols. Polymer Degradation and Stability. Vol. 81 (2003). p. 273-278
(12) Kelly, R.J. Review of safety guidelines for peroxidizable organic chemicals. Occupational Health and Safety. Vol. 3, no. 5 (1996). p. 28-36
(13) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999 (alcohols & ethers)
(14) Ogata, Y. et al., Photolytic oxidation of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether and related compounds by aqueous hypochlorite. Journal of Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2. Issue 6 (1978). p. 562-567
(15) Falbe, J., et al. Alcohols, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(16) Karas, L. et al. Ethers, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(17) Kenneally, J.C. Alcohols, higher aliphatic, survey and natural alcohols manufacture. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 2001. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(18) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 74-85 (carbitol)
(19) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 158-169 (diethylene glycol monobutyl ether)

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-03-08



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