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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 32
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Butoxyethanol

Synonyms:
2-BE
2-Butoxy-1-ethanol
EGBE
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether
Ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether
Ethylene glycol n-butyl ether
Glycol monobutyl ether
Glycol ether EB
Monobutyl glycol ether
Butoxyethanol (non-specific name)
O-Butyl ethylene glycol
Butylglycol
3-Oxa-1-heptanol
Monobutyl ethylene glycol ether
Ether monobutylique de l'ethylene glycol

Chemical Name French: 2-Butoxyéthanol
Chemical Name Spanish: 2-Butoxietanol

Trade Name(s):
Butyl Oxitol
Dowanol EB
Ektasolve EB
Jeffersol EB
Poly-solv EB
Butyl Cellosolve Solvent
Butyl Cellosolve

CAS Registry Number: 111-76-2
RTECS Number(s): KJ8575000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-905-0
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy ethanol / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / ethylene glycol ether / ethylene glycol monoether
Molecular Formula: C6-H14-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-OH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a weak, pleasant, sweet, ester odour.(19,20,21)

Odour Threshold:
0.10 ppm (0.5 mg/m3) (detection); 0.35 ppm (1.7 mg/m3) (50% recognition) (19,20); 0.48 ppm (100% recognition) (19)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is significantly greater than the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
2-Butoxyethanol in available in grades of purity of 97 to greater than 99%. Depending on the production process, manufacturer and chemical grade of the material, 2-butoxyethanol may contain impurities such as sodium hydroxide, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether. Total impurity levels in 2-butoxyethanol from different manufacturers have been reported to range from ppm levels to 1-2% (w/w).(31)

Uses and Occurrences:
2-Butoxyethanol is used in formulating industrial and household cleaners, metal cleaners, silicone caulks, and protective surface coatings, such as spray lacquers, quick-drying lacquers, varnishes, enamels, shellac and latex paints. It is a very good solvent for nitrocellulose, cellulose ethers, natural and synthetic resins, colophony, rubber, chlorinated rubber, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates and polystyrene.
It is also used in inks, degreasers, paint thinners, paint stripping formulations and varnish removers. Used for the production, storage, and application of aqueous coating systems; as a component of dry-cleaning compounds; in the textile industry, as a dye component to prevent spotting during fabric printing and dyeing; in liquid soaps; in the formulation of soaps as a mutual solvent for "soluble" mineral oils to hold soap in solution and to improve the emulsifying properties; as a solvent in cosmetics; as a coupling agent to stabilize immiscible ingredients in metal cleaners, textile lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cutting oils and liquid household products; as component of some adhesives; as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of acetate esters (e.g. 2-butoxyethyl acetate) as well as phthalate (e.g. di(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate) and stearate plasticizers. Minor applications include use as a solvent or co-solvent in pesticide formulations and automotive brake fluids.(21,31)
2-Butoxyethanol does not occur naturally. It may be released to air, water or soil from facilities where it is manufactured or processed, or used in the production of other materials. It may also be released to the atmosphere by evaporation during occupational or household use or from hazardous waste sites.(31)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a weak, pleasant, sweet, ester odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. VERY TOXIC. Fatal if inhaled. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. EYE AND SKIN IRRITANT. Causes severe eye and skin irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
2-Butoxyethanol is considered very toxic by inhalation, based on animal information. It affects the central nervous system (CNS), producing symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion and may cause loss of consciousness and possibly death. Animal toxicity is characterized primarily by the destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). Research indicates that human red blood cells are much less susceptible to the hemolysis.(13,17,75)
Volunteers exposed to 100-195 ppm 2-butoxyethanol for 4-8 hours reported symptoms such as nasal irritation, a disagreeable metallic taste, a slight increase in nasal discharge and headaches. No red blood cell fragility was noted.(1) In another report, no clinical signs or subjective complaints were noted in 7 male volunteers exposed to 20 ppm for 2 hours during light exercise.(41)
It is not possible to draw conclusions from one case report where employees developed red spots (cherry angiomas) on their skin because of the concurrent formaldehyde exposure. Seven employees were exposed to 200-300 ppm 2-butoxyethanol that had been used to strip a floor overnight. All 7 experienced recurrent respiratory irritation, dry cough and headache. Four months after the exposure, red spots began to appear on the arms, trunk, and thighs of 6 workers. Air sampling found no detectable 2-butoxyethanol, but traces (0.1-0.2 ppm) of formaldehyde were identified. The employees were relocated and all irritant symptoms disappeared. The red spots continued to appear, even after 5 years.(49)

Skin Contact:
2-Butoxyethanol is a severe skin irritant, based on animal information. Human volunteers who immersed their fingers in undiluted 2-butoxyethanol for two hours did not complain of irritation.(58)
Liquid 2-butoxyethanol is absorbed through the skin and is considered toxic by this route of exposure, based on animal information. 2-Butoxyethanol vapour is also absorbed through the skin. The amount absorbed is dependent on the temperature and relative humidity. Humans appear to be much less sensitive to the blood effects observed in rats, mice or rabbits. However, significant absorption may cause CNS effects as described in "Inhalation" above.
Six male volunteers were dermally exposed to 50 or 90% 2-butoxyethanol in water or 100% 2-BE for 4 hours. Higher blood levels resulted from the water solutions than from the undiluted 2-butoxyethanol.(73) In a study with 6 volunteers, skin absorption was measured from arm-only exposure to 50 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 6 hours. Skin absorption from the vapour was calculated to contribute to 4-8.4% of the overall exposure.(14) Four volunteers were exposed to 50 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour whole-body or skin-only for 2 hours under different conditions of temperature and humidity. At 25 deg C and 40% relative humidity, skin absorption accounted for 11% of the body burden, while at 30 deg C and 60% relative humidity, it accounted for 39%.(74)

Eye Contact:
Liquid 2-butoxyethanol is a moderate to severe eye irritant, based on animal evidence. In human volunteers, exposure to vapours at 98-195 ppm for 4-8 hours caused eye irritation.(1)

Ingestion:
2-Butoxyethanol is not considered toxic by ingestion, based on animal evidence. If relatively large amounts are ingested, it can cause symptoms of CNS depression, as described in "Inhalation" and possibly effects related to destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). Animal toxicity is characterized primarily by hemolysis and secondary effects resulting from hemolysis. Research indicates that human red blood cells are much less susceptible to hemolysis.(13,17,75)
Non-occupational ingestion of products containing 6.5-30% 2-butoxyethanol has resulted in coma, respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis, increased secretion of oxalate crystals in the urine, hemoglobinuria and hematuria.(15,16,54,55,76) Other components of these products may have contributed to the overall effects. A minor metabolic pathway (10-15%) for 2-butoxyethanol is by formation of ethylene glycol and oxalic acid.(77) Therefore, 2-butoxyethanol ingestion may harm the kidneys, similar to ethylene glycol. For more information refer to the CHEMINFO review of ethylene glycol. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

In general, very little human information on the potential health effects of long-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol was located. Long-term skin contact may result in dry, red, irritated skin (dermatitis). Long-term occupational exposure (inhalation and dermal) to ethylene glycol ethers, including 2-butoxyethanol, may be associated with increased oxalic acid loads, which can alter kidney function and may result in kidney stones.

2-Butoxyethanol has caused significant harmful effects (damage to red blood cells, liver and forestomach) in animals following long-term exposure. However, these effects are unlikely to occur in people with long-term exposure. Human red blood cells are much less sensitive to destruction (lysis) from 2-butoxyethanol than the red blood cells of rats, mice or rabbits and the liver effects are secondary to the red blood cell damage. The difference in stomach structure in humans (there is no forestomach) makes it unlikely that the forestomach effects are relevant to humans.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact with 2-butoxyethanol may result in irritation.(45)

Skin Sensitization:
No evidence of sensitization was observed in 201 volunteers exposed to nine applications of 10% 2-butoxyethanol (24 hours/application period) and then challenged with 2-butoxyethanol 14 days later.(45)

Kidneys/Urinary System:
There is limited evidence that long-term occupational exposure (inhalation and dermal) to ethylene glycol ethers may be associated with increased oxalic acid loads, which can alter kidney function and may result in kidney stones. In a study of 8 silkscreen painters exposed to ethylene glycol ethers including 2-butoxyethanol, there was a 2.4-fold higher tendency for urinary stones than in the non-exposed controls.(77) No firm conclusions can be drawn from this study due to small numbers and concurrent exposure to other chemicals.

Blood/Blood Forming System:
2-Butoxyethanol has caused blood (hematotoxic) effects in experimental animals following inhalation, ingestion and oral exposure. However, people are considered much less sensitive to the observed effects.
Firm conclusions about blood toxicity in humans cannot be drawn from a small study where 31 male workers were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol in a beverage package production plant for 1-6 years. There was concurrent exposure to methyl ethyl ketone. Twenty-one employees not exposed to 2-butoxyethanol were used as the control group. For 20 employees, average exposures were to 0.75 ppm and 11 employees were exposed to an average of 0.46 ppm. A slight, but statistically significant, decrease (3.3%) in mean hematocrit values was observed in the exposed group. A slight, but statistically significant increase in corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was also observed.(46) These effects may be early indicators of a potential adverse effect. However, the values were within the range of normal clinical findings.

Carcinogenicity:

No human information was located. Some evidence of carcinogenic activity (hemangiosarcomas, forestomach tumours) was observed in mice exposed by inhalation in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) study. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats and equivocal evidence in female rats similarly exposed. The mechanism likely involved for the development of liver hemangiosarcomas is oxidative damage from iron from destroyed (lysed) red blood cells. Because human red blood cells are much less sensitive to destruction from 2-butoxyethanol than the red blood cells of mice, it is questionable if the liver hemangiosarcomas are relevant to humans. Likewise, the difference in stomach structure in humans compared to mice (there is no forestomach) makes it unlikely that the forestomach tumours are relevant to humans.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available specifically for 2-butoxyethanol. No conclusions can be drawn from human population studies that indicated a positive association between an increase in birth defects and occupational exposure to glycol ethers in general, including 2-butoxyethanol. Detailed analysis indicated that the results could be due to methodological problems in the studies. Furthermore, the glycol ethers to which the workers were exposed were generally not teratogenic in animal studies.(78) Animal studies show that administration of 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact does not cause developmental effects at doses that are not maternally toxic. Developmental effects have been observed in animals following inhalation or ingestion exposure to doses that have produced toxicity in the mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human information was located. The available animal information does not indicate that 2-butoxyethanol has reproductive toxicity.

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not indicate that 2-butoxyethanol is mutagenic. In a limited study, no increases in micronuclei or sister chromatid exchanges were observed in 19 varnish production workers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-ethyoxyethyl acetate compared to controls.(53) Negative results in have been obtained in studies using live animals administered 2-butoxyethanol orally.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information is available.

Potential for Accumulation:
2-Butoxyethanol does not accumulate. It is rapidly absorbed through the lungs, skin and digestive tract and distributed into the tissues. It is mainly metabolized to 2-butoxyacetic acid and to a small extent (10-15%) to ethylene glycol and oxalic acid. It is mainly eliminated in the urine with smaller amounts eliminated as carbon dioxide in expired air and in the feces. Clearance from the body is rapid (within 24-48 hours).(17,31,36,77)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is very toxic. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or automated external defibrillation (AED) immediately. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or automated external defibrillation (AED) immediately. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. Double bag, seal, label and leave contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods at the scene for safe disposal.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
62 deg C (143 deg F) (closed cup) (11,23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.1% at 93 deg C (200 deg F) (23)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
12.7% at 135 deg C (275 deg F) (23)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
238 deg C (460 deg F) (23)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
2-Butoxyethanol will not accumulate static charge, since the electrical conductivity is high.(21) 2-Butoxyethanol vapour will not be ignited by a static discharge at room temperature due to its relatively high flash point.

Electrical Conductivity:
4.3 x 10(7) pS/m (cited as 4.3 x 10(-7) S/cm) (21)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Incomplete combustion may also produce irritating fumes and acrid smoke.

Fire Hazard Summary:
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 62 deg C (143 deg F). During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Some glycol ethers can form heat sensitive peroxides which could explode in a fire. The rate and extent of this reaction for 2-butoxyethanol is not known. Vapours are heavier than air and can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas. Can accumulate in a confined space creating a toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog. Special multipurpose, alcohol resistant fire-fighting foams are recommended for use on all water soluble liquids and/or polar solvent type liquids, like 2-butoxyethanol.(23) Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid exposure to this material and its toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of a fire. Therefore, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Stay away from ends of tanks, involved in the fire, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to flush spills away from ignition sources and to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures. The resulting water solutions of 2-butoxyethanol are very toxic. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal.
Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
2-Butoxyethanol is very toxic. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 118.18

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.82 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.207 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -75 deg C (-103 deg F) (22,24)
Boiling Point: 168.4 deg C (335.1 deg F) (28,60); 171 deg C (339.8 deg F) (27,31)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.901 at 20 deg C (21,24); 0.896 at 25 deg C (22,25) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(22,28)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, acetone, other ketones, diethyl ether, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, n-heptane and many other organic solvents.(86)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log Poct = 0.83 (experimental) (61)
pH Value: Not available. Probably neutral.
Viscosity-Dynamic: 3.26 mPa.s (3.26 centipoises) at 20 deg C (21); 3.15 mPa.s (3.15 centipoises) at 25 deg C (22)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 3.62 mm2/s (3.62 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 3.52 mm2/s (3.52 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 37.6-37.9 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 26.55 mN/m (26.55 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C; 26.14 mN/m (26.14 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (62)
Vapour Density: 4.075 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 0.101 kPa (0.76 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (21,31); 0.114-0.116 kPa (0.852-0.867 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (22,63)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 1000 ppm (0.10%) at 20 deg C; 1120-1140 ppm (0.11-0.114%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.07 to 0.08 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (21,27); 119 (diethyl ether = 1) (21)
Henry's Law Constant: 2.11 x 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 2.08 x 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (63); log H = -5.07 dimensionless constant; calculated); also reported as 1.62 x 10(-1) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.6 x 10(-6) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (60); log H = -4.18 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 9.30 at 25 deg C (22)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


AIR and LIGHT - may form explosive peroxides.(64) See Stability and Reactivity Comments.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, calcium hypochlorite, chlorine oxides, chromium trioxide, nitric acid or nitrates) - may react violently with the risk of fire and explosion.(26,64) May form peroxides, which can be explosive.(64)
PERCHLORIC ACID - undergoes violent decomposition in contact with 68-72% perchloric acid. Mixtures with 50-95% acid are explosive and initiable by sparks. Sparking also causes mixtures with 40-50% acid to become explosive.(23,65)
BASES (e.g. strong caustics such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide) - reaction may be vigorous or violent. Risk of fire.(26)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Peroxides

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 62 deg C, heat, sparks, open flames, other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
2-Butoxyethanol (attacks stainless steels, like types 301, 302 and 440,and copper.(68) 2-Butoxyethanol is not corrosive to stainless steels like types 303, 304, 316, 17-4 PH, and 20 Cb 3, aluminum (e.g. types 3003 and Cast B-356), carbon steel (e.g. types 1010, 1020 and 1075), cast iron (e.g. types gray and ductile), nickel and nickel-base alloys, Monel and Hastelloy, aluminum and silicon bronze, bronze, brass, titanium and zirconium (corrosion rates of less than 508 micrometres (20 mils) penetration per year at temperatures of 93 deg C and less).(66,67,68) One source reports that 2-butoxyethanol attacks light metals giving off hydrogen (64). This information cannot be substantiated.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
2-Butoxyethanol attacks some plastics, like chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, and ethylene vinyl acetate; elastomers, like Viton (FKM), nitrile Buna-N (NBR), chloroprene, isoprene, natural rubber, polymethacrylate (acrylic) and silicone; and coatings, such as coal tar epoxy, epoxy general purpose and epoxy chemical resistant.(66,87,88) It does not attack plastics, such as Teflon (TFE and FEP), and other fluorocarbons, like ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (Halar), polypropylene, nylon, polyesters (Bisphenol A-fumerate, halogenated and isophthalate); elastomers, like ethylene-propylene (EP and EPDM), butyl rubber (isobutylene-isopropylene), fluorocarbons like Chemraz and Kalrez, and low-density polyethylene; and coatings, such as polyester and vinyls.(66,87,88)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Closely related glycol ethers, such as 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol, can form explosive peroxides during prolonged storage in contact with air. Formation of peroxides will occur more readily in sunlight. The rate and extent of peroxide formation from glycol ethers is not known, but the peroxides are unlikely to be hazardous unless they are concentrated during distillation or allowed to evaporate to dryness.(65)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Toxicity differs significantly depending upon the age of the animals studied. Weanling rats are less sensitive than older ones.(1)

LC50 (female rat): 450 ppm (4-hour exposure) (2)
LC50 (male rat): 486 ppm (4-hour exposure) (2)
LC50 (rat) : 925 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 700 ppm ( 7-hour exposure) (89)
LC50 (guinea pig): greater than 633 ppm (1-hour exposure; whole-body; no deaths or clinical signs of toxicity) (47)

LD50 (oral, rabbit): 320 mg/kg (1); Note: This value is unusually low compared to other reported values.
LD50 (oral, female rat): 530 mg/kg (1)
LD50 (oral, yearling male rat): 560 mg/kg (1)
LD50 (oral, male weanling rat): 3000 mg/kg (1)
LD50 (oral, 6-week old male rat): 2400 mg/kg (1)

LD50 (dermal, female rabbit): 100 mg/kg (cited as 0.11 mL/kg) (6); Note: This value is unusually low compared to other reported values.
LD50 (dermal, guinea pig): 207 mg/kg (cited as 0.23 mL/kg) (48)
LD50 (dermal, male rabbit): 400-500 mg/kg (1)

Eye Irritation:

Severe irritation has been observed in rabbits.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-butoxyethanol caused severe irritation in rabbits (scored 68.7/110; corneal opacity: 2.1/4; iris injury: 1.3/2; redness: 2.2/4; chemosis/edema: 2.5/4).(3) Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-butoxyethanol caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 4/10).(5) Application of 0.005 mL produced severe corneal injury in rabbits, with irritation of the iris. Application of 0.5 mL of a 15% solution produced moderate corneal injury in rabbits, while no injury was observed from a 5% solution.(4 citing an unpublished study) Other unpublished studies have also shown severe eye irritation.(31)

Skin Irritation:

Severe irritation has been observed in rabbits.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted 2-butoxyethanol, under cover, for 24 hours in a Draize test produced severe irritation in rabbits (scored 7.5/8). In the same study, application of 0.5 mL undiluted 2-butoxyethanol, under cover, for 4 hours in an EEC compliant test produced irritation (either erythema or eschar formation, or edema equivalent to a mean value of 2 or more observed in 2 or more animals).(44)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Short-term exposure by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact has caused severe blood system effects (red blood cell fragility, hemoglobinuria) at low concentrations. Repeated skin contact has caused severe irritation and tissue death.

Inhalation:
No deaths were observed in rats exposed by inhalation to up to 245 ppm for 9 days. Blood-stained urine was observed in the 245 ppm group only after the first two exposures. All of the 245 ppm group and females in the 86 ppm group showed a significant decrease in weight gain and an increase in liver weights. Significantly depressed blood parameters (e.g. red blood cell, hemoglobin concentrations) were noted at 245 ppm with some recovery in the 14 day recovery period. Similar, but less pronounced, effects were noted at 86 ppm. No significant effects were observed in the 20 ppm group.(2) The RD50, the concentration which produces a 50% reduction in the respiratory rate of male mice, is 2825 ppm for a 10-minute exposure.(30) Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans.

Skin Contact:
Solutions (5, 25, 50 or 100%) of 2-butoxyethanol were applied to rabbits, under cover, for 9 applications over 11 days. Approximate doses were 18, 90, 180 or 360 mg/kg. At the two highest doses, reversible redness, swelling and tissue death were observed at the site of application. Mild irritation was observed at the two lower concentrations. At 360 mg/kg, decreased red blood cell counts and hemoglobin in the urine were observed. At 180 mg/kg, hemoglobin was observed in the urine of females.(4 citing an unpublished report) 2-Butoxyethanol was applied dermally to rats in a single dose of 200, 260, 375 or 500 mg/kg, covered with a perforated glass capsule to prevent ingestion. At 500 mg/kg, hemolytic effects were observed within 6 hours of exposure. No effects were observed at 200 mg/kg. The other doses produced hemolytic effects in at least some of the animals in each dose group.(38) Dermal application of 70-225 mg/kg (cited as 0.08-0.25 mL/kg) of 99.5% 2-butoxyethanol to rabbits for 8 hours resulted in early deaths from narcosis or respiratory failure. Delayed deaths were attributed to renal impairment.(6) Dermal application of 452-506 mg/kg (cited as 0.5-0.56 mL/kg), under cover for 4 or 24 hours, to male rabbits caused deaths in 5-6/8 animals. Autopsy showed extreme congestion of the kidneys, hemoglobinuria, pale livers and engorged spleens.(1) Increased red blood cell fragility was observed one hour after a three-minute dermal application to rabbits of 506 mg/kg (0.56 mL/kg).(1) Female mice were given dermal applications of 0, 100, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg/kg/day in 4:1 acetone:olive oil for 4 days. There were no effects on body or thymus weights. At 1500 mg/kg/day, there was a significant increase in spleen weight and in spleen white blood cells. There were significant decreases in one immune parameter (T cell response) at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, but no effects on B cell response or on natural killer cells.(79)

Ingestion:
Hemolysis and hemoglobinuria are common observations in animals treated orally with 2-butoxyethanol. The hemolytic effects of 2-butoxyethanol in animals have been associated with changes in the spleen, including increased weight, and engorgement.(31) One study showed changes characteristic of hemolysis in male rats treated with a single oral dose greater than or equal to 125 mg/kg.(56) Oral doses at or above the LD50 resulted in central nervous system (CNS) effects such as sluggishness and unconsciousness in rats. Autopsies revealed congested or bleeding lungs and kidneys, mottled livers, and hemoglobinuria. Early deaths were due to the CNS effects and delayed deaths to lung and kidney damage.(1) Rats were given 250 mg/kg/day by gavage for 1, 2 or 3 days. Severe acute hemolytic anemia was caused in both sexes in all treatment groups. Three days of dosing resulted in blood clotting in the heart, eyes, bones, teeth, nasal cavity and lungs and degeneration and tissue death in the heart, eyes, teeth and bones. In females, the onset of the hemolytic anemia and of the clotting was earlier and the progression was more severe.(80) Guinea pigs were orally exposed to 500 or 1000 mg/kg. Slight to severe weakness and prostration that was either transitory or noted prior to death were observed. Salivation and staining of the hair of the face or abdomen, and respiratory difficulties were noted in a few male animals. Autopsy showed severe gastrointestinal irritation (tissue death and bleeding in the gastric mucosa).(47) In a 2-week drinking water study, rats received 73-346 mg/kg/day 2-butoxyethanol and mice received 93-1364 mg/kg/day. Final mean body weight was significantly reduced in high dose female rats (265 mg/kg/day). Thymus weights were reduced for male mice exposed to the two highest doses (370 or 627 mg/kg/day). There were no other significant effects noted.(11) Rats were given 2-butoxyethanol in the drinking water for 21 days and examined for harmful effects on the immune system. Estimated reported doses were 0, 180 or 506 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 204 or 444 mg/kg/day for females. There was a significant decrease in body weight at both doses for females and at 506 mg/kg/day for males. At 180 mg/kg/day for females and 204 mg/kg/day for males, there was a significant enhancement of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. No other effects were observed on the immune system.(81)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term inhalation exposure has produced severe toxicity to the blood system (hemolytic anemia) in rats and mice. Females are affected more than males. Secondary effects such as liver damage, ulceration of the forestomach and deaths have resulted upon exposure to high concentrations. Similar effects have been observed following ingestion exposure to relatively high doses. The blood effects are considered reversible at the lower exposure concentrations.

Inhalation:
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 31, 62.5, 125, 250 or 500 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 14 weeks. Five females in the 500 ppm group and one female in the 250 ppm group were sacrificed due to severe toxicity. Autopsy showed considerable evidence of blood clotting in tissues and organs including the nasal cavity, incisors, liver, lungs and heart. Clinical signs were most prevalent at 125 ppm and above and included abnormal breathing, pallor, red urine stains, nasal and eye discharge, lethargy, and increased salivation and/or lachrymation. Final mean body weights of females exposed to 500 ppm were significantly reduced. The main effect on the blood-forming system was anemia in males exposed to 125 ppm or greater and, to a greater extent, in all exposed groups of females. Cellular changes consistent with hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria were observed in females exposed to 62.5 ppm or greater and males exposed to 250 ppm or greater. Kidney weights of males exposed to 500 ppm and females exposed to 125 ppm or greater and liver weights of males exposed to 250 or 500 ppm and females exposed to 125 ppm or greater were significantly increased. Thymus weights of females exposed to 500 ppm were significantly less. Inflammation, tissue death, and ulceration of the forestomach; liver damage (tissue death and centrilobular degeneration); renal tubule degeneration; and atrophy of the spleen and thymus were also observed.(36,43) Mice were exposed to 0, 31, 62.5, 125, 250 or 500 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 14 weeks. Two male and two females exposed to 500 ppm died and two males and two females were killed due to severe toxicity. Final mean body weights were significantly less for animals exposed to 125 ppm and above. Animals that died or were killed due to severe toxicity showed abnormal breathing, red urine stains and lethargy. Autopsy showed inflammation, tissue death, and ulceration of the forestomach; liver damage (tissue death); renal tubule degeneration; atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes; and degeneration of the testis. Concentration-related anemia was observed in males exposed to 125 ppm or greater and in all exposed females. Cellular effects consistent with anemia were observed in males exposed to 125 or greater and in females exposed to 250 or 500 ppm. Increased absolute and relative liver weights were observed in males exposed to 500 ppm and relative liver weights were increased in 250 ppm males and 500 ppm females. Forestomach tissue death, ulceration, inflammation, and increased cell growth was observed in females exposed to 125 ppm or greater.(36) Rats were exposed to 0, 31.2, 62.5 or 125 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 104 weeks. Additional groups of rats were exposed to 0, 62.5 or 125 ppm 2-butoxyethanol for hematology and bone marrow analyses at 3, 6 and 12 months. One other group of rats was exposed to 31.2 ppm for blood evaluation at 3 and 6 months. Concentration-related mild anemia was observed at 3, 6 and 12 months, in females exposed to 62.5 ppm or greater and males exposed to 125 ppm. Cellular changes consistent with anemia were increased in males and females exposed to 62.5 or 125 ppm. The incidence of fibrosis of the spleen was increased in males exposed to 62.5 or 125 ppm. An exposure-related increase in degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in all exposed males and in females exposed to 62.5 or 125 ppm.(36) Mice were exposed to 0, 62.5, 125 or 250 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 104 weeks. Additional groups of mice were exposed to 0, 62.5, 125 or 250 ppm 2-butoxyethanol for hematology and bone marrow analyses at 3, 6 and 12 months. Survival was reduced in males exposed to 125 or 250 ppm. Concentration-related minimal anemia was observed at 3, 6 and 12 months in 125 and 250 ppm males and females. There was also evidence of anemia in 62.5 ppm females at 6 months. Cellular changes consistent with hemolytic anemia were increased to a certain extent in most exposure groups with statistical significance commonly achieved in groups exposed to 125 ppm and above. Exposure-related increases ulcers and increased cell growth of the forestomach were also observed.(36) In a series of experiments, mice, rats, guinea pigs, monkeys and dogs were exposed by inhalation to 54 to 494 ppm for up to 90 days. In most cases, reversible red blood cell fragility was observed at all concentrations. Typically full reversal had occurred before the next days exposure. In one experiment, all female rats exposed to 314 or 432 ppm died, while 3 males in the 432 ppm group survived all 30 days. In general, autopsy showed kidney and liver weights were increased at higher doses. Other observations included congested and bleeding lungs in rats and congested lungs and kidneys in guinea pigs that died during exposure.(1) No deaths occurred in rats exposed by inhalation to 5, 25 or 77 ppm for 90 days. Various blood changes were noted midway during the study. However, at the end of the study, statistically significant effects were only noted at 77 ppm (a decrease in red blood cell count and increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin). No other significant effects were noted.(2)

Skin Contact:
Dermal application of 10, 50 or 150 mg/kg/day 2-butoxyethanol, under cover, for 13 weeks produced no observable treatment-related effects in rabbits.(4 citing an unpublished study)

Ingestion:
Oral administration of 222, 443 or 885 mg/kg/day to male rats for 6 weeks produced dose-dependent effects on red blood cells as evidenced by decreased red blood cell counts, decreased hemoglobin concentrations and red-coloured urine. Secondary effects included increased spleen weights and congestion of the spleen, as well as hemosiderin accumulation in the liver and kidneys. Liver effects, as evidenced by increased liver enzymes and organ weight as well as histological changes, were observed at 443 mg/kg and above. There was no apparent toxicity to the testes, bone marrow, thymus and white blood cells.(39) Male mice were orally dosed with 0, 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks. All mice in the high dose group died. Depressed red blood cell count was observed at the two lower doses(59) No exposure-related deaths resulted from oral exposure of rats to up to 1540 mg/kg for 93 days. Significantly decreased weight gain and increased liver and kidney weights were observed at 950 and 1540 mg/kg. Increased liver weights were observed at 310 mg/kg and decreased weight gain at 200 mg/kg. No significant effects were observed with exposures less than 80 mg/kg.(1) Rats were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol in drinking water for 13 weeks. Males were exposed to 69, 129, 281, 367 or 452 mg/kg/day and females were exposed to 82, 151, 304, 363 or 470 mg/kg/day. Mild anemia was observed in males exposed to 304 mg/kg/day and above. Mild to moderate anemia was observed in female rats in most dose groups. Absolute thymus weights were reduced in males exposed to 367 mg/kg/day and females exposed to 470 mg/kg/day. Liver lesions (cytoplasmic alteration, hepatocellular degeneration and pigmentation) were observed in the majority of dosed rats. Liver degeneration was most pronounced at 281 mg/kg/day and above for males and 304 mg/kg/day and above for females.(11) Mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol in drinking water for 13 weeks. Males were exposed to 118, 223, 553, 676 or 694 mg/kg/day and females were exposed to 185, 370, 676, 861 or 1306 mg/kg/day. Slightly lower mean body weight gains were observed in males exposed to 553 or 694 mg/kg/day and females exposed to 676 or 1306 mg/kg/day. There were no other significant findings noted.(11)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results were obtained in guinea pigs in a Magnusson and Kligman test (using Freund's adjuvant).(44)

Carcinogenicity:
Some evidence of carcinogenic activity was observed in mice exposed by inhalation in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) study. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats and equivocal evidence in female rats similarly exposed.
Rats were exposed to 0, 31.2, 62.5 or 125 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 104 weeks. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in male rats. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in female rats, based on the increased combined incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (mainly benign) of the adrenal medulla. This effect was not significantly increased in females exposed to 125 ppm, but did exceed the historical control range.(36) Mice were exposed to 0, 62.5, 125 or 250 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour for 104 weeks. Survival was reduced in male mice exposed to 125 or 250 ppm. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in male mice, based on increased incidences of hemangiosarcoma of the liver at 250 ppm. A marginal increase in the incidences of forestomach squamous cell papilloma and an increase in the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma may have been exposure related. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity in female mice based on increased incidences of forestomach squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (mainly papilloma) at 250 ppm.(36) The results of in vivo and vitro studies suggest that the development of hemangiosarcomas in male mice is related to oxidative damage caused by iron depositing in the liver following hemolysis by 2-butoxyethanol.(82,83,84) Studies with mice indicate that the forestomach tumours following inhalation exposure probably result from ingestion exposure through grooming, from the buccal cavity and esophagus and from the salivary glands. Short-term ingestion of 2-butoxyethanol has been shown to cause irritation, inflammation, hyperplasia and thickening of the stomach, which is known to lead to tumours.(85)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Administration of 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact does not cause developmental effects at doses that are not maternally toxic. Developmental effects have been observed following inhalation or ingestion exposure to doses that have produced toxicity in the mothers.
Rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 ppm 2-butoxyethanol vapour on days 6-15 of pregnancy, while rabbits were exposed to the same concentrations on days 6-18 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity (e.g. blood effects and reduced weight gain) was observed in rats exposed to 100 and 200 ppm and in rabbits exposed to 200 ppm. Embryotoxic (e.g. increased resorptions) and fetotoxic (e.g. reduction in viable offspring, retarded skeletal ossification) effects were observed in rats at 200 ppm. At 100 ppm, fetotoxicity (retarded skeletal ossification) was also observed in rats. Embryotoxicity (decreased viable embryos/fetuses) was observed in rabbits exposed to 200 ppm. No developmental toxicity was observed in rats exposed to 50 ppm or in rabbits exposed to 100 ppm.(7) Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 150 or 200 ppm 2-butoxyethanol on days 7-15 or pregnancy. Slight maternal toxicity (hematuria on the first day of exposure) was observed at both 150 and 200 ppm. There was no apparent adverse effect on the pups except a significant decrease in fetal weights in the 150 ppm group. This effect was slight and was not observed in the 200 ppm group. It was therefore considered not to have biological significance.(40) 2-Butoxyethanol was dermally applied to pregnant rats at a dose of 0.35 mL four times daily. There was marked toxicity (severe hemolysis and deaths). Therefore the dose was reduced to 0.12 mL four times daily. At this dose, there was no maternal toxicity and there were no developmental effects noted in the offspring.(9) In a continuous breeding study, 2-butoxyethanol was administered to mice in drinking water at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% (0, 720, 1350 or 2000 mg/kg/day). At the two highest doses, severe maternal toxicity was observed in the F0 (parent) group (13/22 and 6/20 deaths). In these groups, fewer litters/pair, fewer pups/litter and decreased pup weight were observed. In the F1 group (exposed to 0.5%), reduced pup weight was observed in the presence of increased liver and kidney weights in the mothers.(10,37) 2-Butoxyethanol was administered orally to rats at doses of 0, 30, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day on days 9-11 or 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day on days 11-13 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity (decreased body weight and severe hematotoxicity) was observed at 100 mg/kg/day and above. Prenatal viability was reduced at 200 mg/kg/day, but not 300 mg/kg/day. There were no indications of embryotoxicity or fetotoxicity at doses of 100 mg/kg/day or less.(72) Mice were orally exposed to 0, 350, 650, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg/kg/day on days 8-14 or pregnancy. Severe maternal toxicity (including deaths) and embryotoxicity (increased resorptions) were observed at 1000 mg/kg/day and above. There were no other significant effects. In a postnatal study, 2-butoxyethanol was administered orally at doses of 0, 650 or 1000 mg/kg/day on days 8-14 of pregnancy. Maternal body weight was lowered at the high dose and there was evidence of hemolysis at both doses. No significant effects were observed in the offspring.(8)

Reproductive Toxicity:
The available information does not indicate that 2-butoxyethanol has reproductive toxicity.
In a continuous breeding study, 2-butoxyethanol was orally administered to mice at calculated doses of approximately 720, 1350, or 2000 mg/kg/day (cited as 0.5%, 1.0% or 2%) in drinking water. Significant effects on fertility were observed at the two higher doses, in the presence of significant maternal lethality (30% and 65%). A crossover mating study done using the 1% exposure mice, showed that the females were the affected sex. Second generation fertility at 0.5% was normal.(10,37) The majority of studies have not shown testicular effects in experimental animals exposed by inhalation, or ingestion or skin contact.(4,13,18,31,55,81) One unpublished study has shown testicular atrophy in rat exposed to 200 and 950 mg/kg in their diets for 3 months. The 2-butoxyethanol used in this study contained a number of impurities not found in current production materials, including crown ethers which have been shown to produce testicular atrophy.(4) Rats were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol in drinking water for 13 weeks. Males were exposed to 69, 129, 281, 367 or 452 mg/kg/day and females were exposed to 82, 151, 304, 363 or 470 mg/kg/day. Animal in the 3 highest dose groups were evaluated for sperm morphology and vaginal cytology. Sperm concentration was reduced in all groups of treated males. There were no significant differences in the female fertility cycle length, but animals in the two highest exposure groups differed significantly in the amount of time spent in specific fertility stages (more time was spent in the diestrus stage). No significant effects were observed in mice similarly exposed.(11)

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not indicate that 2-butoxyethanol is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in a limited study using live rats administered 2-butoxyethanol orally. Results from tests using cultured mammalian cells and bacteria have been mostly negative.
No effects on the DNA of the brain, testis, liver, spleen or kidneys were found in a study in which rats were given a single oral dose of 2-butoxyethanol.(32) This study is limited by small animal numbers (3/group) and by the use of a single dose. In the same study, rats and mice exposed via minipumps implanted subcutaneously also had no effects on the DNA. This route of exposure is not relevant to occupational situations.
Negative results were obtained for chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocyte cells, without metabolic activation.(33) Positive results were obtained in some tests using cultured mammalian cells, in the absence of metabolic activation.(33,34) Inconclusive results were obtained in an unscheduled DNA synthesis test using cultured mammalian cells.(12) Positive results were reported for one strain of Salmonella typhimurium, both with and without metabolic activation at high concentrations.(50) A later study was unable to replicate these results and speculates that the sample of 2-butoxyethanol used may have had a high concentration of peroxides, which would have influenced the results.(51) Negative results have been obtained in other short-term tests using cultured mammalian cells and bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(11,12,35,36,50,52)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

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(38) Bartnik, F.G., et al. Percutaneous absorption, metabolism, and hemolytic activity of n-butoxyethanol. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 8 (1987). p. 59-70
(39) Krasavage, W.J. Subchronic oral toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether in male rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 6 (1986). p. 349-355
(40) Nelson, B.K., et al. Comparative inhalation teratogenicity of four glycol ether solvents and an amino derivative in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 261-271
(41) Johanson, G., et al. Toxicokinetics of inhaled 2-butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) in man. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 12 (1986). p. 594-602
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(48) Roudabush, R.L., et al. Comparative acute effects of some chemicals on the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7 (1965). p. 559-565
(49) Raymond, L.W., et al. Eruptive cherry angiomas and irritant symptoms after one acute exposure to the glycol ether solvent 2-butoxyethanol. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 40, no. 12 (Dec. 1998). p. 1059-1064
(50) Hoflack, J.C., et al. Mutagenicity of ethylene glycol ethers and of their metabolites in Salmonella typhimurium his-. Mutation Research. Vol. 341, no. 4 (1995). p. 281-287
(51) Gollapudi, B.B., et al. Re-examination of the mutagenicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether to Salmonella tester strain TA97a. Mutation Research. Vol. 370, no. 1 (1996). p. 61-64
(52) Chiewchanwit, T., et al. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolite, 2-butoxyacetaldehyde, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-AS52) cells. Mutation Research. Vol. 334 (1995). p. 341-346
(53) Sohnlein, B., et al. Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. XIV. Examinations concerning the evaluation of a limit value for 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate and the genotoxic effects of these glycol ethers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 64 (1993). p. 479-484
(54) McKinney, P.E., et al. Butoxyethanol ingestion with prolonged hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis treated with ethanol therapy. Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 38, no. 7 (2000). p. 787-793
(55) US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Toxicological review of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (CAS No. 111-76-2) in support of summary information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). US EPA, Oct. 1999
(56) Ghanayem, B.I., et al. Comparison of the hematologic effects of 2-butoxyethanol using two types of hematology analyzers. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 106 (1990). p. 341-345
(57) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). 2-Butoxyethanol. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 10. World Health Organization, 1998
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-11-29

Revision Indicators:
Long-term exposure 2006-06-22
WHMIS health effects 2006-06-22
Emergency overview 2006-06-22
Bibliography 2006-06-27
Toxicological info 2006-06-27
Short-term skin contact 2006-06-27
Short-term ingestion 2006-06-27
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-06-27
Emergency overview 2006-06-27
Handling 2006-06-27



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