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CHEMINFO Record Number: 704
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Butanol

Butanol (non-specific name)
Butyl alcohol (non-specific name)
2-Butyl alcohol
sec-Butyl alcohol
Butylene hydrate
Ethyl methyl carbinol
Methyl ethyl carbinol
1-Methyl propanol
1-Methylpropyl alcohol
Secondary butyl alcohol

Chemical Name French: Alcool butylique secondaire
Chemical Name Spanish: Alcohol sec-butílico
CAS Registry Number: 78-92-2
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 4221-99-2 14898-79-4 15892-23-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1120
RTECS Number(s): EO1750000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 201-158-5
Chemical Family: Saturated secondary aliphatic alcohol / secondary alkanol / secondary alkyl alcohol / butanol / butyl alcohol
Molecular Formula: C4-H10-O
Structural Formula: CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3


Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a characteristic sweet odour.(4,8)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely; 0.12-13.8 ppm; (geometric mean: 3.2 ppm (detection); 0.41 ppm (recognition)) (7)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than 10 times the geometric mean recognition odour threshold.

2-Butanol is one of the chemical forms (isomers) of butanol or butyl alcohol. 2-Butanol is optically active and can exist in either the R(-)-2-butanol (CAS No. 14898- 79-4) or S(+)-2-butanol (CAS No. 4221-99-2) isomeric forms, or as the racemic (isomeric) mixture (+-)-2-butanol (CAS No. 15892-23-6). All forms of 2-butanol are commercially available in high purity of 99% or greater.

Uses and Occurrences:
2-Butanol is used mainly for the production of 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone). It is also used as a solvent for alkyd and natural resins, ethylcellulose lacquers, enamels, vegetable oils, gums, paint removers, and adhesives; in the manufacture of hydraulic brake fluids, cleaning agents, perfumes, dyestuffs, fruit essences and wetting agents; in the synthesis of flotation agents; in the extraction of fish meal to produce fish protein concentrate; and as a flavouring agent in food.(2,4,6,8)
2-Butanol occurs naturally as a product of fermentation of carbohydrates. Exposure may be through its natural occurrence in foods and beverages, its use as a flavouring agent, and/or through industrial emissions.(4)


Colourless liquid with a characteristic sweet odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness and drowsiness. EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may cause aspiration (breathing) into the lungs.


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

2-Butanol can be detected by smell at very low concentrations (0.12-13.8 ppm), well below concentrations expected to produce harmful effects. At higher concentrations, 2-butanol can irritate the nose and throat. Extremely high concentrations of the vapour or mists can cause headaches, dizziness, and drowsiness. These are symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression.
There is very little specific information available for 2-butanol. There are unconfirmed reports of irritation of the nose and throat, headache, nausea, fatigue and dizziness from excessive exposure to vapour.(2)

Skin Contact:
Brief exposures are not expected to cause irritation, based on animal information.
Skin absorption may occur to a slight extent, based on comparison to other alcohols.

Eye Contact:
The liquid is a severe eye irritant, based on animal information.
High vapour concentrations may also be irritating to the eyes, based on comparison to other alcohols.

In general, butanols can cause effects resembling "alcohol" intoxication such as headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, breathing difficulty, unconsciousness, coma and death can occur.
If ingested or vomited, 2-butanol can probably be aspirated into the lungs, based on its viscosity and surface tension, and comparison to related alcohols. This may result in severe lung damage (edema) and, in some cases, respiratory failure and death.
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Long-term exposure is not expected to cause any effects which are not also caused by short-term exposure.

Repeated or prolonged contact can probably cause dermatitis (dry, cracked, thickened, reddened skin).

Skin Sensitization:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that 2-butanol is an occupational skin sensitizer.
There are 2 reports of people who were previously shown to be allergic to other alcohols, showing a positive allergic response to 2-butanol.(17,18) There is no indication in either report that the individuals were occupationally exposed to 2-butanol. Negative results were obtained in two animal studies.


There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Animal studies suggest that fetotoxicity (decrease fetal weight) may occur at exposure levels that are harmful to the mother.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. The only animal study located does not suggest that 2-butanol is a reproductive toxin.

There is no human information available. No conclusions can be drawn based on the one available study using live animals. Negative results have been obtained in short-term tests.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Carbon tetrachloride interacts synergistically with 2-butanol.(4,22) In general, alcohols interact synergistically with chlorinated solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. xylene) or dithiocarbamates (e.g. disulfiram).

Potential for Accumulation:
2-Butanol does not accumulate in the body. It is readily absorbed following inhalation and ingestion. Animal studies show that 2-butanol is broken down (oxidized) mainly to 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone), which is further converted to small amounts of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2,3-butanediol. In a study with rats, approximately 97% of the administered dose of 2-butanol was converted to 2-butanone. 2-Butanone is mainly excreted in the expired air with a small amount eliminated in the urine. 2-Butanol also reacts with glucuronic acid to form 2-butyl glucuronide, which is eliminated in the urine. Unchanged 2-butanol is eliminated in the expired air and the urine.(2,4,22)


This product is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. If irritation does occur, flush with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into non- affected eye. Obtain medical attention immediately.

NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.


Flash Point:
24 deg C (75 deg F) (closed cup) (10)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.7% at 100 deg C (11)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
9.8% at 100 deg C (11)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
405 deg C (761 deg F) (9)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
2-Butanol will not accumulate static charge. Mixtures of 2-butanol vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range can be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
Less than 1 X 10(7) pS/m (12)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Irritant gases, which may include unburned alcohol and toxic constituents.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can readily form explosive mixtures with air, at or above, 24 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flashback to a leak or open container. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Vapours can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in an explosion and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.(13) Alcohols, which are water-soluble, will breakdown the common foams. Special "alcohol resistant fire-fighting foams" are recommended for use with any polar flammable liquid that is slightly soluble or completely soluble in water (like 2-butanol). Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates. Water may be ineffective for extinguishing a fire because it may not cool 2-butanol below its flash point.(9)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products. Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite.
Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be one without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
2-Butanol is slightly hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self- contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.


NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.


Molecular Weight: 74.12

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.03 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.33 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -114.7 deg C (-174.5 deg F) (23,24,25)
Boiling Point: 99.5 deg C (211 deg F) (23,24,25)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.807 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (23,24)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (12.5 g/100 mL at 20 deg C (2,24); 18.1 g/100 mL at 25 deg C (26))
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol and diethyl ether; very soluble in acetone.(24,31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.61 (27); Log P(oct) = 0.65 (28)
pH Value: Not available. Alcohols are both weak acids and weak bases.
Acidity: Very weak acid: pKa = 17.6 at 25 deg C (26)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 3.91 mPa.s (3.91 centipoises) at 20 deg C (24); 3.1 mPa.s (3.1 centipoises) at 25 deg C (31)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 4.85 mm2/s (4.85 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 41.82 Saybolt seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated) (32)
Surface Tension: 23.47 mN/m (23.37 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (24,30); 22.54 mN/m (22.54 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (31)
Vapour Density: 2.55 (air = 1) (4)
Vapour Pressure: 1.72 kPa (12.9 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (23); 2.44 kPa (18.3 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (23,26) (calculated)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 17000 ppm (1.70%) at 20 deg C; 24000 ppm (2.41%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.81 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (29)
Henry's Law Constant: 1.03 Pa.m3/mol (1.016 x 10(-5) atm.m3/mol) (cited as log H = -3.38 (dimensionless)) at 25 deg C (experimental) (33)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 17.26 at 20 deg C (24,31); 16.6 at 25 deg C (24)


Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

OXYGEN or AIR - secondary alcohols, such as 2-butanol, are autoxidized upon prolonged storage (e.g. 10 or 12 years) in the presence of sunlight and air, forming ketones and peroxides and becoming potentially explosive.(11,34,35,36)
OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. calcium hypochlorite, chlorine oxides, chromium trioxide, hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides, nitric acid and nitrates, or permanganates) - may react violently or explosively. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(9,11-13)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium or potassium) or ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. magnesium or calcium) - reaction may be violent resulting in explosions. Flammable hydrogen gas is given off.(11,12)
ALUMINUM - may react at elevated temperatures, forming flammable hydrogen gas.(11)
HYPOCHLOROUS ACID or CHLORINE - form alkyl hypochlorites, which explode violently on exposure to sunlight or heat.(9,11)
BROMINE - reaction may be vigorously exothermic (vigorous heat evolution) or violent, resulting in explosions.(11)
PERCHLORIC ACID or METAL PERCHLORATES (e.g. barium perchlorate) - may form shock-sensitive or explosive compounds.(9,11)
ISOCYANATES (e.g. toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate or methyl isocyanate) - may react vigorously, violently or explosively with the generation of heat.(9,11)
ACIDS, ACID ANHYDRIDES, or ACID CHLORIDES - reaction may be vigorous or violent, with the evolution of heat.(13)
LITHIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE - reaction may be vigorous.(9)
In addition, mixtures or reactions of alcohols with the following materials may cause explosions: acetaldehyde, dialkylmagnesiums (e.g. diethylmagnesium or dipenylmagnesium), N-haloimides (e.g. N-bromosuccinimide or N-chlorosuccinimide), ethylene oxide, nitrogen tetraoxide, nitryl hypochlorite, permonosulfuric acid and tri-isobutyl aluminum.(9,11)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Unstable peroxides (following prolonged storage, e.g. 10 or 12 years, and in the presence of sunlight and air).(34,35,36)

Conditions to Avoid:
Static discharge, friction, sparks, open flames, heat, and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
2-Butanol is not corrosive to the common metals. Stainless steels (types 304/347, 316 and 20 Cb 3), high silicon iron, copper, brass, bronze, naval bronze, nickel and its alloys, Hastelloy, Inconel, Monel, tantalum, titanium and zirconium have good resistance (penetration less than 20 mils (505 um)/year).(37) Secondary butanols are not corrosive to aluminum up to at least 75 deg C (37), although it is reported that n-butanol, a closely related alcohol, reacts with aluminum at high temperatures.(11)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
2-Butanol can attack some plastics (such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Styrene-Acrylonitrile, polyvinylchloride (PVC), and Chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC) at high temperatures), elastomers (such as polyether-urethane) and coatings.(37,38)


LD50 (oral, rat): 2193 mg/kg (42)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 4900 mg/kg (16)
LD50 (oral, rat): 6480 mg/kg (1)

LD50 (dermal, rat): greater than 2000 mg/kg (42)

Eye Irritation:

2-Butanol is a severe irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-butanol caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5, where 5 is severe injury; graded 4/10).(1) Moderate inflammation of the eye, with some discharge, was observed in rabbits within 1 hour of application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-butanol. Three rabbits showed extensive clouding of the cornea (corneal opacity). In all but one animal, the effects cleared by day 7. The effects in the last rabbit were considered irreversible and based on this observation, 2-butanol was considered as corrosive to the eyes (scoring not reported).(42)

Skin Irritation:

2-Butanol is not irritating.

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted 2-butanol produced no irritation in rabbits (graded 1/10).(1) Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted 2-butanol for 4 hours caused no irritation in rabbits (graded 0/8).(42)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Short-term exposure has resulted in symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression.

After a 4-hour inhalation exposure to 16000 ppm, 5/6 rats died within 14 days.(1) Mice exposed repeatedly to 5330 ppm for a total of 117 hours became unconscious, but survived. Higher concentrations have caused deaths.(2, unconfirmed) The RD50, the concentration which produced a 50% reduction in the respiratory rate of male mice, is 11800 ppm for a 10-minute exposure.(21) Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans.

The degree of central nervous system depression caused by oral administration of 2-butanol was measured in rats using an inclined plane test which assesses balance. Using this test, 2-butanol was found to be 4.4 times more intoxicating than ethanol. Recovery from intoxication was slow. No signs of recovery were evident within 2 hours following dosing. A return to normal state was underway 7 hours after dosing.(5)

Skin Sensitization:
In two studies, skin sensitization was not observed in guinea pigs when challenged either with 0.5 mL of undiluted 2-butanol (0/20 positive responses) or 0.1 mL of 25% 2-butanol in corn oil (0/20 positive responses).(42,43)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight and delayed skeletal maturation) may be seen at exposure levels that are also harmful to the mothers.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3500, 5000 or 7000 ppm on days 1-19 of pregnancy. Maternal and fetal weight gain was reduced at all 3 exposure levels. Narcosis was observed in mothers exposed to 5000 or 7000 ppm. The decrease in fetal weight gain was only statistically significant at 5000 and 7000 ppm. No increase in the incidence of fetal malformation was found at any exposure level. At 7000 ppm, there was a reduction in the numbers of live births in addition to the decrease in fetal weights.(3) Rats were administered 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0% in drinking water through 2 generations. Calculated doses for adults were 300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/day for males and females. At 0.3 and 1.0, no significant harmful effects were observed. At 2.0%, some non-specific kidney changes were observed in the second generation, which the authors attributed to increased kidney workload due to high exposure. A significant depression in the growth of weanling rats and fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight and retarded skeletal maturation) were also observed at 2.0%. Initial exposure of pregnant females at 3.0% was associated with toxicity (decreased maternal weight gain and food consumption, decreased pup weight gain and increased pup death). The second generation rats of this exposure group were therefore transferred to the 2.0% dose group after a recovery period.(44)

Reproductive Toxicity:
The available information does not suggest that 2-butanol is a reproductive toxin.
Rats were administered 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0% in drinking water through 2 generations. Calculated doses for adults were 300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/day for males and females. No significant reproductive toxicity was observed.(44)

No conclusions can be drawn from the one study that used live animals. Negative results were obtained in short-term tests.
Positive results were obtained in a study where rats were orally exposed to 2-butanol. This study cannot be evaluated because the experimental design and reporting do not meet accepted standards.(22)
No chromosomal effects were observed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, with or without metabolic activation.(20) No mutagenic activity was found with yeast or bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(4,20)


Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, H.F., Jr., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list V. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 10 (1954). p. 61-68
(2) Bevan, C. Monohydric alcohols - C1 to C6: 2-butanol. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. Ketones; alcohols; esters; epoxy compounds; organic peroxides. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 365-369, 418-421
(3) Nelson, B.K., et al. Lack of selective developmental toxicity of three butanol isomers administered by inhalation to rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 12, no. 3 (1989). p. 469-479
(4) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Butanols - four isomers: 1-Butanol, 2-butanol, tert- butanol, isobutanol. Environmental Health Criteria 65. World Health Organization, 1987
(5) Wallgren, H. Relative intoxicating effects on rats of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 16 (1960). p. 217-222
(6) sec-Butyl alcohol. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 262
(7) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 14, 49
(8) Hain, H-D, et al. Butanols. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 4. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 463-474
(9) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491 (alcohols)
(10) Billig, E. Butyl alcohols. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 4. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 691-700
(11) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. 6th ed. [CD-ROM]. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(12) sec-Butanol. In: Chemicals safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 136
(13) Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. (URL: http://www.sigma- Password required)
(14) sec-Butyl alcohol. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994
(15) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(16) Munch, J.C. Aliphatic alcohols and alkyl esters: narcotic and lethal potencies to tadpoles and to rabbits. Industrial Medicine. Vol. 41, no. 4 (Apr., 1972). p. 31- 33
(17) Fregert, S., et al. Hypersensitivity to secondary alcohols. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 51, no. 4 (1971). p. 271-272
(18) Ludwig, E., et al. Sensitivity to isopropyl alcohol. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 3, no. 5 (1977). p. 240-244
(19) Abstracts of papers for the sixteenth annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Toronto, 1977. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 41, No. 1 (July, 1977). p. 135
(20) Brooks, T.M., et al. The genetic toxicology of some hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents. Mutagenesis. Vol. 3, no. 3 (1988). p. 227-232
(21) Hansen, L.F., et al. Sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation and structure-activity relationships of alcohols. Toxicology. Vol. 88, nos. 1-3 (1994). p. 81-99
(22) Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. 1- , 2- and t- Butanol. Health based recommended occupational exposure limit. Publication No. 1994/10. Health Council of the Netherlands, 1994
(23) Wilhoit, R.C. et al. Physical and thermodynamic properties of aliphatic alcohols. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 2 (Suppl. no. 1) (1973). p. 1-97 to 1-106
(24) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 1.128, 5.91, 5.108
(25) Daubert, T.E., et al. Data compilation tables of properties of pure compounds. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1985
(26) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <>
(27) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <>
(28) Sangster, J. Octanol-water partition coefficients of simple organic compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 18, no. 3 (1989). p. 1152
(29) Sullivan, D.A. Solvents, industrial. In: Kirk- Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. p. 536-537, 550, 562
(30) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 479, 487
(31) Lide, D., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. (CD-ROM). Chapman and Hall/CRCnet BASE, 1999
(32) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard practice for conversion of kinematic viscosity to Saybolt Universal viscosity or to Saybolt Furol viscosity. ASTM Designation: D 2161 -93 (Reapproved 1999). American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999
(33) Hine, J. et al. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of organic compounds. Correlations in terms of structural contributions. Journal of Organic Chemistry. Vol. 40, no. 3 (1975). p. 292-298
(34) Mirafzal, G. A. et al. Control of peroxidizable compounds: an addendum. Journal of Chemical Education. Vol. 65, no. 9 (Sept. 1988) p. A226-A229
(35) Sharpless, T. W. Butanol safety hazard. Letter. Journal of Chemical Education. Vol. 61 (1984). p. 476
(36) Peterson, D. Explosion of 2-butanol. Letter. Chemical and Engineering News. Vol. 59, no. 19 (May 11, 1981). p. 3
(37) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 501-504
(38) Corrosion data survey: nonmetals section. 5th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1983. p. 15- 16
(39) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(40) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Alcohols II. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug., 1994). Available from World Wide Web:
(41) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organic Vapors. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct., 31, 2001. Available from World Wide Web:
(42) Toxicity studies of secondary butyl alcohol with cover letter dated 12/23/94. Date produced: Aug. 4, 1986. Shell Oil Co. EPA/OTS 86-50000062. NTIS/OTS0557575.
(43) Centre International de Toxicologie (CIT). Skin sensitization test in guinea-pigs (maximization method of Magnusson, B. and Kligman, A.M.) of sec-butanol, with cover letter dated 1/27/1998. Date produced: Feb. 19, 1997. Elf Atochem North America Inc. EPA/OTS 86-980000078. NTIS/OTS055416.
(44) Food and Research Laboratories. Initial submission: toxicity studies in rats with 2-butanol including growth, reproduction and teratologic observations with cover letter dated 072892. Date produced: Feb. 7, 1975. Union Carbide Corp. EPA/OTS 88-920004522. NTIS/OTS0536942.

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 2004-06-16

Revision Indicators:
UN/NA No 2004-10-07
TDG 2004-10-07
TDG 2004-10-12
UN/NA No 2004-10-12
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-31
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-31
Bibliography 2005-03-31

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