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CHEMINFO Record Number: 51
CCOHS Chemical Name: tert-Butanol

Butanol (non-specific name)
Butyl alcohol (non-specific name)
t-Butyl alcohol
tert-Butyl alcohol
t-Butyl hydroxide
TBA (non-specific name)
Trimethyl carbinol

Chemical Name French: Alcool butylique tertiaire
Chemical Name Spanish: Alcohol ter-butílico
CAS Registry Number: 75-65-0
UN/NA Number(s): 1120
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-889-7
Chemical Family: Tertiary aliphatic alcohol / tertiary alkanol / tertiary alkyl alcohol / butanol / butyl alcohol
Molecular Formula: C4-H10-O
Structural Formula: C(CH3)3-OH


Appearance and Odour:
Can exist as a colourless liquid or colourless or white crystals, depending on temperature and purity. Has a camphor-like odour.(7,29)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely; 3.3-957 ppm; acceptable value: 957 ppm (detection).(30)

Warning Properties:
POOR - reported odour threshold values vary widely; acceptable value is ten times the TLV.

tert-Butanol is one of the four chemical forms (isomers) of butanol or butyl alcohol. It is a low-melting solid that can exist as a solid or liquid at room temperature, depending on the purity of the compound. Impure tert-butanol is a liquid at room temperature while pure tert-butanol is a solid. This record contains the available information specific for tert-butanol, supplemented with general information on alcohols, which is applicable to tert-butanol. tert-Butanol is available commercially at least 99.5% purity and as an azeotropic mixture with 11-12% water.(5,6)

Uses and Occurrences:
tert-Butanol is used as a gasoline additive; in the manufacture of isobutylene (which is used to manufacture methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), an octane improver in unleaded gasoline), and methyl methacrylate; in organic synthesis to introduce the tert-butyl group into organic compounds; and in the preparation of glycol ethers. It is also used as a solvent; in the manufacture of drugs, perfumes, paint removers, plastics, lacquers, oil-soluble polyester resins; as a starting material for the preparation of organic peroxides; as a component of industrial cleaning compounds and insecticidal formulations; as a defoaming agent; as a stabilizer in chlorinated hydrocarbons; and as a denaturant for ethanol.(1,5-8)
tert-Butanol occurs in the environment as a result of its commercial uses.(7) Indirect exposure to tert-butanol may occur by metabolism of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE).(1)


Colourless liquid or colourless or white crystals with a camphor-like odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. EYE IRRITANT. Causes eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may cause aspiration (breathing) into the lungs.


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

tert-Butanol is a mild central nervous system (CNS) depressant. High vapour concentrations can cause irritation of the nose and throat, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion and unconsciousness. No minimum concentrations at which these effects occur have been reported. However, exposure to concentrations less than 100 ppm is not likely to produce these effects. No ill effects due to occupational exposures have been reported.(1)

Skin Contact:
tert-Butanol is expected to produce no or very mild irritation, based on animal and imited human information. In a historical report, application of tert-butanol to the intact skin of 5 volunteers for 75 minutes produced slight redness and swelling. The effect faded within two minutes.(19)

Eye Contact:
Exposure to the liquid or crystals is likely to cause moderate irritation, based on animal evidence. There is no human information available.

Ingestion of a large amount is likely to produce symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression such as headache, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness. If ingested or vomited, tert-butanol can probably be aspirated into the lungs, based on its viscosity and surface tension, and comparison to related alcohols, such as 1-butanol. Aspiration may result in severe lung damage (edema) and, in some cases, respiratory failure and death. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is very little information available on the potential health effects due to long-term exposure to tert-butanol.

Repeated or prolonged contact may cause drying, reddening and cracking of the skin (dermatitis).(23)

Skin Sensitization:
It is not possible to conclude that tert-butanol is a skin sensitizer based on the limited information available.
tert-Butanol (70%) caused an allergic skin reaction in a 58-year-old patient who used a sunscreen containing this alcohol. A patch test was positive for tert-butanol.(4,23) Application of tert-butanol (1, 10 or 100%) to 5 patients, one with a pre-existing allergy to ethanol, failed to produce an allergic response.(4,23)


There is no human information available. Some evidence of carcinogenicity has been observed in male rats and female mice following the administration of high oral doses for 2 years. The carcinogenic effects were observed in the presence of severe toxicity in the animals and are of questionable relevance to humans.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Fetotoxicity has been observed in rats exposed by inhalation to concentrations, which were also maternally toxic.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. No effects on the reproductive organs of rats and mice have been observed in 90-day inhalation and oral studies.

There is no human information available. Studies using live animals suggest that tert-butanol is not mutagenic.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Alcohols may interact synergistically with chlorinated solvents (e.g. carbon tetrachloride), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. xylene) or dithiocarbamates (e.g. disulfiram).

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulate. tert-Butanol is rapidly absorbed into the blood following inhalation or ingestion. There is no information available on skin absorption. It can be conjugated with glucuronic acid and is metabolized to give small amounts of formaldehyde and acetone in a minor pathway. It is mainly excreted unchanged in exhaled air and eliminated in the urine, either as the free alcohol or as the glucuronide. Small amounts of acetone are eliminated in the expired air and urine, while carbon dioxide has appeared on the breath. Several hours or days may be required for complete removal from the body.(1,4,23,26,27)


This material is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.


Flash Point:
11.1 deg C (52 deg F) (closed cup) (5,9)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.4% (5,9)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
8.0% (5,9)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
478 deg C (892 deg F) (5,9)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
In general, alcohols do not accumulate static charge, since the electrical conductivity of alcohols is high. Mixtures of tert-butanol vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range can be ignited by static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Irritant gases, which may include unburned alcohol and toxic constituents.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can release vapours that readily form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 11 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flashback to a leak or open container. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Vapours can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in an explosion and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.(10) "Multipurpose " alcohol-resistant foams are recommended for use on flammable polar liquids, such as tert-butanol.(9) Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates. Water may be ineffective for extinguishing a fire because it may not cool tert-butanol below its flash point.(9,10)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite.
Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be one without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
tert-Butanol is slightly hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.


NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.


Molecular Weight: 74.12

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.03 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.33 ppm (calculated)

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 25.8 deg C (78.4 deg F) (5,31)
Boiling Point: 82.4 deg C (180.3 deg F) (5,31,32,33)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.787 at 20 deg C (6,31,32); 0.781 at 25 deg C (32) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions at 20-30 deg C.(1,5,6,34)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in alcohols (e.g. ethanol), ethers (e.g. diethyl ether), esters and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.(7,31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.35 (35,36)
pH Value: Not available. Probably neutral.
Acidity: Very weak acid: pKa = 19.2 at 25 deg C (33,34)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 4.31 mPa.s (4.31 centipoises) at 25 deg C (38); 3.35 mPa.s (3.35 centipoises) at 30 deg C (37)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 5.52 mm2/s (5.52 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 44.0 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 19.96 mN/m (19.96 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (40); 19.1 mN/m (19.1 dynes/cm) at 30 deg C (31)
Vapour Density: 2.55 (air = 1) (7,37)
Vapour Pressure: 4 kPa (30.1 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (32); 5.56-5.6 kPa (41.7-42 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (32)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 39600 ppm (3.96%) at 20 deg C; 54900 to 55300 ppm (5.49 to 5.53%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 1.05 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (37)
Henry's Law Constant: 1.214 Pa.m3/mol (1.2 X 10(-5) atm.m3/mol) (cited as log H = -3.31 (dimensionless)) at 25 deg C (experimental) (41)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 12.47 at 25 deg C (38); 10.9 at 30 deg C (31)


Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. calcium hypochlorite, chlorine oxides, chromium trioxide, hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides, nitric acid and nitrates, or permanganates) - may react violently or explosively. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(10,11,29)
POTASSIUM-SODIUM ALLOY - contact with tert-butanol caused ignition.(42)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium or potassium) and ALKALINE-EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium or magnesium) - reacts to give off flammable hydrogen gas.(29)
STRONG MINERAL ACIDS - can cause decomposition to flammable isobutylene gas.(7)
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND SULFURIC ACID - mixture with tert-butanol resulted in severe explosions.(9)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Static discharge, friction, sparks, open flames, heat, and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
tert-Butanol is not corrosive to the common metals. Stainless steels (types 304/347, 316 and 20 Cb 3), high silicon iron, aluminium, copper, brass, bronze, naval bronze, nickel and its alloys, Hastelloy, Inconel, Monel, tantalum, titanium and zirconium have good resistance (penetration less than 20 mils (505 um)/year).(43)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
tert-Butanol can attack some plastics (such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Styrene-Acrylonitrile, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (above 32 deg C), elastomers (such as FKM (Viton A), and polyether-urethane) and coatings.(43)


LD50 (oral, rat): 3500 mg/kg (18)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 3560 mg/kg (cited as 48 mmol/kg) (16)

Eye Irritation:

tert-Butanol is a moderate eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted high purity tert-butanol (99.9%) to one eye of 9 rabbits produced moderate irritation (average scores for 24, 48 and 72 hours for unwashed eyes: 37.7/110; score at 16 days for all unwashed eyes: 0/110).(45)

Skin Irritation:

tert-Butanol is a non-irritant to very mild skin irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL to intact damaged skin for 24 hours caused very mild irritation in rabbits (average scores for 6 animals at 24 and 72 hours: erythema: 0.35/4; edema: 0/4).(48)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

tert-Butanol is a central nervous system depressant and the signs of intoxication in mice and rats exposed to its vapour are similar to the other alcohols, e.g. muscular incoordination, hyperactivity and unconsciousness.(13,20,26) Mice can become rapidly dependent on tert-butanol and will experience symptoms of withdrawal when dosing stops. tert-Butanol is 4-5 times more potent than ethanol in producing physical dependence.(13) Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to 450, 900, 1750, 3500 or 7000 ppm for 12/18 days. All animals exposed to 7000 ppm were killed due to the seriousness of effects observed following a single 6-hour exposure. Body weight was reduced in all rats exposed to 3500 ppm and 1 mouse died. Also at 3500 ppm, thymus weights were reduced in male and female rats and female mice and liver weights were increased in male and female mice. Muscle incoordination, hyperactivity and hypoactivity were observed in rats at concentrations of 900 ppm and higher and mice exposed to 1750 ppm and higher.(26)

The oral narcotic dose for rabbits is 1400 mg/kg (cited as 19 mmol/kg).(16) The oral dose required to produce muscle incoordination in 50% of the rats tested is 530 mg/kg.(18) The degree of central nervous system (CNS) depression was measured in rats using an inclined plane test, which assesses balance. Using this test, tert- butanol was found to be 4.8 times more intoxicating than ethanol. Recovery was very slow, with no improvement in performance 7 hours after administration.(21)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term oral and inhalation studies indicate that the urinary tract and kidneys are the target organs for rats and mice. Some effects have been observed in rats exposed to 180 mg/kg in drinking water for 2 years.

Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to 135, 270, 540, 1080 or 2100 ppm for 90 days. One male mouse exposed to 2100 ppm died. In male rats, there was a concentration-dependent increase in the severity of chronic kidney damage (nephropathy). The relative right kidney weight of female rats exposed to 2100 ppm and the liver weights of female rats and mice exposed to 1080 or 2100 ppm were increased.(26)

Rats were administered 0, 235, 495, 805, 1600 or 3590 mg/kg (males) or 0, 260, 505, 760, 1450 or 3500 mg/kg (females) (cited as 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0%) tert-butanol in drinking water for 90 days. Mice were administered 0, 320, 725, 1565, 2840 or 6245 mg/kg (males) or 0, 570, 940, 1730, 4365 or 7475 mg/kg (females) (cited as 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0%). Significant lethality was observed in all high dose groups. Body weights were significantly decreased in male rats at all doses, in female rats at 3500 mg/kg, in male mice at 1565 mg/kg and higher and in female mice at 4365 mg/kg and higher. Clinical signs in rats were muscle incoordination in both sexes and reduced activity in males. Clinical signs in mice were muscle incoordination, abnormal posture and reduced activity. Absolute and relative liver weights were increased in all exposed female rats. Relative liver weights were increased in male rats exposed to 495- 1600 mg/kg. Urinary tract effects (e.g. lesions, inflammation, reduced volume of urine) were observed. The no effect level for urinary tract lesions was 805 mg/kg for male rats; 1450 mg/kg for female rats; 1565 mg/kg for male mice; and 4365 mg/kg for female mice. Male rats tend to be more susceptible to certain kidney changes known as hyaline droplet nephropathy. This effect was observed in all male rat treatment groups, except the high dose group, which had complete mortality.(17,25) tert-Butanol was administered in drinking water to rats and mice for 2 years. Exposure levels were equivalent to 90, 200 or 420 mg/kg/day (male rats), 180, 330 or 650 mg/kg/day (female rats), 540, 1040 or 2070 mg/kg/day (male mice) and 510, 1020 or 2110 mg/kg/day (female mice). Survival of high dose male and female rats and high dose male mice was significantly reduced. Signs of kidney injury were observed in rats at 180 mg/kg and above.(27)

Some evidence of carcinogenicity has been observed following the administration of high oral doses. tert-Butanol was administered in drinking water to rats and mice for 2 years. Exposure levels were equivalent to 90, 200 or 420 mg/kg/day (male rats), 180, 330 or 650 mg/kg/day (female rats), 540, 1040 or 2070 mg/kg/day (male mice) and 510, 1020 or 2110 mg/kg/day (female mice). Under the conditions of this study, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male rats based on an increased incidence of renal tubule adenoma/carcinoma. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity in female rats. There was inconclusive evidence of carcinogenicity to male mice based on a marginal increase in thyroid follicular cell adenoma/carcinoma and some evidence of carcinogenicity in female mice based on increased numbers of thyroid adenomas. Overt toxicity was observed in the animals.(27) tert-Butanol was not shown to be a tumour promoter or carcinogen following application to mouse skin.(15)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Fetotoxicity (decreased body weight) has been observed in the presence of maternal toxicity in rats exposed to high concentrations by inhalation. Other studies have either not shown significant effects or been limited by design flaws.
Rats were exposed to 0, 2000, 3500 or 5000 ppm on days 1-19 of pregnancy. Signs of maternal toxicity (CNS depression) and fetotoxicity (decreased body weight) were observed at all exposure levels. There were no signs of teratogenicity.(20) Rats were exposed to 2000 or 4000 ppm on days 1-20 of pregnancy. Male rats were similarly exposed 6 weeks prior to mating unexposed females. From days 10- 90, offspring were tested for neuromotor coordination, activity and learning. The high dose was maternally toxic. There were few differences noted on the behavioural measures in any group and those observed were considered to be of little or no biological significance.(22) Mice were fed 0.50, 0.75 or 1.0% (w/v) tert-butanol (approximately 3000-7000 mg/kg/day) from day 6-20 of pregnancy. At the high dose, reduced food consumption and weight gain was observed in the mothers. The number of stillborn pups was increased in a dose-related manner. Some reversible behavioural effects were noted. Interpretation of this study is difficult because of the small number of litters evaluated.(1,2,23) Mice were administered 780 mg/kg (cited as 10.5 mmoles/kg) orally on days 6-18 of pregnancy. Embryotoxicity (resorptions), but no teratogenic effects were observed. This study is limited by the fact that it did not report on maternal toxicity, only one treatment dose was used and there were a small number of animals/group (9-12).(12)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No effects on reproductive organs have been observed in rats and mice exposed orally or by inhalation for 90 days.
Autopsy showed no adverse effects on the reproductive organs of rats and mice administered very high doses in drinking water for 90 days.(17) No significant effects on reproductive organs were noted in rats or mice exposed to up to 2100 ppm for 90 days.(26)

The available information suggests that tert-butanol is not mutagenic.
Negative results (no increase in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes) were obtained in one study where tert-butanol was administered to mice in drinking water for 90 days. Negative results (induction of micronuclei) were also obtained in rats receiving intraperitoneal injections.(26,27) Another oral study using rats (chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells) has been reported. However, neither the experimental design nor reporting of results meet accepted standards.(24)
tert-Butanol has given negative results in bacteria, yeast and cultured mammalian cells.(1,4,23,24,26,27)

Toxicological Synergisms:
Oral administration of tert-butanol has been shown to increase the liver toxicity of carbon tetrachloride.(1,3) Oral administration of tert-butanol and trichloroacetic acid to rats has led to increased loss of body weight, and significant alterations in certain biochemical parameters, e.g. decreased liver triglycerides, and increased liver glycogen and serum glucose, compared to either chemical administered alone.(14)


Selected Bibliography:
(1) Bevan, C. Monohydric aclcohols-C1 to C6: tert-Butyl alcohol. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 5th ed. Vol. 6. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. p. 366, 421-426
(2) Daniel, M.A., et al. Quantitative comparison of maternal ethanol and maternal butanol diet on postnatal development. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 222, no. 2 (1982). p. 294-300
(3) Cornish, H.H., et al. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride toxicity by aliphatic alcohols. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 14 (Mar. 1967). p. 447-449
(4) tert-Butanol. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed., supplement. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1996
(5) Billig, E. Butyl alcohols. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 4. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 691-700
(6) Hain, H-D, et al. Butanols. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 4. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 463-474
(7) HSDB record for t-butyl alcohol. Last revision date: 2000-02-08
(8) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 479, 487
(9) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491
(10) Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. (URL: http://www.sigma- Password required)
(11) tert-Butyl alcohol. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(12) Faulkner, T.P., et al. The effects of prenatal tertiary butanol administration in CBA/J and C57BL/6J mice. Life Sciences. Vol. 45, no. 21 (1989). p. 1989-1995
(13) McComb, J.A., et al. Quantitative comparison of physical dependence on tertiary butanol and ethanol in mice: correlation with lipid solubility. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 208, no. 1 (1979). p. 113-117
(14) Acharya, S., et al. Administration of subtoxic doses of t-butyl alcohol and trichloroacetic acid to male Wistar rats to study the interactive toxicity. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 80 (1995). p. 97-104
(15) Hoshino, H., et al. Detection of potential weak carcinogens and procarcinogens. II. Carcinogenicity of tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. Gann. Vol. 61, no. 2 (Apr. 1970). p. 121-124
(16) Munch, J.C. Aliphatic alcohols and alkyl esters: narcotic and lethal potencies to tadpoles and to rabbits. Industrial Medicine. Vol. 41, no. 4 (Apr. 1972). p. 31-33
(17) Lindamood III, C. et al. Subchronic toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol in rats and mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 19, no. 1 (1992). p. 91-100
(18) Schaffarzick, R.W., et al. The anticonvulsant activity and toxicity of methylparafynol (Dormison r) and some other alcohols. Science. Vol. 116 (Dec. 12, 1952). p. 663-665
(19) Oettel, H. Effect of organic liquids on the skin. Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie. Vol. 83 (1936). p. 641-696. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00071872)
(20) Nelson, B.K., et al. Lack of selective developmental toxicity of three butanol isomers administered by inhalation to rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 12, no. 3 (1989). p. 469-479
(21) Wallgren, H. Relative intoxicating effects on rats of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 16 (1960). p. 217- 222
(22) Nelson, B.K., et al. Behavioral teratology investigation of tertiary- butanol administered by inhalation to rats. Pharmacopsychoecologia. Vol. 4 (1991). p. 1-7
(23) Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Final report on the safety assessment of t-butyl alcohol. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 8, no. 4 (1989). p. 627-641
(24) Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. 1-, 2- and t-Butanol. Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. Publication No. 1994/10. Health Council of the Netherlands, 1994
(25) Takahashi, K., et al. Retrospective study of possible alpha-2-globulin nephropathy and associated cell proliferation in male Fischer 344 rats dosed with t-butyl alcohol. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 101, Suppl. 5 (1993). p. 281-285
(26) National Toxicology Program. NTP technical report on toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol (CAS No. 75-65-0) administered by inhalation to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity Report Series No. 53. NIH publication 97-3942. US Department of Health and Human Services, July, 1997
(27) National Toxicology Program. NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of t-butyl alcohol (CAS No. 75-65-0) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). Technical Report Series No. 436. NIH publication No. 95-3167. US Department of Health and Human Services, May, 1995
(28) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(29) tert-Butyl alcohol. In: Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 143
(30) Odour thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 14, 49
(31) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.262, 5.116, 6.142
(32) Wilhoit, R.C. et al. Physical and thermodynamic properties of aliphatic alcohols. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 2 (Suppl. no. 1) (1973). p. 1-217 to 1-218, 1-227 to 1-230, 1-250
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(34) CHEMFATE database (URL:
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 2003-03-24

Revision Indicators:
Short-term eye contact 2003-09-19
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-09-19
WHMIS classification comments 2003-09-19
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-09
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-09
PEL-STEL final 2004-01-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
Bibliography 2005-03-31
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-31
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-31
Appearance/odour 2005-09-26
Toxicological info 2006-01-31
Bibliography 2006-02-17
Toxicological info 2006-02-21

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