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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 780
CCOHS Chemical Name: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether

Synonyms:
2,2-Bis(4-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)phenyl)-propane
2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane diglycidyl ether
4,4'-Bis(2,3-epoxypropoxy)diphenyldimethylmethane
DGEBPA
4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(1-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene)
4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol diglycidyl ether
Bis(4-glycidyloxyphenyl)dimethylmethane
Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)dimethylmethane diglycidyl ether
Diglycidyl bisphenol A ether
2,2'-[(1-Methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]bis[oxirane]

CAS Registry Number: 1675-54-3
RTECS Number(s): TX3800000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 216-823-5
Chemical Family: Aromatic glycidyl ether / aromatic diglycidyl ether / bisphenol A ether / epoxy resin / epichlorohydrin resin
Molecular Formula: C21-H24-O4
Structural Formula: H2C-(O)-CH-CH2-O-C6H4-C[(CH3)2]-C6H4-O-CH2-CH-(O)-CH2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless, crystalline solid.(32)

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation

Composition/Purity:
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA) is made by reacting epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A. DGEBPA is not generally produced as a pure monomer, but occurs as a component of a resin mixture containing varying amounts of the low molecular weight polymers (monomer, dimers, trimers and tetramers) (CAS 25068-38-6); as a homopolymer of DGEBPA (CAS 25085-99-8); or as a higher molecular weight polymer of DGEBPA (CAS 25036-25-3). It is unlikely that many commercial products are pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3).(9,32-35) Nevertheless, some suppliers/manufacturers do use the monomer CAS Registry Number (1675-54-3) for products that are actually complex DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures. Interpretation and evaluation of the information on DGEBPA and DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is complicated by the fact that these materials are complex mixtures; it is not always clear exactly which material is being studied; and the CAS Registry Numbers and names of the materials are, at times, used interchangeably. This CHEMINFO profile reviews information available for pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3). For information on low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8), low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8), or medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25036-25-3) refer to the relevant CHEMINFO reviews.

Uses and Occurrences:
Epoxy resins based on glycidyl ethers are used in protective coatings, including waterborne coatings, solventless coatings, high solids coatings and powder coatings, decorative and protective coatings for automobiles, coal tar pitch modified coatings, reinforced plastics, structural composites, including pipes, vessels, electrical, aerospace and sporting goods applications; electrical laminates, moulding components, bonding materials and adhesives, sealants, patching compounds, flooring, paving and aggregates, tins and closures, boats and ships, appliances, piping and miscellaneous metal decoration, fibre-reinforced laminates, encapsulants and grouting compounds, tooling, casting and moulding resins.(9,32)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless, crystalline solid. POTENTIAL COMBUSTIBLE DUST HAZARD. Powdered material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause severe allergic skin reaction.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
For most workers, exposure to DGEBPA is probably not harmful following short-term exposure, based on animal information for DGEBPA and related compounds. High concentrations of DGEBPA dust may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation. In very rare cases, DGEBPA may cause an allergic respiratory reaction like asthma, based on limited human information for low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins which contain a high percentage of pure DGEBPA. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.

Skin Contact:
Pure DGEBPA is a mild skin irritant, based on animal information. DGEBPA is a well known skin sensitizer, based on animal and human information. It can cause a severe allergic skin reaction in sensitized individuals, even following very brief contact. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.
Animal toxicity information suggests that DGEBPA is not absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.

Eye Contact:
Pure DGEBPA dust is a mild eye irritant, based on animal information for low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, which contain a large percentage of pure DGEBPA. Some tearing, blinking and mild, temporary pain may occur as the solid material is rinsed from the eye by tears.

Ingestion:
There is no human information available. Animal toxicity information suggests that pure DGEBPA would not cause significant harmful effects following ingestion. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Respiratory Sensitization:
It is not possible to conclude that DGEBPA is a respiratory sensitizer, based on the available information.
In a very small number of cases (three people), low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have caused respiratory sensitization in humans occupationally exposed to these compounds.(4,17,57) Pure DGEBPA is normally a significant component of low molecular weight resins and may, therefore, also cause this effect. Sensitized people can experience symptoms of bronchial asthma such as wheezing, difficult breathing, sneezing and runny or blocked nose at low airborne concentrations that have no effect on unsensitized people.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact may result in dermatitis (dry, red, cracked skin), based on animal information.

Skin Sensitization:
Repeated skin contact can cause allergic skin sensitization in some individuals. Once a person is sensitized to DGEBPA, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This reaction can spread from the point of contact (usually the hands or arms) to other parts of the body.
Numerous cases of allergic skin reactions have been reported in people occupationally exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (13-19,27,50-56) and in animal studies following exposure to pure DGEBPA and DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (1,2,12,21,22,26). Low molecular weight resins, which contain a high percentage of pure DGEBPA, appear to be the true sensitizers.

Endocrine System:
Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from one study that also involved exposure to organic solvents. In this study, 42 male epoxy sprayers who worked with hardening agents containing 10-30% DGEBPA for at least 3 hrs/day (duration unspecified) were compared to 82 unexposed controls. Exposure was to DGEBPA with mixed organic solvents including toluene, xylene, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol and methyl isobutyl ketone. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (a metabolite of DGEBPA) were increased and plasma FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) concentrations were decreased, but still within the normal range. Plasma testosterone and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) levels were normal. The authors speculated that bisphenol A may interfere with pituitary FSH secretion, but the clinical importance of the reported findings remains unclear.(37)

OTHER EFFECTS: Skin irritation and rashes, muscle and joint disorders and central nervous system and respiratory disturbances have been reported in workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, as well as several other potentially harmful chemicals.(10,11,27,28) It is not possible to say that DGEBPA alone caused any of these effects because of the exposures to other potentially harmful chemicals at the same time.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,43)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. No significant effects have been observed in animal studies following oral or skin exposure, even in the presence of significant toxicity in the mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. No reproductive effects were observed in one animal study following oral exposure to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins which contain a high percentage of pure DGEBPA.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that DGEBPA is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in two studies of a small number of workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.(24,25) One other study cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information.(2) Positive results (DNA adducts) were obtained in a limited test using live mice. Positive results were also obtained in cultured mammalian cells. Positive and negative results were obtained in tests using bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no human or animal information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
In animals, DGEBPA is rapidly excreted as metabolites in the urine and feces.(2,12)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms develop, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air and obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
This material is a skin sensitizer. Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods. Do not re-use.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eyes.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occurs, obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Approximately 250 deg C (485 deg F) (closed cup) (36)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not available

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion may produce phenolics and possibly also aldehydes, acids and other unidentified toxic organic compounds.(36)

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
During a fire, toxic, irritating compounds may be formed. Decomposition may occur under fire conditions and closed containers can explode and rupture violently if heated.

Fire Hazard Summary:

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder and foam. Water may be ineffective for fires involving DGEBPA.(36)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid DGEBPA and its toxic decomposition products.
Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of explosion. Water or foam may cause frothing. The frothing may be violent and could endanger personnel close to the fire. However, a water spray or fog that is carefully applied to the surface of the burning material, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket , prevent dust formation and extinguish the fire.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, involved in fire, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks, equipment or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop the leak. Water spray can be used to flush spills away from ignition sources and prevent dust clouds. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, it may be prudent to use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
DGEBPA and its thermal decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 340.45

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 43 deg C (109.4 deg F) (32,33)
Boiling Point: Not available
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.16 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (34)
Solubility in Water: Negligible
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acetone and aromatic solvents such as benzene.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Not applicable. Does not form a vapour.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Probably very low
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
METTLER SOFTENING POINT: Less than 25 deg C (77 deg F) (34)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Information not available.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, permanganates) - reaction may be violent. Risk of fire and explosion.
STRONG MINERAL ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid) or BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide) - may react vigorously with the evolution of heat.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trifluoride) or LEWIS BASES (e.g. N,N-dimethylbenzylamine) - may cause homopolymerization, with the evolution of heat.(34)
AMINES (e.g. diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine) - reactive curing agents.(33,34)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Generation of dust, heat, open flames, electrostatic discharge, sparks, and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No information available. Probably not corrosive to metals.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No information available.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
In reactions with many curing agents, considerable heat is released. Smoke or toxic fumes may be evolved if the heat of reaction becomes excessive due to high curing temperatures or the curing of large amounts of material.(36)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 500 mg/kg (no deaths) (purified DGEBPA; 20% w/v solution in toluene or acetone) (21)
LD50 (oral, mouse): greater than 500 mg/kg (no deaths) (purified DGEBPA; 20% w/v solution in toluene or acetone) (21)

LD50 (dermal, rat): greater than 800 mg/kg (no deaths) (purified DGEBPA 20% w/v in acetone) (21)
LD50 (dermal, mouse): greater than 1600 mg/kg (0-1/8 deaths) (purified DGEBPA 20% w/v in acetone or toluene) (21)

Eye Irritation:

There is no specific information available for pure DGEBPA. Low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, which contain a high percentage of pure DGEBPA, are mild eye irritants.

Skin Irritation:

DGEBPA is a mild irritant.

A 24-hour application of undiluted purified DGEBPA to both abraded and intact skin produced mild, temporary redness and swelling in rabbits.(21) Daily application of 100 or 300 mg/kg 99.1% pure DGEBPA for 13 days produced a dose-related increase in redness, bleeding and swelling at the application site.(23) Low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, which contain a high percentage of pure DGEBPA, have also only produced mild to moderate irritation following prolonged application.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
There is no specific information for pure DGEBPA. Low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, which contain a large percentage of pure DGEBPA, have caused moderate depression, slight difficulty breathing, diarrhea and weight loss following the oral administration of very high doses (up to 13600 mg/kg). Lower doses (1000 mg/kg) have produced no effects.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term dermal application has produced dermatitis at the site of application in mice and rats. Liver injury has been observed in female rats exposed dermally to high doses for 2 years, but there was potential for ingestion exposure.

Skin Contact:
Rats and mice were dermally exposed to DGEBPA (99.65 ± 0.04% pure) in acetone for 13 weeks. Approximate doses were 0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg/application for rats (0, 0.9, 9 or 90% w/v for males; 0, 0.6, 6 or 60% w/v for females) and 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg/kg/application for mice (0, 0.05, 0.5 or 5.0% w/v). Applications were made to rats 5 times/week and mice 3 times/week. There was potential for ingestion exposure. No systemic toxicity was observed, with the exception of a statistically significant decrease in body weight and body weight gain in rats exposed to the high dose. This effect may have been due to reduced food consumption. Chronic active dermatitis (increased cell growth with chronic inflammation) was observed at the site of application in both rats and mice.(44,45) Male mice and female rats were dermally exposed to DGEBPA (99.32 ± 0.11% pure) in acetone for 2 years. Approximate doses were 0, 0.1, 10 or 100 mg/kg/application for the male mice (0, 0.005, 0.5 or 5.0% w/v) and 0, 1, 100 or 100 mg/kg/application for female rats (0, 0.6, 6.0 or 60% w/v). Applications were made to mice 3 times/week and rats 5 times/week. There was potential for ingestion exposure. There was no evident systemic toxicity in mice. Body weights of high dose rat were significantly lower than controls for most of the study. Chronic dermatitis (increased cell growth and inflammation) was observed at the site of application in mice exposed to 10 or 100 mg/kg/application and rats exposed to 100 or 1000 mg/kg/application. Signs of liver injury (centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and alterations in clinical chemistry results) were observed in high dose rats.(46,47) No significant nervous system effects were observed in rats dermally exposed to DGEBPA (99.65 ± 0.04% pure) in acetone for approximately 13 weeks. Approximate doses were 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg/application (0, 0.9, 9 or 90% w/v for males; 0, 0.6, 6 or 60% w/v for females) for 5 days/week. (48)

Skin Sensitization:
Several studies have shown that the monomer (molecular weight 340) is a strong skin sensitizer in guinea pigs.(2,12,21,22,26)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has reviewed the available studies and determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,43)
In one study with pure DGEBPA, application of 75 mg/week accelerated mortality in female, but not male mice. No other significant effects or treatment- related neoplasms were observed.(20) Other studies with dermal or oral exposure to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have either produced negative results or there were limitations with the studies which do not allow conclusions to be drawn.(1,2,5-8,12)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Developmental effects have not been observed in dermal and oral studies.
Rabbits were dermally exposed, under cover, to 0, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day of 99.1% pure DGEBPA dissolved in polyethylene glycol 400 on days 6-18 of pregnancy. A polyethylene glycol 400 control was used. There was no evidence of embryotoxicity, teratogenicity or fetotoxicity. A decrease in the pregnancy rate and the ratio of males/females was observed at 30 mg/kg/day, but these effect were not dose-related and were considered to be random events. Maternal toxicity, as evidenced by bleeding, cracking, swelling and redness of the skin at the test site, was observed at the two highest doses.(23) No developmental effects were observed in rats orally administered 0, 50, 540 or 750 mg/kg/day DGEBPA (99.65% pure) in a 2-generation study. Body weights were significantly decreased in mid and high dose adult males and high dose adult females in both the P1 and P2 generations.(49) Studies with low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin have not shown teratogenicity or embryotoxicity in rats or rabbits following oral exposure, despite maternal toxicity.(2,12)

Reproductive Toxicity:
DGEBPA is not expected to cause harmful reproductive effects based on the information available.
No effects on reproductive performance were observed in rats orally administered 0, 50, 540 or 750 mg/kg/day DGEBPA (99.65% pure) in a 2-generation study. Body weights were significantly decreased in mid and high dose adult males and high dose adult females in both the P1 and P2 generations.(49) No reproductive effects have been observed in rats following oral exposure to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins which contain a high percentage of pure DGEBPA.(2,12)

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that DGEBPA is mutagenic, based on the available information. Positive results were obtained in a limited test using live mice. Positive results were also obtained in cultured mammalian cells. Positive and negative results were obtained in tests using bacteria.
Positive results (DNA adduct formation) were obtained in male mice after single dermal exposures to 2 mg DGEBPA in acetone for 48, 96 or 192 hours. Three mice were tested in each group, but results were reported for only 1 or 2 mice/group. There was no exposure-response relationship. Similar amounts of adducts were observed regardless of the exposure duration.(59)
Pure DGEBPA has produced positive results in cultured mammalian cells (chromosome damage in cultured rat liver cells and neoplastic transformation in cultured baby hamster kidney cells).(3) Positive results (micronuclei induction) were also obtained following treatment of human lymphocytes for 48 hours (without metabolic activation) or for 3 hours (with or without metabolic activation) with 12.50-62.50 microg/mL. These concentrations were also cytotoxic.(58) Negative results were obtained in cultured human lymphocytes tested with an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin and "distilled" DGEBPA.(29) Positive and negative results have been obtained for pure DGEBPA in bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(3,30,31,57)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Weil, C.S., et al. Experimental carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of representative epoxides. American Industrial Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24 (July-Aug., 1963). p. 305-325
(2) Gardiner, T.H., et al. Glycidyloxy compounds used in epoxy resin systems: a toxicology review. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Apr. 1992). Part 2 of 2. p. S1-S77
(3) Shell Oil Co. Toxicity studies with epoxy resins: in vitro genotoxicity studies with and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, EPIKOTE 828, EPIKOTE 1001 AND EPIKOTE 1007. EPA/OTS 87-8210037. NTIS/OTS844003A.
(4) Kanerva, L., et al. Immediate and delayed allergy from epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 17, no. 3 (Mar. 1991). p. 208-215
(5) Hine, C.H., et al. An investigation of the oncogenic activity of two representative epoxy resins. Cancer Research. Vol. 18 (Jan. 1958). p. 20-26
(6) Holland, J.M., et al. Epidermal carcinogenicity of bis(2,3-epoxycyclopentyl)ether, 2,2-bis(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)propane, and m-phenylenediamine in male and female C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Research. Vol. 39 (May 1979). p. 1718-1725
(7) Peristianis, G.C., et al. Two-year carcinogenicity study on three aromatic epoxy resins applied cutaneously to CF1 mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 7 (1988). p. 611-624
(8) Zakova, N., et al. Evaluation of skin carcinogenicity of technical 2,2- bis-(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)-propane in CF1 mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 12 (1985). p. 1081-1089
(9) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some glycidyl ethers. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting. Vol. 47. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 237-261
(10) Tomizawa, T., et al. Scleroderma-like skin changes observed among workers handling epoxy resins. Proceeding of the XV International Congress of Dermatology, Mexico City, Oct. 16-21, 1977. p. 271-275
(11) Cragle, D., et al. An occupational morbidity study of a population potentially exposed to epoxy resins, hardeners and solvents. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 7, no. 12 (Dec. 1992). p. 826-834
(12) Waechter, J.M., Jr., et al. Epoxy compounds - aromatic diglycidyl ethers, polyglycidyl ethers, glycidyl esters, and miscellaneous epoxy compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 1087-1145
(13) Jolanki, R., et al. Occupational dermatoses from epoxy resin compounds. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 23, no. 3 (1990). p. 172-183
(14) Jolanki, R. Occupational skin diseases from epoxy compounds: epoxy resin compounds, epoxy acrylates, and 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Suppl. 159 (1991). p. 1-80
(15) Niinimaki, A., et al. An outbreak of epoxy dermatitis in insulation workers at an electrical power station. Dermatosen. Vol. 31, no. 1 (1983). p. 23-25
(16) Fregert, S., et al. Patch testing with low molecular oligomers of epoxy resins in humans. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 3 (1977). p. 301-303
(17) Kanerva, L., et al. A single accidental exposure may result in a chemical burn, primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct. 1994). p. 229-235
(18) Burrows, D., et al. Contact dermatitis from epoxy resins, tetraglycidal-4,4'-methylene dianiline and o-diglycidyl phthalate in composite material. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 11, no. 2 (Aug. 1984). p. 80-82
(19) Bokelund, F., et al. Sensitization from epoxy resin powder of high molecular weight. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 6, no. 2 (1980). p. 144
(20) Holland, J.M., et al. Chronic dermal toxicity of epoxy resins. I. Skin carcinogenic potency and general toxicity (draft) with cover letter dated 041381. Union Carbide Corporation, June 1981. EPA/OTS 88-8100212. NTIS/OTS0204933.
(21) Hend, R.W., et al. Toxicity of purified diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A: results of preliminary studies. Shell Oil Company, Feb. 1978. EPA/OTS 87-8214186. NTIS/OTS0206488.
(22) Thorgeirsson, A., et al. Allergenicity of epoxy resins in the guinea pig. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 57, no. 3 (1977). p. 253-256
(23) Breslin, W.J., et al. Teratogenic evaluation of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA) in New Zealand white rabbits following dermal exposure. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 10, no. 4 (May 1988). p. 736-743
(24) Mitelman, F., et al. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins has no cytogenetic effect. Mutation Research. Vol. 77, no. 4 (1980). p. 345-348
(25) de Jong, G., et al. Cytogenetic monitoring of industrial populations potentially exposed to genotoxic chemicals and of control populations. Mutation Research. Vol. 204 (1988). p. 451-464
(26) Thorgeirsson, A., et al. Sensitization capacity of epoxy resin oligomers in the guinea pig. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 58 (1978). p. 17-21
(27) Grandjean, E. The danger of dermatoses due to cold-setting ethoxyline resins (epoxide resins). British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1957). p. 1-4
(28) Hine, C.H., et al. The toxicology of epoxy resins. American Medical Association Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 17 (Feb. 1958). p. 129- 144
(29) Pullen, T.G. Integrated mutagenicity testing program on several epoxy compounds. Dow Chemical Company, Dec. 28, 1977. EPA/OTS 87-8214859. NTIS/OTS0206671.
(30) Canter, D.A., et al. Comparative mutagenicity of aliphatic epoxides in Salmonella. Mutation Research. Vol. 172 (1986). p. 105-138
(31) Wade, M.J., et al. Mutagenic action of a series of epoxides. Mutation Research. Vol. 66 (1979). p. 367-371
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-06-18



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