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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION             FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                          ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE     ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                                      VBC/DS/82.52 Rev.1

                                                      ORIGINAL: ENGLISH






    DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 52

    BENDIOCARB






         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food  and Agriculture              des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

                                 CLASSIFICATION:

                                 Primary use: Insecticide

                                 Secondary use: Molluscicide, Nematicide

                                 Chemical group: Carbamate

                                 Date issued:

    1.  GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1  COMMON NAME:

         Bendiocarb (BSI, ISO)

    1.1.1  Identity:

         IUPAC: 2,3-isopropylidene-dioxyphenyl methyl carbamate
         No. 1: Carbamic acid, methyl, 2,3-(dimethylmethylenedioxy)
                phenyl ester
         Reg. No.: 22781-23-3
         Molecular formula: C11H13NO4   Molecular weight: 223.25
         Structural formula:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    1.1.2  Synonyms:

         Ent-27695; FicamR; GarvoxR; MultamatR; NC 6897; Niomil
    3GR; OMS 1394; SeedoxR; TatooR; TurcamR

    1.2  SYNOPSIS:

         Bendiocarb is a broad spectrum, carbamate pesticide; a fast
    acting anti-cholinesterase agent with effective contact and stomach
    action. It does not emit toxic vapours at normal working
    temperatures. Moderately toxic to mammals, it is rapidly metabolized
    with immediate loss of toxicity. Bendiocarb is a weak plant systemic
    with excellent residual and knockdown properties.

    1.3  SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1  Physical properties

         The pure compound is a white crystalline solid with a melting
    point of 132°C. Bendiocarb is an odourless and non-corrosive
    compound.

    1.3.2  Solubility

         (25°C)                0.04 g/1 water
                               0.35 g/1 hexane
                               0.30 g/1 kerosine
                              10.0  g/1 trichloroethylene
                              10.0  g/1 O-xylene
                              40.0  g/1 benzene
                              40.0  g/1 ethanol
                             200.0  g/1 acetone
                             200.0  g/1 chloroform
                             200.0  g/1 dichloromethane
                             200.0  g/1 dioxane
                             300.0  g/1 glycerol

    1.3.3  Stability

         Formulated material (80%) is stable at temperatures below 40°C.
    In aqueous solution at 25°C the half-life is 48 days at ph 5; 81
    hours at ph 7; and 45 minutes at ph 9. Under ph 5 bendiocarb slowly
    degrades to pyrogallol and acetone. On non-absorptive surfaces and
    at low humidity it resists oxidation. It undergoes photo-oxidation
    in direct sunlight.

    1.3.4  Vapour pressure

         0.667 x 10-6 kPa (5 x 10-6 mmHg) at 25°C.

    1.4  AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1  Common formulations

         Wettable powders (800, 500 and 200 g a.i./kg); granules for
    soil and turf treatment (30, 50 and 100 g a.i./kg); dust (10 g
    a.i./kg); suspension concentrate (500 g a.i./1) for spray or seed
    treatments; suspension in oil for ULV application (250 g a.i./1;
    residual sprays, paint on and granular preparations with bait.

    1.4.2  Susceptible pests

         Bendiocarb is effective against a wide range of soil, foliar
    and stored product pests and ectoparasites of domestic animals. The
    pests controlled include insects and other arthropods.

    1.4.3  Use pattern

         Bendiocarb may be applied as a soil treatment (300-2000 g
    a.i./ha); as a seed treatment (1-10 g a.i./kg); as a residual spray
    (100-1000 g a.i./ha); and, as a ULV spray (50-500 g a.i.,/ha).

    1.4.4  Unintended effects

         Bendiocarb is toxic to some beneficial organisms such as bees
    and predators of plant pests.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMMES

    1.5.1  Common formulations

         See paragraph 1.4.1 above.

    1.5.2  Pests mainly controlled

         Bendiocarb is effective against a wide range of nuisance and
    disease vector pests; ants, bed bugs, mosquitos, cockroaches,
    domestic flies, fleas, lice (with ovicidal effects), millipedes,
    scorpions, spiders, wasps, and other arthropods, molluscs and
    nematodes. (Some carbamate-resistant cockroach strains may be
    resistant to bendiocarb on a very limited scale.)

    1.5.3  Use pattern

         The 80% WP should be applied by professional applicators, it
    should not be directly applied to humans or food stuffs. It may be
    used safely in houses, public buildings (restaurants, hotels,
    hospitals and schools); in industrial buildings; and in aircraft and
    other craft. Provided the manufacturer's instructions are followed
    and high pressure sprays are avoided, there is little risk of
    contaminating people, food, or food utensils.

    1.6 HOUSEHOLD USE

         Bendiocarb is available in less concentrated formulations
    suitable for home use as in section 1.5 above, and in aerosols,
    ready-to-use liquids, dusts, etc.

    2.  TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS

    2.1  TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1  Absorption route

         Bendiocarb may be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract or
    to a limited extent through the intact skin. Low vapour pressure
    makes inhalation unlikely except from airborne spray mist.

    2.1.2  Mode of action

         Bendiocarb acts through inhibition of cholinesterase activity
    which is rapidly reversible, the half-life of the inhibited enzyme
    is approximately 30 minutes.

    2.1.3  Excretion products

         Bendiocarb is readily conjugated and metabolized by liver
    microsome enzymes, it is rapidly excreted, mainly as sulfate and
    beta-glucuronide conjugates of the phenol derivative.

    2.1.4  Toxicity, single dose

         Oral LD50:     Rat (M)   40-156 mg/kg b.w. (unformulated
                                  compound)
                                  143-179 mg/kg b.w. (80% a.i. water
                                  dispersable powder)

         Dermal LD50:   Rat (M),  > 566 mg/kg b.w. (unformulated
                                  compound)
                                  > 1000 mg/kg b.w. (80% a.i. liquid
                                  formulation)

    2.1.5  Toxicity, repeated doses

         Oral: There was no evidence of any treatment-related effect
    in hamsters fed diets containing up to 500 ppm bendiocarb for at
    least 30 days. This information was supplied by the manufacturing
    company.

         Dermal: In a 21-day dermal toxicity study in rats treated
    with a 40% aqueous suspension of the 80% wettable powder formulation
    at up to 800 mg a.i./kg, no macroscopic pathology or histological
    evidence of dermal irritation was detected and no treatment-related
    mortality occurred. This information was supplied by the
    manufacturing company.

         Inhalation: No signs of toxicity nor cholinesterase
    inhibition were observed in cats exposed for 33 days in a room
    treated with bendiocarb (200 mg/m2).

         Cumulation of compound: Bendiocarb is non-cumulative in
    mammalian tissues.

         Cumulation of effect: No evidence of cumulative toxicity was
    found in rat and dog 90-day dietary studies.

    2.1.6  Dietary studies

         Short-term: See 2.1.5 above. No lasting signs of toxicity
    were reported in the above-mentioned 90-day studies.

         Long-term: Two-year feeding studies with bendiocarb in rats
    and dogs indicate that the principal treatment-related effects
    resulted from inhibition of cholinesterase activity. In the dog
    comprehensive histopathological examination showed no abnormality
    associated with the treatment and a no-effect level of 20 ppm (0.6-
    0.7 (mg/kg b.w.)/day) was established. In the rat the no-effect
    level was 10 ppm (0.34-0.42 (mg/kg b.w.)/day). (See also 2.1.7
    below.) This information was supplied by the manufacturing company.

    2.1.7 Supplementary studies of toxicity:1

         Carcinogenicity: In a two-year chronic oral and
    carcinogenicity study in rats dietary levels of up to 200 ppm were
    without effects on the tumour profile. A carcinogenicity study in
    mice at levels of up to 1250 ppm indicated no treatment-related
    histopathological alterations in any tissues.

         Teratogenicity: Bendiocarb was not found to be teratogenic in
    either the rat or the rabbit.

         Mutagenicity: No evidence of mutagenic potential was found in
    a mitotic non-disjunction study on  Aspergillus nidulous nor in two
    microbial assay studies using  Bacillus subtilis and  Salmonella
     typhimurium strains. In a dominant lethal study in rats there was
    no indication that bendiocarb produced any dominant lethal mutations
    in the male germ cells.1

         Reproduction: Various reproduction studies indicated that
    bendiocarb has no adverse effects upon fertility or reproductive
    function. This information was supplied by the manufacturing
    company.

         Neurotoxicity: Bendiocarb shows no irreversible or delayed
    neurotoxic effects.1

                 

    1 This information was supplied by the manufacturing company.

         Other: Technical bendiocarb and its commercial formulations
    are not skin irritants. Contamination of the eye with technical or
    formulated bendiocarb may cause temporary miosis and no more than
    mild, temporary irritation.1

    2.1.8  Modification of toxicity

         No published information available.

    2.2  TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1  Absorption

         The dermal route is the main route of absorption, and
    inhalation of dust or fine spray mist may also be possible routes.

    2.2.2  Dangerous doses

         The threshold dose for blood cholinesterase inhibition and mild
    symptoms lies between 0.15 and 0.20 mg a.i./kg, for the oral route,
    the latter dosage having been rapidly followed by mild vertigo,
    nausea and sweating. Regression of these effects was advanced 0.5
    hours after dosing and complete within 4 hours. Repeated ingestion
    of 0.1 mg a.i./kg at hourly intervals was without symptoms. This
    information was supplied by the manufacturing company.

    2.2.3  Observations on occupationally exposed workers

         The safety of bendiocarb when used as a residual mosquito
    adulticide has been evaluated in both Iran and Indonesia - the
    latter trial being undertaken in conjunction with the WHO Vector
    Biology and Control Research Unit. Both studies were organized along
    the lines of a WMO expanded Stage V evaluation programme. Very few
    spraymen reported any adverse effects and where such effects were
    reported the symptoms were both mild and transient. No complaints
    were made by the villagers. This information was supplied by the
    manufacturing company.

    2.2.4  Observations on exposure of the general public

         No information available. The public should not be exposed to
    hazardous amounts of bendiocarb due to its poor persistence in plant
    and animal tissues and provided proper treatment precautions are
    followed.

                 

    1 This information was supplied by the manufacturing company.

    2.2.5  Observations on volunteers

         Oral administration of bendiocarb to human volunteers showed
    that man and the rat are equisensitive to the pesticide. The onset
    of signs of cholinesterase inhibition and the recovery from the
    toxic effects were both very rapid.

    2.2.6  Reported mishaps

         No cases of bronchospasm due to inhalation of bendiocarb have
    been reported, nor has any other specific localized response to
    bendiocarb contamination. There have been no confirmed cases of
    dermal irritancy, allergic response or hypersensitivity of any type
    due to bendiocarb or its formulations during development and
    commercial use. Three cases of deliberate poisoning by ingestion are
    known, two were fatal. One accidental poisoning by ingestion,
    possibly from a contaminated drinking-mug, occurred during a spray
    programme in Indonesia in 1981. This information was supplied by the
    manufacturing company.

    2.3  TOXICITY - NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    2.3.1  Fish

         Bendiocarb is toxic to fish. The range of LC50 for several
    species is 0.7-1.76 mg a.i./1.

    2.3.2  Birds

         Bendiocarb is toxic to birds, it does not affect the
    reproductive performance of avian species. This information was
    supplied by the manufacturing company.

         Oral LD50:     Mallard duck, 3.1 mg a.i./kg b.w.
                        Bobwhite quail, 19.0 mg a.i./kg b.w.
                        Japanese quail, 16.0 mg a.i./kg b.w.
                        Domestic hen, 137.0 mg a.i./kg b.w.

    2.3.3  Other species

         Bendiocarb is very toxic to bees.

    3.  FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION
        OF COMPOUND

    3.1  COMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY

         (For definition of categories, see the Introduction to Data
    Sheets) - All available liquid formulations are in Category 3.

         Solid formulations over 10%, Category 3

         Other solid formulations, Category 4

    3.2  TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

         Formulations in Categories 3 and 4:  Should be transported or
    stored in clearly labelled rigid and leakproof containers and away
    from containers of food and drink. Storage should be under lock and
    key and secure from access by unauthorized persons and children.

    3.3  HANDLING

         Formulations in Categories 3 and 4: Protective clothing (see
    part 4) should be provided for those handling concentrates. Adequate
    washing facilities should be available close at hand. Eating,
    drinking and smoking should be prohibited during handling and before
    washing after handling.

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER

         Container must be either burned or crushed and buried below
    topsoil. Care must be taken to avoid subsequent contamination of
    water sources. Containers may be decontaminated (for method see
    paragraph 4.3 in part 4). Decontaminated containers should not be
    used for food and drink.

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

         Formulations in Categories 3 and 4: Pre-employment medical
    examination for workers desirable. Workers suffering from active
    hepatic or renal disease should be excluded from contact. Training
    for workers in techniques to avoid contact essential.

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

         All formulations - Pilot and loaders should have special
    training in application methods and early symptoms of poisoning.
    Flagmen, if used, should wear overalls and be located well away from
    the dropping zone.

    3.7  LABELLING

         Formulations in Categories 3 and 4 - Minimum cautionary
    statement - "WARNING - POISON" (skull and cross-bones insignia).
    Bendiocarb is a carbamate compound which inhibits cholinesterase. It
    is of moderate toxicity. Avoid contact with the skin, inhalation of
    dust or spray, or swallowing. Wear gloves, and clean protective
    clothing, when handling this material, and a respirator when
    handling concentrates. Bathe immediately after work. Ensure that
    containers are stored under lock and key. Empty containers must be
    disposed of in such a way as to prevent all possibility of
    accidental contact with them. Keep the material out of reach of
    children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and their
    containers.

         In case of contact, immediately remove contaminated clothing
    and wash the skin thoroughly with soap and water; for eyes, flush
    with water for 15 minutes.

         If poisoning occurs, call a physician. Atropine is a specific
    antidote, repeated doses may be necessary. Artificial respiration
    also may be needed.

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD

         Maximum residue levels - Maximum residue levels have not yet
    been recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues
    (it is on the 1982 agenda).

    4.  PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1  PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1  General

         Bendiocarb is a carbamate insecticide of moderate toxicity
    which is quickly metabolized and therefore acts only as an acute
    poison. It can be absorbed by inhalation of dust and also to some
    extent through the intact skin. It is important that concentrated
    formulations be washed immediately from the skin and eyes.

    4.1.2 Manufacture and formulation

         T.L.V., 0.2 mg/m3; STEL, 0.6 mg/m3. Formulation should not
    be attempted without advice from the manufacturer. Although
    volatility is low, vapour and dusts should be controlled preferably
    by mechanical means. Protective equipment for the skin and
    respiratory protection is usually necessary.

    4.1.3  Mixers and applicators

         When opening the container and when mixing, care should be
    taken to avoid contact with the mouth and eyes. If necessary a
    facial visor and gloves should be worn. Mixing, if not mechanical,
    should always be carried out with a paddle of appropriate length.
    The applicator should avoid working in spray mists and avoid contact
    with mouth. Splashes must be washed immediately from the skin or
    eyes with large quantities of water. Before eating, drinking or
    smoking, hands and other exposed skin should be washed.

    4.1.4  Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial
           operations)

         Persons exposed to bendiocarb and associated with its
    application should observe the precautions described in 4.1.3 under
    "Mixers and applicators".

    4.1.5  Other populations likely to be affected

         With correct use in agriculture and public health, the general
    population should not be exposed to hazardous amounts of bendiocarb.

    4.2  ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS

         Unprotected persons should be kept out of treated areas until
    the spray solution is dry.

    4.3  DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS

         Residues in containers should be emptied in diluted form into a
    deep pit taking care to avoid ground waters. The empty containers
    may be decontaminated by rinsing two or three times with water and
    scrubbing the sides. An additional rinse should be carried out with
    5% sodium hydroxide solution which should remain in a container
    overnight. Impermeable gauntlets should be worn during this work and
    a soakage pit should be provided for the rinsings. Decontaminated
    containers should not be used for food and drink.

         Spillage of bendiocarb and its formulations should be removed
    by washing with 5% sodium hydroxide solution and then rinsing with
    large quantities of water.

    4.4  EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1  Early symptoms of poisoning

         Early symptoms may include excessive sweating, headache,
    weakness, giddiness, nausea, vomiting, stomach pains, salivation,
    tightness of the chest, blurred vision, slurred speech and muscle
    twitching.

    4.4.2  Treatment before person is seen by a physician if these
           symptoms appear following exposure

         The person should stop work immediately, remove contaminated
    clothing, wash the affected skin with soap and water. If swallowed,
    vomiting should be induced if the person is conscious.

    5.  FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1  MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASES OF POISONING

    5.1.1  General information

         Bendiocarb is a carbamate insecticide of moderate toxicity. It
    is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and by inhalation, and
    only to a limited extent through the intact skin. Its mode of action
    is by reversibly inhibiting acetyl cholinesterase. Erythrocyte
    cholinesterase is more inhibited than plasma cholinesterase.
    Symptoms of poisoning are short lasting and in the case of
    occupational overexposure occur without delay and at doses well
    below the fatal dose. Because of its rapid metabolism and excretion
    it does not accumulate in the tissues.

    5.1.2  Symptoms and signs

         Symptoms of poisoning include excessive sweating, headache,
    chest tightness, giddiness, nausea, vomiting, stomach pains,
    salivation, blurred vision, slurred speech and muscle twitching.

    5.1.3  Laboratory

         Because bendiocarb is a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase,
    measurements of cholinesterase activity should be made by a method
    which minimizes the reactivation of inhibited enzyme. Erythrocyte
    cholinesterase determination is more informative than measuring
    either plasma or whole blood cholinesterase, but the enzyme will
    only be inhibited for a short time (few hours) after exposure. The
    presence of metabolites of bendiocarb in urine is also indicative of
    exposure.

    5.1.4  Treatment

         If the pesticide has been ingested, unless the patient is
    vomiting, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium
    bicarbonate, if available. For skin contact, the skin should be
    washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes
    they should be washed with isotonic saline or water. Since the
    symptoms of poisoning with bendiocarb are of short duration atropine
    treatment is usually not necessary by the time the patient reaches a
    place where this antidote is available. Where there are manifest
    symptoms, 1-2 mg of atropine sulfate (adult dose) may be given
    intramuscularly or even intravenously and repeated as necessary.
    Care should be taken to avoid overdosage of atropine, especially
    when treating children. In extreme cases, if the patient is
    unconscious or is in respiratory distress, oxygen may be required.
    Provide patient support as required, including: suction of
    secretions, maintenance of airways, i.v. fluids p.r.n. and bladder

    catheterization. Pralidoxime has been shown to be ineffective in
    bendiocarb poisoning.

    5.1.5  Prognosis

         If the acute toxic effect is survived, the chances of complete
    recovery are very good.

    5.1.6  References of previously reported cases

         No information

    5.2  SURVEILLANCE TESTS

         Due to the rapid reactivation of inhibited enzyme,
    determination of blood cholinesterase level is of no value in
    determining when workers should be withdrawn to prevent
    overexposure. Minor complaints, such as headache and nausea, cause
    the worker to stop work and thus prevent further exposure. The
    worker quickly recovers, particularly if appropriate decontamination
    procedures are followed.

    5.3  LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1  Detection and assay of compound and residues

         Whiteoak, R. J. et al. (1978) Anal. Methods Pestic. Plant
    Growth Regul., 10, 3-17. Behner, J. M. et al. (1980) J. Assoc.
    Off. Anal. Chem., 43(1), 47-48.

    5.3.2  Other tests in cases of poisoning

         Cholinesterase levels in blood are unreliable as a routine test
    to detect poisoning by bendiocarb. However, shortly after
    absorption, inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase may be
    demonstrated by an appropriate method. In plasma: Ellman, G. L. et
    al. (1961) Biochem. Pharmacol., 7, 88-95. In whole blood:
    Fleischer, J. et al. (1956) Arch. Indust. Hyg., 14, 510; Wilhelm,
    K. et al. (1973), Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 48, 235-238.

    Note:   This data sheet was drafted in the Bureau of Chemical
            Standards, Environmental Health Directorate, Health and
            Welfare, Canada, and subsequently underwent medical,
            scientific, and industrial review.