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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 37
CCOHS Chemical Name: Aniline

Synonyms:
Aminobenzene
Aminophen
Aniline oil
Benzenamine
Phenylamine

Chemical Name French: Aniline
Chemical Name Spanish: Anilina
CAS Registry Number: 62-53-3
UN/NA Number(s): 1547
RTECS Number(s): BW6650000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-539-3
Chemical Family: Aromatic amine / aromatic primary amine / primary aminobenzene / primary benzeneamine / aniline
Molecular Formula: C6H7N
Structural Formula: C6H5-NH2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless, oily liquid when pure with a characteristic musty, fishy, amine-like aromatic odour; darkens on exposure to light and air, forming an impure product.(3,19)

Odour Threshold:
0.58-10 ppm (detection) (geometric mean odour threshold: 2.4 ppm) (20)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold is about the same magnitude as the TLV

Composition/Purity:
Aniline is available as a chemically pure grade (99.9% minimal purity) and as technical grades (99.0 and 99.5%). Impurities present include nitrobenzene and chlorobenzene.

Uses and Occurrences:
Aniline is primarily used in the production of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and polymeric MDI (PMPPI), rubber processing chemicals, dyes and pigments, hydroquinone, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. Other uses include the manufacture of cyclohexylamine, phenolics, corrosion inhibitors, p,p'-methylenedianiline and specialty resins. It is a component of lacquers and wood stains and is used in petroleum refining and as a laboratory reagent.(3,18,19)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless, oily liquid with a characteristic amine-like aromatic odour. Darkens on exposure to light and air. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases such as nitrogen oxides. Contact with alkali or alkaline earth metals liberates flammable hydrogen gas. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled and harmful if absorbed through the skin or swallowed. Causes cyanosis (blue-gray skin and lips due to lack of oxygen). EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation. POSSIBLE MUTAGEN - May cause genetic damage, based on animal information.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Aniline can reduce the ability of the blood to carry oxygen (methemoglobinemia). This may lead to dangerously low levels of oxygen in tissues such as the heart and brain. Headache and cyanosis (bluish colouration of the skin and lips) are usually the first symptoms of exposure. With continued exposure, there is shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, dryness of the throat, dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, rapid pulse, irregular heart beat and, in severe cases, coma. Although death from heart failure can follow, it is not common since the effects are reversible when exposure stops.(13,14) Onset of symptoms may be delayed 2 to 4 hours after exposure, or longer.
It has been reported that exposure to 7 to 53 ppm caused slight symptoms of methemoglobinemia after several hours. Concentrations of 100 to 160 ppm caused more serious effects such as shortness of breath, headache and dizziness when inhaled for 1 hour.(5,14)

Skin Contact:
Aniline caused very mild skin irritation in a confirmed animal study. Mild to severe irritation has been observed in unconfirmed animal studies, with more severe irritation observed following longer (24-hour) exposures. No human information was located.
Aniline liquid and vapour are readily absorbed through the skin and can produce or contribute to the symptoms of methemoglobinemia as described for inhalation.(4)

Eye Contact:
Aniline is a severe eye irritant, based on animal information.
Some historical reports suggested that aniline may have harmful effects on the eye. However, based on the available evidence, it is doubtful that this is true. Exposure to aniline at concentrations high enough to produce methemoglobinemia can result in a blue or violet discolouration of the eye.(29)

Ingestion:
Human volunteers who ingested 5, 15 or 25 mg aniline daily for 3 days showed changes in methemoglobin only at the highest dose.(4) Significant ingestion would be expected to cause the same effects described for inhalation. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Although liver damage and nervous system effects have been attributed to aniline in the past, this has not been proven.(5,14) Some historical reports have also suggested that aniline may have harmful effects on the eye. However, based on the available evidence, it is doubtful that this is true.(29)
A recent report suggests that exposure to aniline or benzene may cause an effect on red blood cells called paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria.(31) There is very little information contained in the report and at this point the authors are only speculating that exposure aniline may be related to this effect.

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is inadequate and that there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity to animals. OVERALL IARC EVALUATION: Group 3 - Aniline is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.(6) The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated aniline as an A3 (animal carcinogen).
There are several historical reports of cancer in the aniline dye industry which were supposedly caused by aniline. These cancers have subsequently been attributed to exposure to other chemicals. There were many factors that limited the usefulness of these studies, such as incomplete follow-up of workers, multiple exposures and no data for comparison to expected values.(1)
In a 1991 NIOSH study of employees exposed to both ortho-toluidine and aniline, there was an increased risk of bladder cancer related to duration of exposure and department of employment (rough measures of exposure).(15) The authors felt that o-toluidine was more likely responsible for the observed effect since it is known to produce bladder cancer in rats. Although they stated that aniline may have played a role. Other authors have questioned these conclusions.(16,17,33) In 1993, results of a similar study of rubber chemical manufacturing employees with exposure to aniline, o-toluidine and other chemicals were published. This study found no relationship between these chemical exposures and deaths from all cancers or bladder cancer in particular.(32) This study contradicts the 1991 NIOSH study.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Aniline was not found to be teratogenic or embryotoxic in animal studies.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations have been increased in cultured human fibroblasts and lymphocytes.(4) Aniline is mutagenic in tests using live animals.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Aniline is rapidly absorbed by all routes of exposure-- inhalation, skin contact or ingestion. Metabolism of aniline in the liver is complex and the relative amounts of each metabolite varies between species. It is thought that these differences in metabolism may be the basis for the different species susceptibility to cancer. Accumulation is not expected as aniline is rapidly excreted (primarily in the urine) and has a half life of approximately 40 minutes with rabbits and mice and less than 1 hour with rats.(1,3,4)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult or if symptoms of methemoglobinemia develop (e.g. bluish skin), trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If breathing is difficult or if symptoms of methemoglobinemia develop (e.g. bluish skin), trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. Immediately obtain medical attention. Double bag, seal, label and leave contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods at the scene for safe disposal.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens until flushing is done. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If breathing is difficult or symptoms of methemoglobinemia (e.g. bluish skin) develop, trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
70 deg C (158 deg F) (closed cup) (18,24,37)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.3% by volume (18,24)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
11.0% by volume (24)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
615 deg C (1139 deg F) (18,24)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not available.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Will not accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. The electrical conductivity of aniline is high (2.4 X 10(6) pS/m at 25 deg C).(23,38) Mixtures of aniline vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range probably will not be ignited by a static discharge because of its relatively high flashpoint.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Nitrogen oxides.(39)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 70 deg C. During a fire, irritating/toxic nitrogen oxides may be generated. Can react with alkali or alkaline earth metals to form flammable hydrogen gas. Closed containers can explode if exposed to the heat of a fire or excess heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.(39)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.(14)
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to dilute the spill to a nonflammable mixture. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Do not enter fire area without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 93.13

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.80 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.263 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -6.03 deg C (21 deg F) (18)
Boiling Point: 184-184.5 deg C (363-364 deg F) (3,4)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.022 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (1,18,38)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble; 3.5 g/100 mL at 25 deg C (18,37); 6.4 g/100 mL boiling water (21)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, benzene, chloroform and is soluble in most organic solvents (5,18)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.9 (22); log P(oct) = 0.98 (22)
pH Value: 8.1 (0.2 molar aqueous solution) (21)
Vapour Density: 3.22 at 164 deg C (air = 1) (39)
Vapour Pressure: 0.04 kPa (0.3 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (23); 0.089 kPa (0.67 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (3)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 400 ppm (0.04%) at 20 deg C; 900 ppm (0.09%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Less than 1 (butyl acetate = 1) (19)
Critical Temperature: 425.6 deg C (798 deg F) (19,37,38)

Other Physical Properties:
BASICITY: Weak base; pKb = 9.37, pKa = 4.63 (18)
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 4.35 mPa.s (4.35 centipoise) at 20 deg C (18,37)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 4.26 m2/s (4.26 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 42.9 mN/m (42.9 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C in contact with vapour (19)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 5310 kPa (52.4 atm) (19,38)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Moderately stable. Rapidly oxidized in the presence of air and light to form a complex mixture.(3)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, perchromates, nitric acid, ozone, perchloric acid, 60% performic acid) - React violently with risk of fire and explosion.(23,24,25)
ACIDS (e.g. chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, 90% sulfuric acid) - Reaction may be vigorous or violent.(24)
NITROMETHANE - Susceptible to ignition by a detonator.(25)
TETRANITROMETHANE - Can ignite almost spontaneously and may detonate.(25)
TRICHLORONITROMETHANE - Violent reaction.(19)
SILVER PERCHLORATE - Form shock-sensitive salts.(24)
ALKALI and ALKALINE EARTH METALS - Reaction produces flammable hydrogen gas.(21,23)
HEXACHLOROMELAMINE, TRICHLOROMELAMINE - React violently. In confined conditions, the mixtures will explode or catch fire.(18,24)
BORON TRICHLORIDE - Reaction may be violent in absence of cooling or diluent.(25)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Quinones, quinoneimines and highly coloured polymers of unknown composition (oxidation in the presence of air and light).(3)

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames and heat.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Slightly corrosive to some metals. It attacks copper, brass and other copper alloys.(18,23) It is not corrosive to cast iron, carbon steel or stainless steel.(18,37)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Aniline is a weak base which reacts with strong acids. It is easily oxidized. See reference 18 for a discussion of the reactions of aniline.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): approximately 250 ppm (4-hour exposure) (35)
LC50 (mouse): 232 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 175 ppm (7-hour exposure) (2, unconfirmed)

LD50 (oral, rat): 250 mg/kg (30); 440 mg/kg (1,3)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 464 mg/kg (2,3)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 840 mg/kg (34)
LD50 (dermal, guinea pig): 1320 mg/kg (34)

Eye Irritation:

Aniline is a severe eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted aniline caused severe eye irritation in rabbits (average score at 24, 48 and 72 hours: 52/110; reversibility was not reported).(44) Moderate irritation was produced in rabbits when 20 mg was applied for 24 hours in a standard Draize Test.(2, unconfirmed) In an unpublished Draize test, application of 50 mg of undiluted aniline caused severe corneal opacity and severe conjunctival redness and edema (no scoring reported), which were not reversible within 8 days.(43, unconfirmed) In an acute inhalation test, rats exposed to aniline vapours at an average concentration of approximately 790 ppm (cited as 3 mg/L) for 4 hours had mild to severe corneal damage, which was observed until day 14.(43, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

Aniline caused very mild skin irritation in a confirmed study. Mild to severe irritation has been observed in unconfirmed studies.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted aniline to intact skin for an unspecified duration caused very mild irritation in rabbits (average scores at 24 and 72 hours: erythema: 1/4; edema: 0/4).(44) In 2 unpublished reports, application of aniline caused mild irritation in rabbits.(43, unconfirmed) Moderate irritation was produced in rabbits following application of 20 mg for 24 hours in a standard Draize Test.(2, unconfirmed) In an unpublished study designed to test acute dermal toxicity (a 24-hour exposure period can be assumed), application of undiluted aniline caused bleeding below the skin and severe redness.(43, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Methemoglobinemia (a condition which reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen) and destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis) were among the major toxic effects noted in early studies with mice, rats, rabbits, cats and dogs. More recent studies have shown effects on the spleen in rats fed low oral doses for up to 2 weeks.

Inhalation:
Methemoglobin formation was studied in rats exposed by inhalation with changes as follows: 10 ppm - 4% methemoglobin; 50 ppm - 13% and 150 ppm - over 50%. Levels returned to normal after 2 weeks.(4) In another study, male rats were exposed to 0, 17, 45, or 87 ppm aniline for 2 weeks. Similar methemoglobin levels were observed in the 0 and 17 ppm exposure groups. During exposure to 45 and 87 ppm methemoglobin levels ranged from 1.7 to 6 times and from 7.5 to 16 times greater than the control animals. These levels gradually decreased to normal by day 11. Exposure at 45 and 87 ppm also affected other blood cell parameters and liver, spleen and thymus gland weights.(42)

Ingestion:
Increased spleen weight and blood cell effects have also been observed in rats fed low oral doses of 0.7 mmol/kg or 0.093% of aniline for 13 or 14 days. The approximate doses were 65 mg/kg/day or 128 mg/kg/day respectively.(12,40) High mortality (8/30) was seen in rats administered 110 mg/kg/day orally for 5 to 20 days. Severe bleeding in the spleen was observed, but there were no liver effects.(36)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Several species of animals were exposed by inhalation to 5 ppm aniline for 6 months. The only effect reported was a slight increase in methemoglobin in rats.(5)

Ingestion:
Rats and mice were fed up to 1% aniline hydrochloride in their diets for 8 weeks. There were no effects in mice. At 0.3% and 0.6%, there were changes in the spleen, liver, kidney and the lining of the uterus in rats. At the highest concentration, rats had a 25% reduction in mean body weight.(1) No conclusions can be drawn from a poorly reported study, inflammation of the kidney (chronic nephritis) was observed in rats given 0.03, 0.06 or 0.12% aniline in drinking water for 80 weeks. The approximate doses were 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day respectively at the beginning of the study. Statistical evaluation of the data was not conducted.(41)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of aniline to animals.(6) The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated aniline an A3 (animal carcinogen). In general, rats appear to be sensitive to the carcinogenic effects, while mice are not.
In National Cancer Institute (NCI) studies, there were no tumours caused in mice given doses of 0.6 or 1.2% aniline hydrochloride (of unknown purity) in the diet for 103 weeks. Rats fed aniline hydrochloride (0.3% or 0.6%) had significant dose-related increases in cancer of the spleen and abdominal cavities. Tumours were more frequent in males.(1) In a similar study, rats were fed aniline hydrochloride (200-1600 ppm (0.02-0.16%)) for 103 weeks. Tumours of the spleen were found in 34 of 130 males at the highest dose, but only 1 in 130 females.(4) Other studies have been limited by factors such as poor survival, inadequate reporting, lack of controls or short treatment periods.(1)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Aniline hydrochloride was not teratogenic or embryotoxic when rats were given 10, 30 or 100 mg aniline/kg body weight daily from day 7 of pregnancy. Temporary signs of toxicity were observed in the offspring up to 30 days after birth. There were significant signs of maternal toxicity.(4,5) During evaluation of a preliminary developmental toxicity test, mice were given 560 mg aniline/kg/day from day 6-13 of pregnancy. There was decreased maternal survival. Decreased pup birth weight and reduced weight gain after birth (by day 3) were observed.(7)

Mutagenicity:
Aniline and aniline hydrochloride have been tested for mutagenicity in many systems. Positive results were obtained in tests on live animals such as bone marrow micronucleus (rats (10) and mice (11)), sister chromatid exchanges (mouse bone marrow cells) and DNA strand breakages (rat liver and kidney cells)(6). There was no DNA damage in the liver, kidneys and bone marrow of mice.(4) Urine from rats treated with aniline, was mutagenic to bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) with metabolic activation (1).
Aniline gave positive results in the mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, both with and without metabolic activation (8,9), while the hydrochloride induced an increase of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster cells.(1) Negative results have been obtained in the Salmonella typhimurium bacterial assay system, bacterial and mammalian DNA repair assays, recombination with yeast, cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells.(1)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Aniline and aniline hydrochloride. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol 27. Some aromatic amines, anthraquinones and nitroso compounds, and inorganic fluorides used in drinking-water and dental preparations. World Health Organization, Apr. 1982. p. 39-61
(2) RTECS database record for aniline. Last updated: 1997-04
(3) Aniline. In: Aromatic amines: an assessment of the biological and environmental effects. National Academy Press, 1981. p. 123-167
(4) Consensus report for aniline. In: Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards. X. Vol. 32. National Institute of Occupational Health, 1989. p. 6-17
(5) Aniline and homologues. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Vol. 1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991
(6) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Aniline (Group 3). In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Suppl. 7. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs vol. 1 to 42. World Health Organization, 1987. p. 99-100
(7) Hardin, B.D., et al. Evaluation of 60 chemicals in a preliminary developmental toxicity test. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. Vol. 7, no. 1 (1987). p. 29-48
(8) Wangenheim, J., et al. Mouse lymphoma L5178Y thymidine kinase locus assay of 50 compounds. Mutagenesis. Vol. 3, no. 3 (1988). p. 193-205
(9) McGregor, D.B., et al. Responses of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: V. 27 coded chemicals. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 17, no. 3 (1991). p. 196-219
(10) George, E., et al. Effects of azobenzene and aniline in the rodent bone marrow micronucleus test. Carcinogenesis. Vol. 11, no. 9 (Sept. 1990). p. 1551-1555
(11) Ashby, J., et al. Activity of aniline in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Mutation Research. Vol. 263, no. 2 (June 1991). p. 115-117
(12) Jenkins, F.P., et al. The no-effect dose of aniline in human subjects and a comparison of aniline toxicity in man and the rat. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 10 (1972). p. 671-679
(13) Jacobson, S.M. Acute aniline poisoning. The West Virginia Medical Journal. Vol. 48 (Oct. 1952). p. 298-301
(14) Diseases caused by toxic nitro and amino derivatives of benzene and its homologues. In: Early detection of occupational diseases. World Health Organization, 1986. p. 134-141
(15) Ward, E., et al. Excess number of bladder cancers in workers exposed to ortho-toluidine and aniline. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Vol. 83, no. 7 (Apr. 1991). p. 501-506
(16) Tannenbaum, S.R. Bladder cancer in workers exposed to aniline. Letter. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Vol. 83, no. 20 (Oct. 1991). p. 1507-1508
(17) Acquavella, J.F., et al. An alternative hypothesis for bladder cancer among workers exposed to ortho-toluidine and aniline. Letter. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Vol. 83, no. 22 (Nov. 1991). p. 1686-1687
(18) Amini, B. Amines, aromatic: aniline and its derivatives. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 426-442
(19) HSDB database record for aniline. Last revision date: 97/03/27
(20) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989
(21) Budavari, S., ed. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 12th ed. Merck and Co., Inc., 1996
(22) Leo, A., et al. Partition coefficients and their uses. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 71, no. 6 (Dec. 1971). p. 572
(23) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991
(24) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(25) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995
(26) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(27) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(28) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004
(29) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1993
(30) Dieke, S.H., et al. The acute toxicity of thioureas and related compounds to wild and domestic Norway rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 90 (1974). p. 260-275
(31) Kwong, Y.L., et al. Toxic occupational exposures and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. The Lancet. Vol. 341 (Feb. 13, 1993). p. 443
(32) Sorahan, T., et al. Mortality study of workers employed at a plant manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry: 1944-86. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 50, no. 11 (Nov. 1993). p. 998-1002
(33) Freudenthal, F.I., et al. A re-examination of the cause of excess bladder cancers in chemical plant workers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Vol. 86, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1994). p. 59-60
(34) Roudabush, R.L., et al. Comparative acute effects of some chemicals on the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7 (July 1965). p. 559-565
(35) Carpenter, C.P., et al. The assay of acute vapor toxicity, and the grading and interpretation of results on 96 chemical compounds. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 6 (Nov. 1949). p. 343-346
(36) Short, C.R., et al. Subacute toxicity of several ring-substituted dialkylanilines in the rat. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 3, no. 4 (July 1983). p. 285-292
(37) Lawrence, F.R.,et al. Aniline. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A2. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 303-307
(38) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.96, 5.92, 6.134, 8.162
(39) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(40) Khan, M.F., et al. Hematopoietic toxicity of linoleic acid anilide: importance of aniline. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 25 (1995). p. 224-232
(41) Hagiwara, A., et al. Chronic effects of norharman in rats treated with aniline. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 6 (1980). p. 71-75
(42) O'Neal, F.O., et al. Subacute inhalation toxicity of aniline: the relationship between methemoglobin formation and toxicity. Toxicologist. Vol. 2 (1982). p. 164
(43) European Union Risk Assessment Report. Aniline. Risk assessment final report. Vol. 50. European Commission Joint Research Centre. 2004. Available at <ecb.jrc.it/esis/esis.php>
(44) Industrial Bio-test Laboratories Inc. Toxic summary prepared by Indus Bio-Test Lab Inc with cover letter. Date produced: Jan. 1969. E.I. DuPont De Nemours and Co. Inc. EPA/OTS 878211719. NTIS/OTS0205856.

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-03-26

Revision Indicators:
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Emergency overview 1999-03-01
Firefighting instructions 1999-03-01
Handling 1999-03-01
WHMIS (proposed class) 1999-03-01
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-03-01
WHMIS (detailed class) 1999-03-01
TDG 2002-05-29
NFPA (health) 2003-04-08
Personal hygiene 2003-05-26
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-22
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-09
EU classification 2005-01-16
EU risks 2005-01-16
EU safety 2005-01-16
EU comments 2005-01-16
Bibliography 2006-02-09
Toxicological info 2006-02-21
Short-term skin contact 2006-02-21
Short-term eye contact 2006-02-21
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-02-21
WHMIS health effects 2006-02-21
Emergency overview 2006-02-21
First aid skin 2006-02-21



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