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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 498
CCOHS Chemical Name: Amylamine (mixed isomers)

Synonyms:
Pentylamine (mixed isomers)
Pentylamines
Amylamine (non-specific name)
Amylamines

Chemical Name French: Amylamine (mélange d'isomères)
Chemical Name Spanish: Amilaminas (mezcla de isómeros)
CAS Registry Number: Not assigned
UN/NA Number(s): 1106
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic amine / primary alkyl amine / primary amino alkane / aliphatic monoamine / amylamine / pentylamine / amine isomer mixture
Molecular Formula: C5-H13-N
Structural Formula: C5H11-NH2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with an ammonia-like or fishy odour.(6,10) May turn yellow on prolonged exposure to air. Absorbs moisture.

Odour Threshold:
Information not available

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation

Composition/Purity:
Amylamine (mixed isomers) consists of 98% primary amylamines. Depending on the manufacturer, any one of the following isomers may be present in varying concentrations: n-amylamine (CAS No. 110-58-7), isoamylamine (CAS No. 107-85-7), sec-amylamine (CAS No. 63493-28-7) and tert-amylamine (CAS No 594-39-8). For information on the individual isomers, refer to the CHEMINFO reviews.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as an intermediate to manufacture plasticizers, agrochemicals (e.g. fungicides), emulsifying agents, and in textiles. It is also used as a gasoline additive, corrosion inhibitor and in drilling applications.(10,11)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with an ammonia-like or fishy odour. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, LIQUID or VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances and will accumulate at low points (e.g. open or closed drain). Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Decomposes at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide. TOXIC. Harmful if inhaled, absorbed through the skin or swallowed. CORROSIVE to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause permanent eye injury and scarring. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. Low vapour concentrations may cause a temporary visual disturbance known as "blue haze" or "halo vision."



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Amylamine (mixed isomers) is expected to be volatile and readily form high airborne concentrations, based on comparison to closely related amines. Vapours or mists are severely irritating to the nose, throat and lungs. It is toxic if inhaled and poses a serious inhalation hazard, based on limited animal information and comparison to related amines.
Symptoms of exposure include sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Brief exposure (15-minutes) to low concentrations is expected to produce intolerable nose and throat irritation, based on animal information for related amines. Short-lived effects such as headache, nausea, faintness and feelings of anxiety have been described (2), but cannot be verified.
High concentrations can cause fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema) that may be fatal. Symptoms of pulmonary edema (tightness in the chest and shortness of breath) can develop up to 48 hours after exposure and are aggravated by physical exertion. No human case reports of pulmonary edema were located, but these effects have been observed in animal studies with other amines.

Skin Contact:
Amylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive, based on animal information. Corrosive materials can cause redness, pain, inflammation, blistering, ulceration and permanent scarring.
Amylamine (mixed isomers) are expected to be toxic following skin contact, based on animal information. Any skin contact would also involve significant inhalation exposure.

Eye Contact:
Direct contact with amylamine (mixed isomers) can cause corrosive damage to the eyes. Permanent injury, including blindness may result. Airborne amylamine (mixed isomers) is also expected to be extremely irritating to the eyes. High concentrations could cause severe eye damage, with possible permanent injury, including blindness.
Low airborne concentrations of many amines (e.g. diethylamine, dimethylamine and triethylamine) can cause a visual disturbance commonly known as "blue haze" or "halo vision". This effect results from temporary swelling of the surface of the eye caused by the amine (5), or by direct deposition of tertiary amines onto the surface of the eye (9). In general, after about 1-3 hours of exposure, vision becomes foggy or blurred, objects might appear bluish and there may be halos around lights. Affected persons may not experience eye discomfort or pain. The effect normally clears up within a day and causes no permanent injury.(3,5,9) This visual disturbance could contribute to accidents. It is not known if amylamine (mixed isomers) can cause this effect.

Ingestion:
Amylamine (mixed isomers) is toxic if ingested, based on an animal toxicity value. Ingestion of amylamine (mixed isomers) can cause burns to the mouth, throat and esophagus. Severe permanent injury or death could result due to the corrosive nature of amylamine (mixed isomers). Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Long-term exposure may be irritating to the respiratory system (nose, throat and bronchi), due to the severely irritating nature of amylamine (mixed isomers).

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact with concentrated solutions could cause dermatitis (dry, irritated, broken skin).

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no information available for amylamine (mixed isomers).

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no human or animal information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Based on information available for related amines, amylamine (mixed isomers) is not expected to accumulate in the body. Amylamines are readily broken down (metabolized) to aldehyde and ammonia.(2)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This product is extremely flammable and toxic. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. remove any sources of ignition, wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, and it can be done safely, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. Double bag, seal, label and leave contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods at the scene for safe disposal.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 60 to 240 mL (2 to 8 oz) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed.

All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Varies with composition; -1 deg C (30 deg F) (closed cup) (amylamines); -7 deg C (20 deg F) (closed cup) (sec-amylamine) (6)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.2% (amylamines) (6)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
22% (amylamines) (6)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not available

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
It is not known if amylamine (mixed isomers) will accumulate static charge, since the electrical conductivity is unknown. However, amylamine (mixed isomers) may accumulate static charge based on the dielectric constant. Mixtures of amylamine isomer vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range can be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
2.0 mJ (estimated)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, nitriles, isocyanates, nitrosamines, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other irritating and toxic fumes may be formed in a fire.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Highly flammable liquid. Releases vapours that form explosive mixtures with air. Concentrated water solutions are flammable. Dilute water solutions of amylamines may be combustible. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Can accumulate in confined spaces and low areas, resulting in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Water solutions are corrosive to eyes and skin. During a fire, toxic nitrogen oxide and hydrogen cyanide gases may be generated. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Small fires: Dry chemical powder Large fires: Alcohol resistant foam.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
Carbon dioxide reacts with amines to form thermally unstable carbamate salts.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Foam is the most effective agent for fighting large fires of this type. Cover the liquid with appropriate foam to blanket the surface and reduce the rate of evaporation. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.
Water is ineffective for fighting fires because the amylamine isomer mixture has a very low flash point. However, water can be used to extinguish the fire when a number of hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters to sweep the flames off the surface of the burning liquid. Water can also be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water solutions of amylamine isomer mixture are corrosive and may be flammable or combustible. Corrosive and explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Amylamines and their decomposition products such as nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide are extremely hazardous to health. Do not enter any fire area without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical protective suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 87.16

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.56 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.28 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Varies with composition; less than -50 deg C (-58 deg F)
Boiling Point: Varies with composition; approximately 85-104 deg C (185-220 deg F)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Varies with composition; 0.75-0.76 at 20 deg C (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (6)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be soluble in most organic solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Varies with composition; Log P(oct) = 1.18-1.49 (estimated)
pH Value: 11.8 (0.1M solution) (calculated)
Basicity: Strong organic base.
Dissociation Constant: pKb = 3.4 at 25 deg C (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not available.
Surface Tension: Not available.
Vapour Density: 3.0 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: Varies with composition; 4-16 kPa (30-120 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (estimated)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Varies with composition; 4-16% at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Expected to evaporate at a slightly faster rate than n-butyl acetate.
Henry's Law Constant: 2.21-3.29 Pa.m3/mol (cited as (2.18-3.25) X 10(-5) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (13); log H = -3.05 to -2.96 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 4.27 at 20 deg C (n-amylamine) (dimensionless) (12)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Reaction with hypochlorites form unstable chloroamines, which may explode at room temperature.(15) Reaction with nitric acid is exothermic and may produce nitrogen gas rapidly and result in spattering of corrosive mixture.(4,16)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids is vigorous or violent.(15,16)
NITRATING AGENTS (e.g. mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid) - May form unstable nitro compounds that pose an explosion risk if subjected to shock or if heated rapidly and uncontrollably.(15)
DIAZOTIZATION AGENTS (e.g. mixture of sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid) - Forms unstable diazonium salts, which are explosive and sensitive to friction, shock, heat and radiation.(15)
MERCURY - Reacts with mercury to form shock-sensitive compounds.(15)
NITROMETHANE - Reaction product may detonate; organic amines and nitromethane form sensitive explosive mixtures.(15)
NITROPHENOLS - Form shock-sensitive compounds.(15)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine gas, thionyl chloride) - Reaction evolves heat. May form shock sensitive chloroamines. Toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas is released.(15)
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride.(16)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium) or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzylchloride or t-butylchloride) - Reaction at room temperature can form very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride). May evolve heat. Reaction with phosgene forms thermally unstable isocyanate compounds.(4,11)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may evolve heat.(4,11)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid and may evolve heat.(4,11)
CARBON DIOXIDE - Forms thermally unstable amine carbamate salts.(4)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Amylamines are oxidized by prolonged exposure to air. Transient, thermally unstable N-oxides such as hydroxylamines or nitro compounds are formed which may further decompose to release pentenes, very volatile flammable liquids.(11,14)

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, static discharge, friction, sparks and other sources of ignition. Prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. In general, anhydrous (dry) alkylamines are slightly corrosive to carbon steel, some stainless steel alloys, and some aluminum alloys. In general, anhydrous (dry) alkylamines or water solutions of alkylamines are considered corrosive to copper and copper alloys (e.g. brass), some aluminum alloys, zinc, zinc alloys, and galvanized surfaces.(11,17)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. In general, amines are expected to attack polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, some polyimides, polyurethane, high density polyethylene, polyacetal copolymer, polycarbonate, and polystyrene. Moist amylamine (mixed isomers) or water solutions of amylamine (mixed isomers) are basic and therefore will etch glass. Amylamines are not expected to attack Teflon, most other fluorinated plastics, or thermoset epoxy.(18)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Lethal concentration (rat): 2000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (4/6 died) (1)

LD50 (oral, rat): 470 mg/kg (cited as 0.47 g/kg) (1)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 850 mg/kg (cited as 1.12 mL/kg) (1)

Eye Irritation:

Amylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive to the eyes.

Application of in excess of a 5% solution of amylamine (mixed isomers) caused corrosive injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 9/10).(1)

Skin Irritation:

Amylamine (mixed isomers) is corrosive to the skin.

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted amylamine (mixed isomers) caused tissue death (necrosis) in rabbits (graded 6/10).(1)

NOTE: The exact isomeric composition of the material tested in the above study is not known.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, H.F., Jr. et al. Range-finding toxicity data : list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1969). p. 470-476
(2) Cavender, F.L. Aliphatic and Alicyclic Amines. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 4. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 683-709, 805-815
(3) Akesson, B. et al. Visual disturbances after experimental human exposure to triethylamine. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 42, no. 12 (1985). p. 848-850
(4) Turcotte, G.M., et al. Amines, lower aliphatic amines. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 2001. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(5) Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 103-104
(6) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325 (amylamine and sec-amylamine); NFPA 491 (amines); NFPA 77 (isopropylamine); NFPA 49 (amylamines)
(7) NIOSH guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 40-41
(8) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(9) Page, E.H. et al. Visual and ocular changes associated with exposure to two tertiary amines. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 60, no. 1 (2003). p. 69-75
(10) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. sec-Amylamine and n-amylamine. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 74
(11) Karsten E., et al. Amines, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(12) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 82nd ed. CRC Press, 2001. p. 6-159 (pentylamine)
(13) Yaws, C.L., et al. Solubility and Henry's Law Constants for amines in water. Chemical Engineering. Aug. 1, 2001. p. 84-88. Available at: <www.che.com> {Subscription required}
(14) Gutman, D., et al. Identification of reactive routes in the reactions of oxygen atoms with methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, and trimethylamine. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 83, no. 24 (1979). p. 3065-3070
(15) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(16) Armour, M.-A. Hazardous laboratory chemicals disposal guide. 2nd ed. Lewis Publishers, 1996. p. 47 (aniline)
(17) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 14-25 (amines, general)
(18) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 74-85 (butylamine and isomers); p.14-25 (amines, general)

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-09-28

Revision Indicators:
Chemical Name Spanish 2005-10-17



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