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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 436
CCOHS Chemical Name: Amyl acetate (mixed isomers)

Synonyms:
Acetic acid, amyl ester (mixed isomers)
Acetic acid, pentyl ester (mixed isomers)
Amyl acetic ester (mixed isomers)
Pentyl acetate (mixed isomers)
Amyl acetate (non-specific name)
Pentanol acetate (mixed isomers)
Pentyl acetate (non-specific name)
Primary amyl acetate (mixed isomers)
Primary pentyl acetate (mixed isomers)

Chemical Name Spanish: Acetato de n-amilo (mezcla de isómeros)
CAS Registry Number: Not assigned
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 628-63-7 624-41-9 123-92-2
UN/NA Number(s): 1104
RTECS Number(s): AJ2010000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 211-047-3 (n-amyl acetate)
Chemical Family: Aliphatic carboxylic acid ester / saturated aliphatic carboxylic acid ester / saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid ester / alkyl alkanoate / acetic acid ester / acetate / pentyl ester / amyl ester
Molecular Formula: C7-H14-O2
Structural Formula: Mixture of isomers

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid, with a characteristic banana- or pear-like odour, pleasant in low concentrations, but becoming progressively disagreeable as the concentration increases.(11)

Odour Threshold:
Very low. The values for the individual isomers are: 0.052 ppm (detection) (n-amyl acetate); 0.22 ppm (detection) (isoamyl acetate) (12)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than 10 times the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Commercial amyl acetate (mixed isomers) typically consists of a mixture of 60-65% n-amyl acetate (CAS 628-63-7) 35% 2-methylbutyl acetate (CAS 624-41-9) and less than 1 to 5% isoamyl acetate (CAS 123-92-2). The composition and properties depend on the grade and derivation of the mixture. A number of grades are available; commercial (85-88%); high test (85-88%); technical (90-95%); and pure (95-99%).(11,21) These grades may also contain various propyl, butyl, hexyl or heptyl acetates as impurities, which may affect the boiling point and flash point.(11)

Uses and Occurrences:
Amyl acetate, mixed isomers is used as a solvent for lacquers and paints; for the extraction of penicillin; in the production of photographic film, leather polishes, nail polish and dry-cleaning preparations; as a flavouring agent; in clinical investigations as odorants to assess the performance of the olfactory system; as a warning odour; for printing and finishing fabrics; and as a solvent for phosphors in fluorescent lamps.(15,21,22)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid, with a characteristic banana- or pear-like odour, pleasant in low concentrations, but becoming progressively disagreeable as the concentration increases. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 17 deg C (62.6 deg F). Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Vapour may be irritating to the eyes, nose and respiratory tract. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) can cause nose and throat irritation, followed by symptoms of depression of the central nervous system (CNS) (headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion) at higher concentrations. Limited information suggests that irritation would occur at 100-200 ppm.
Exposure to 200 ppm amyl acetate (isomer not specified) was reported to cause mild nose irritation and severe throat irritation in 10 volunteers. Slight throat discomfort was reported at 100 ppm.(3) An historical report describes irritation of the throat, and coughing, followed by dryness of the throat, moderate chest tightness and some fatigue in humans exposed to 188 ppm amyl acetate (isomer not specified) for one-half hour.(5) Exposure to 144-156 ppm is predicted to cause some irritation, based on mouse RD50 values.(2,17)

Skin Contact:
The liquid probably causes no to mild irritation, based on animal information. There is no human information available.
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) can only be absorbed through the skin to a very slight extent, and it is unlikely to cause harmful effects by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
The liquid probably causes mild irritation, based on animal information. The vapour can cause mild to moderate irritation, depending on the airborne concentration. Exposure to 300 ppm amyl acetate (isomer not specified) was reported to cause eye irritation in human volunteers.(3) Another study reported severe irritation, tearing and increased sensitivity to light in 4/30 employees following exposure to amyl acetate (isomer not specified). However, airborne concentrations were not reported and other possible contaminants were not considered.(2)

Ingestion:
Ingestion of amyl acetate (mixed isomers) may cause irritation of the mouth and throat. Large amounts may produce signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression (headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion). Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Skin:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) can remove natural oils from the skin, resulting in dryness, redness and itching (dermatitis).(1,2)

Skin Sensitization:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) is probably not a skin sensitizer or a photosensitizer (increasing sensitivity to the sun).
No adverse reaction was observed in 211 human volunteers in a repeat insult patch test with 20% amyl acetate (isomer unspecified).(16) Similarly, no adverse reactions were observed in phototoxicity and photoallergy studies in which volunteers were exposed to UV radiation and 30% n-amyl acetate or 20% amyl acetate (isomer unspecified).(16)

Eyes/Vision:
No conclusions can be drawn based on the available information. There are rare historical reports (1930-1970) of effects on vision in workers exposed to amyl acetate vapour (isomer unspecified). All of the reports relate to the use of amyl acetate in Europe. Exposure levels were either high (saturated vapour concentration) or unspecified and in most cases there was concurrent exposure to other chemicals.(14)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Harmful effects on the embryo or fetus have not been observed in animal studies in the absence of harmful effects on mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that amyl acetate (mixed isomers) is mutagenic based on the limited information available. There is no information available for live animals or humans.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Amyl acetate is easily taken up via the lungs, is hydrolyzed in the body forming acetic acid and pentanol. These compounds are then further biotransformed and either used by the body or excreted in urine.(1,2)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This is chemical is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until chemical is removed.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
17-40 deg C (62.6-104 deg F) (commercial and technical grades) (closed cup) (11)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.1% (21)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
7.5% (21)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
360-400 deg C (680-752 deg F) (11)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) will probably not accumulate static charge, since related acetates have high electrical conductivities. Mixtures of amyl acetate (mixed isomers) vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion may also produce irritating fumes and acrid smoke.

Fire Hazard Summary:
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 17 deg C (62.6 deg F). Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Liquid may float on water and travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating/toxic products may be generated. Vapours can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant fire-fighting foams", water spray or fog. Water may not be effective for extinguishing a fire because it may not cool amyl acetate (mixed isomers) below its flash point. (22,23,24) Fire fighting foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires.(24) Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite. Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.(24) Stay away from ends of tanks involved in fire, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Cool fire-exposed containers, cylinders, tanks, equipment or pipelines by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of the tank.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) is slightly hazardous to health but not absorbed through the skin. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury. (amyl acetate)
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. (amyl acetate)
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water. (amyl acetate)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 130.19

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 5.31 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.19 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -70.8 deg C (-95.4 deg F) (n-amyl acetate) (2); -78.5 deg C (-109.3 deg F) (isoamyl acetate) (2)
Boiling Point: 110-115 deg C (230-239 deg F) (commercial and technical grades) (11)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.86-0.88 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (commercial and technical grades) (11)
Solubility in Water: Slightly soluble (approximately 200 mg/100 g water at 20 deg C (n-amyl acetate)) (23,25)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether (2,26)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 2.26-2.30 (estimated) (27)
pH Value: Not available
Acidity: Probably neutral
Dissociation Constant: Not available
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not available
Surface Tension: Not available
Vapour Density: 4.5 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 0.47-0.55 kPa (3.5-4.1 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (n-amyl acetate) (25,28); 0.75 kPa (5.6 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (isoamyl acetate) (25)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 4600-5400 ppm (0.46-0.54%) at 25 deg C (n-amyl acetate); 7400 ppm (0.74%) at 25 deg C (isoamyl acetate) (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available.
Henry's Law Constant: 39.27 Pa.m3/mol (3.88 X 10(-4) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (experimental) (25,29); log H = -1.8 (dimensionless constant; calculated) (n-amyl acetate)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Stable in the anhydrous state. May slowly hydrolyze to acetic acid and pentanol (mixed isomers) in the presence of water.(22)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitrates, perchlorates, peroxides) - reaction can be violent. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(9,23,24)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid, oleum, and chlorosulfonic acid) or STRONG BASES (e.g. potassium hydroxide) - decomposition (hydrolysis) can occur, releasing heat. The reaction may be vigorous and there is a risk of fire and explosions.(9,23)
POTASSIUM TERT-BUTOXIDE - contact with amyl acetate vapour may cause ignition.(24,30)
REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. hydrides, such as lithium aluminum hydride) - reaction may be strongly exothermic (generation of heat). Increased risk of fire and explosion.(30)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Acetic acid.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, electrostatic discharge, sparks, spark-producing mechanisms, heat and other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
In general, at normal temperatures, amyl acetate are not corrosive to most metals such as carbon steel, stainless steels (such as types 304/347, 316, 400 series and 20 Cb 3), nickel and its alloys, aluminum, copper, bronze and brass, Hastelloy, Inconel, Incolloy, Monel, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(31,32)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
In general, amyl acetate can attack plastics, such as acetonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), acrylics, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polymethyl methacrylate, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and styrene-acrylonitrile (SA), elastomers, such as Butyl GR-1, ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPT), Viton A (FKM), isoprene, Koroseal, natural rubber, neoprene, Nitrile Buna-N (NBR), Nordel (EPDM), polyether-urethane, polyurethane and silicone rubbers, and various epoxy coatings, such as coal tar epoxy, epoxy general purpose and epoxy chemical resistant. Amyl acetate does not attack fluorocarbons, such as FEP and Teflon, nylon, Halar, Tefzel, chlorinated polyether, Kynar, Chemraz, Hypalon, Kalrez, polyester, polyethylene and polyvinylidene chloride.(31,33)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 5600-5700 mg/kg (cited as 6.5 mL/kg) (mixed isomers) (4)
LD50 (skin, male rabbit): 8200-8400 mg/kg (cited as 9.5 mL/kg) (60% n-amyl acetate, 35% 2-methyl-butyl acetate and 5% isobutyl acetate) (10)

Eye Irritation:

Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) is a mild eye irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted amyl acetate (mixed isomers) caused mild injury in rabbits (scored 1-5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 2/10).(4) In an unpublished study, mild irritation was observed in rabbits following application of undiluted amyl acetate, (mixed isomers - n-amyl acetate and isoamyl acetate) (maximum conjunctival score of 6/110 and no effect on the cornea or iris).(16)

Skin Irritation:

Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) has produced no to mild skin irritation.

No irritation was observed in guinea pigs following application of undiluted amyl acetate (mixed isomers - 60% n-amyl acetate, 35% 2-methyl-butyl acetate and 5% isobutyl acetate) for 24 hours.(10) Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted amyl acetate (mixed isomers) produced mild injury in rabbits (graded 3/10).(4)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

High vapour concentrations are irritating to the eyes, nose and throat and can produce symptoms of central nervous system depression (drowsiness, muscle incoordination and unconsciousness).

Inhalation:
The RD50 for n-amyl acetate (a principal component of amyl acetate (mixed isomers)) is 1531 ppm for a 10-minute exposure. The RD50 is the concentration which produces a 50% decrease in the respiratory rate of mice.(13) Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans. Irritant damage to the surface tissue of the respiratory passages and nose was observed in guinea pigs exposed to extremely high concentrations (60000 ppm (324 g/m3) 30 minutes/day for 10 days or to 30000 ppm (162 g/m3) for 60 minutes/day for 20 days) of amyl acetate (isomeric composition not specified).(2) Historical information shows that amyl acetate (mixed isomers) caused central nervous system (CNS) effects such as sleepiness, staggering, loss of reflexes and unconsciousness in mice exposed to high concentrations (1880-7000 ppm for 1.5 to 26 hours).(5) More recently, no effects on the nervous system were observed in male mice exposed to up to 4000 ppm amyl acetate (isomer unspecified) for 20 minutes.(18) A 4-hour exposure to concentrated vapours (approximately the saturated vapour concentration) of amyl acetate (mixed isomers) produced no deaths in rats.(4)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term inhalation exposure of rats to concentrations as high as 1200 ppm did not produce any significant nervous system effects.

Inhalation:
Rats were exposed to amyl acetate, (mixed isomers - 65% amyl acetate and 35% 2-methylbutyl acetate) at concentrations of 0, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no overt signs of toxicity. Temporary, subtle decreases in general activity level were noted during exposure for the 600 and 1200 ppm groups during the first two weeks of the study. Functional observation tests showed no effects.(7) Some evidence of degeneration of the optic nerve was observed in rabbits exposed to 7500 ppm amyl acetate (isomeric composition not specified) 2 hours/day for 60 days.(2) There are no further details available for evaluation. There are insufficient details available to evaluate historical reports.(5) Some authors have suggested historical reports of systemic injury may have been due to impurities in amyl acetate (mixed isomers), which are no longer present, or that observed effects may have been due to other hazardous components of solvent mixtures.(2,6)

Skin Sensitization:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers - 60% n- amyl acetate, 35% 2-methylbutyl acetate and 5% 3-methylbutyl acetate) was tested for skin sensitization potential in a Guinea Pig Maximization Test (with Freund's Complete Adjuvant). The authors concluded that amyl acetate mixed isomers showed slight potential to induce skin sensitization. After induction, animals with challenged with amyl acetate mixed isomers and evaluated for redness and swelling at 24 and 48 hours. At 24 hours, 17/20 animals showed slight redness (erythema) and 4/20 animals showed swelling (edema). At 48 hours, only 2/19 animals showed slight redness and no animals showed edema.(10)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Amyl acetate (mixed isomers) caused a slight fetotoxic effects (reduced weight and skeletal variations) in rats the presence of slight maternal toxicity. No effects were observed in rabbits similarly exposed.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm amyl acetate (mixed isomers - n-amyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate) on days 6-15 of pregnancy. At 1500 ppm, reduced female fetal weight and skeletal variations were observed in the presence of slight maternal toxicity (decreased body weight gain). At 1000 ppm, reduced female fetal weight was also observed, in the presence of very slight maternal toxicity (decreased corrected body weight gain).(1,19) No harmful effects on the offspring were observed in rabbits exposed to 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm amyl acetate (mixed isomers - n-amyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate) on days 6-18 of pregnancy. Harmful effects on mothers were observed at 1500 ppm (body weight loss and reduced food consumption).(1,20)

NOTE: When available, the specific isomeric composition of the mixture tested is specified.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Pentyl acetate. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1991, including 2000 Suppl. Suppl. p. 1-6
(2) Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for amyl acetate. RA 4/90. Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards. Aug., 1990
(3) Nelson, K.W., et al. Sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 7 (1943). p. 282-285
(4) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VI. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23 (Mar.-Apr., 1962). p. 95-107
(5) von Oettingen, W.F. The aliphatic acids and their esters : toxicity and potential dangers. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 21 1960). p. 40/28-77/65
(6) Browning, E. Amyl acetate. In: Toxicity and metabolism of industrial solvents. Elsevier Publishing Company, 1965. p. 537-542, 591-593
(7) Gill, M.W., et al. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity study of amyl acetate in rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 20 (2000). p. 463-469
(8) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(9) n-Amyl acetate. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(10) Ballantyne, B., et al. The sensitizing potential of primary amyl acetate in the guinea pig. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 28, no. 3 (June 1986). p. 213-215
(11) Amyl acetate. Data sheet I-208-Reaf. 85. National Safety Council, 1977
(12) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 13, 21, 45, 63
(13) Schaper, M. Development of a database for sensory irritants and its use in establishing occupational exposure limits. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 54, no. 9 (Sept. 1993). p. 488-544
(14) Grant, W.M., et al. Amyl acetate. In: Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 138-139
(15) Bisesi, M.S. Esters of mono- and alkenyl carboxylic acids and mono- and polyalcohols: amyl acetates In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. p. 543-546, 575-577
(16) Anonymous. Final report on the safety assessment of amyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 7, no. 6 (1988). p. 705-719
(17) Alarie, Y. Sensory irritation by airborne chemicals: a basis to establish acceptable levels of exposure. In: Toxicology of the nasal passages. Edited by C.S. Barrow . Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1986
(18) Bowen, S.E., et al. A comparison of the acute behavioral effects of inhaled amyl, ethyl and butyl acetate in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 35 (1997). p. 189-196
(19) Chun, J.S., et al. Bushy Run Research Center. Developmental toxicity study of primary amyl acetate vapor in Fischer 344 rats with cover letter dated 020494. Study completion date: Jan. 21, 1994. Union Carbide, Feb. 4, 1994. EPA Document # 89-940000125. Microfiche # OTS0529947-1
(20) Chun, J.S., et al. Bushy Run Research Center. Developmental toxicity study of inhaled primary amyl acetate vapor in New Zealand White Rabbits with cover letter dated 020994. Study completion date: Feb. 3, 1994. Union Carbide, Feb. 9, 1994. EPA Document # 89-940000133. Microfiche # OTS0529947-1
(21) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Amyl acetate. In: Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. [CD-ROM]. 14th ed. John Wiley and Sons, 2002
(22) Tau, K. D, et al. Esters, organic. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 9. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 781-812
(23) Amyl acetate, 99%, mixture of isomers. In: Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals: technical library [online]. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Valid 2002-02 - 2002-04. Available at: <www.sigma-aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Technical+Library?OpenFrameset> (Password required)
(24) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 12th ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1997
(25) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/physdemo.htm>
(26) Lide, D., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE 1999
(27) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo [online]. Date unknown. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/kowdemo.htm>
(28) Mackay, D. et al. Physical-chemical properties and environmental fate handbook. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBase, 2000
(29) Hine, J. et al. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of organic compounds: correlations in terms of structural contributions. Journal of Organic Chemistry. Vol. 40, no. 3 (1975). p. 292-298
(30) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(31) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 277-280
(32) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 12-13 to 13-13
(33) Corrosion data survey: nonmetals section. 5th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1983. p. 49 (1-18) to 50 (1-6)
(34) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998
(35) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organics in Air. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc>
(36) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Esters 1. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(37) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Volatile Organic Compounds (Screening). In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2003-05-07

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS disclosure list 2003-07-13
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-22
PEL-TWA transitional 2004-01-22
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-22
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-09
Bibliography 2004-04-09



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