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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 429
CCOHS Chemical Name: Isoamyl acetate

Synonyms:
3-Methyl-1-butyl acetate
Acetic acid, isopentyl ester
Amyl acetate (non-specific name)
Isoamyl ethanoate
Isopentyl acetate
Acetic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester
Pentyl acetate (non-specific name)
Amyl acetic ester
Isopentyl alcohol, acetate
3-Methyl-1-butanol acetate
3-Methylbutyl acetate
3-Methylbutyl ethanoate
Banana oil
Isopentyl ethanoate

Chemical Name French: Acétate d'isoamyle
Chemical Name Spanish: Acetato de isoamilo
CAS Registry Number: 123-92-2
UN/NA Number(s): 1104
RTECS Number(s): NS9800000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 204-662-3
Chemical Family: Aliphatic carboxylic acid ester / saturated aliphatic carboxylic acid ester / saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid ester / alkyl alkanoate / acetic acid ester / acetate / isopentyl ester / isoamyl ester
Molecular Formula: C7-H14-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH2-CH(CH3)2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a strong fruity, banana- or pear-like odour. The impure ester has a strong and penetrating odour.(8,9)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely. Range of acceptable values: 0.0034-209 ppm (detection). Geometric mean air odour threshold: 0.22 ppm (detection) (11)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than 10 times the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Isoamyl acetate is available commercially in pure form. It is available in grades ranging in purity from 85 to 99%.(8) It may contain 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate as an impurity. It is also a minor component of amyl acetate (mixed isomers). This CHEMINFO profile reviews specific information available for isoamyl acetate, supplemented by relevant information for other isomeric forms of amyl acetate. For a review of information on amyl acetate, mixed isomers refer to the CHEMINFO profile for this material.

Uses and Occurrences:
Isoamyl acetate is used as a flavouring agent (e.g. in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, and chewing gum); in perfumes and fragrances; as a solvent for old oil colors, tannins, nitrocellulose, lacquers, paints, formaldehyde, synthetic resins and waxes, celluloid and camphor; for masking unpleasant odors; perfuming shoe polish; in the manufacture of artificial silk, leather, or pearls, photographic films, celluloid cements, waterproof varnishes, bronzing liquids, and metallic paints; as an aerosol additive; and as an extraction solvent in the manufacture of acetic acid. It is also used in qualitative respirator fit testing in the "banana oil" test.(8,13,16)
Isoamyl acetate occurs naturally in the volatile portion of banana fruit and cocoa bean.(9)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a strong fruity, banana- or pear-like odour. The impure ester has a strong and penetrating odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 25 deg C (77 deg F). Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Vapour may be irritating to the eyes, nose and respiratory tract. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Isoamyl acetate can cause nose and throat irritation, followed by symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression (headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion) at higher concentrations.
Exposure to 200 ppm amyl acetate (isomer not specified) was reported to cause mild nose irritation and severe throat irritation in 10 volunteers. Slight throat discomfort was reported at 100 ppm.(18) An historical report describes irritation of the nose and throat, headache and weakness in humans exposed to 950-1000 ppm isoamyl acetate for 30 minutes.(16) Based on animal information (the RD50 value), exposure to 1056 ppm is expected to produced intolerable nose and throat irritation in humans and exposure to 106 ppm is expected to cause some irritation.(2,20,21)

Skin Contact:
The liquid probably causes no to mild irritation, based on animal information for amyl acetate, mixed isomers. There is no specific human or animal information available for isoamyl acetate.
Isoamyl acetate may be absorbed through the skin to a slight extent, and it is unlikely that harmful effects would be produced by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
The liquid probably causes mild irritation, based on animal information for amyl acetate, mixed isomers. The vapour can probably cause mild to moderate eye irritation, depending on the airborne concentration. Mild effects on the eye were experienced by volunteers exposed to 200 ppm amyl acetate (isomer unspecified) for 3-5 minutes. At 300 ppm, the majority of subjects experienced irritation.(18)

Ingestion:
Isoamyl acetate is not expected to be toxic if ingested, based on an animal toxicity value. Ingestion may cause irritation of the mouth and throat. Ingestion of large amounts may cause signs of depression of the central nervous system (headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion). Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Skin:
n-Amyl acetate can remove natural oils from the skin, resulting in dryness, redness and itching (dermatitis).(1,2)

Skin Sensitization:
n-Amyl acetate is probably not a skin sensitizer.
Insufficient details are available to evaluate an unpublished study in which no evidence of delayed-contact hypersensitivity was observed when 20% isoamyl acetate and 20% amyl acetate (isomer unspecified) were tested on human volunteers.(3)

Eyes/Vision:
No conclusions can be drawn based on the available information. There are rare historical reports (1930- 1970) of effects on vision in workers exposed to amyl acetate vapour (isomer unspecified). All of the reports relate to the use of amyl acetate in Europe. Exposure levels were either high (saturated vapour concentration) or unspecified and in most cases there was concurrent exposure to other chemicals.(10)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for isoamyl acetate. In two studies using amyl acetate, mixed isomers, harmful effects on the embryo or fetus have not been observed in animal studies in the absence of harmful effects on mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that isoamyl acetate is mutagenic based on the limited information available. Negative results have been obtained in short-term tests. There is no information available for live animals or humans.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Amyl acetate is easily taken up via the lungs, is hydrolyzed in the body forming acetic acid and pentanol. These compounds are then further biotransformed and either used by the body or excreted in urine.(1,2)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until chemical is removed.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
25 deg C (77 deg F) (closed cup) (13,14,15)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1% at 100 deg C (212 deg F) (13,14)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
7.5% (13,14,15)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
360 deg C (680 deg F) (13,14,15)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
No specific information is available. Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Isoamyl acetate will not accumulate static charge, since it has a relatively high electrical conductivity. Mixtures of isoamyl acetate vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
1.6 X 10(5) pS/m (22)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion may also produce irritating fumes and acrid smoke.

Fire Hazard Summary:
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 25 deg C (77 deg F). Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Liquid may float on water and travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating/toxic products may be generated. Vapours can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant fire-fighting foams", water spray or fog. Water may not be effective for extinguishing a fire because it may not cool isoamyl acetate below its flash point. (13,14,23) Fire fighting foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite. Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. Stay away from ends of tanks involved in fire, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Cool fire-exposed containers, cylinders, tanks, equipment or pipelines by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of the tank.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Isoamyl acetate is slightly hazardous to health and not a skin absorption hazard. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 130.19

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 5.31 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.19 ppm at 25 deg (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -78.5 deg C (-109.3 deg F) (15,24,25,26)
Boiling Point: 142.5 deg C (288.5 deg F) (9,24,25,27)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.872 at 20 deg C (17); 0.867 at 25 deg C (17,26) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Slightly soluble (200 mg/100 mL at 25 deg C) (8,25,28)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate; soluble in acetone.(8,15)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 2.26 (estimated) (29)
pH Value: Not applicable
Acidity: Proabaly neutral
Dissociation Constant: Not available
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.872 mPa.s (0.872 centipoises) at 20 deg C (8,15,17); 0.79 mPa.s (0.79 centipoises) at 25 deg C(15,17)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 1.00 mm2/s (1.00 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 0.91 mm2/s (0.91 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 28.7-29.1 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 24.77 mN/m (24.77 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C; 24.28 mN/m (24.28 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (30)
Vapour Density: 4.49 (air = 1) (27)
Vapour Pressure: 0.6 kPa (4.5 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (17); 0.75 kPa (5.6 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (from experimentally derived coefficients) (8,25)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 5900 ppm (0.59%) at 20 deg C; 7400 ppm (0.74%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.42 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (8)
Henry's Law Constant: 59.48 Pa.m3/mol (5.87 X 10(-4) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (31); log H = -1.62 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 4.81 at 20 deg C (15)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Stable in the anhydrous state. May slowly hydrolyze to acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol in the presence of water.(13)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitrates, perchlorates, peroxides) - reaction can be violent. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(5,22,23)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid, oleum, and chlorosulfonic acid) or STRONG BASES (e.g. potassium hydroxide) - decomposition (hydrolysis) can occur, releasing heat. The reaction may be vigorous and there is a risk of fire and explosions.(5,23)
POTASSIUM TERT-BUTOXIDE - contact with isoamyl acetate vapour may cause ignition.(32)
REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. hydrides, such as lithium aluminum hydride) - reaction may be strongly exothermic (generation of heat). Increased risk of fire and explosion.(23,32)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Acetic acid.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, sparks, electrostatic discharge, heat and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
At normal temperatures, Isoamyl acetate is not corrosive to most metals such as carbon steel, stainless steels (such as types 304/347, 316, 400 series, 12 Cr, 17 Cr and 20 Cb 3), nickel and its alloys, aluminum, copper, bronze and brass, Hastelloy, Inconel, Incolloy, Monel, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(33,34)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
In general, amyl acetate isomers can attack plastics, such as acetonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), acrylics, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polymethyl methacrylate, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and styrene-acrylonitrile (SA), elastomers, such as Butyl GR-1, ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPT), Viton A (FKM), isoprene, Koroseal, natural rubber, neoprene, Nitrile Buna-N (NBR), Nordel (EPDM), polyether-urethane, polyurethane and silicone rubbers, and various epoxy coatings, such as coal tar epoxy, epoxy general purpose and epoxy chemical resistant. Amyl acetate does not attack fluorocarbons, such as FEP and Teflon, nylon, Halar, Tefzel, chlorinated polyether, Kynar, Chemraz, Hypalon, Kalrez, polyester, polyethylene and polyvinylidene chloride.(33,35)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

There is very little specific toxicity information available for isoamyl acetate. For a review of the available information on amyl acetate, mixed isomers or amyl acetate (isomeric composition not specified), refer to the CHEMINFO review of amyl acetate, mixed isomers.

LD50 (oral, rabbit): 7400 mg/kg (cited as 57 millimoles/kg) (4)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
The RD50, the concentration which produces a 50% decrease in the respiratory rate of mice, has been measured at 1056 ppm for isoamyl acetate.(21) Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans.

Ingestion:
Oral administration of 4170 mg/kg (cited as 32 millimoles/kg) produced stupor, loss of voluntary movements in 50/100 exposed rabbits.(4)

Mutagenicity:
There is insufficient information available to evaluate the mutagenic potential of isoamyl acetate.
Negative results were obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells (Chinese hamster chromosomal aberration assay and mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay).(19) Negative results were also obtained for isoamyl acetate in tests using yeast and bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(3,19)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Pentyl acetate. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1991, including 2000 Suppl. Suppl: p 1-6
(2) Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for amyl acetate. RA 4/90. Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards, Aug. 1990
(3) Anonymous. Final report on the safety assessment of amyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 7, no. 6 (1988). p. 705-719
(4) Munch, J.C. Aliphatic alcohols and alkyl esters: narcotic and lethal potencies to tadpoles and to rabbits. IMS: The International Journal of Industrial of Medicine and Surgery. Vol. 41 (1972). p. 31-33
(5) Isoamyl acetate. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997. p. 174
(6) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998
(7) von Oettingen, W.F. The aliphatic acids and their esters: toxicity and potential dangers. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 21 (Jan. 1960). p. 28-65
(8) US National Library of Medicine. Isoamyl acetate. Last revision date: 2001-08-09. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>v
(9) Fenaroli's handbook of flavor ingredients. Vol. II. 3rd ed. Edited by G.A. Burdock. CRC Press, 1995. p. 375
(10) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 138-139
(11) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 21, 63
(12) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(13) Tau, K. D, et al. Esters, organic. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 9. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 781-812
(14) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(15) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 1.248, 5.98, 5.144
(16) Bisesi, M.S. Esters of mono- and alkenyl carboxylic acids and mono- and polyalcohols: amyl acetates. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. p. 543-546, 575-577
(17) Riddick, R.A., et al. Techniques of organic chemistry. Vol. II. Organic solvents: physical properties and methods of purification. 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1970. p. 290-291
(18) Nelson, K.W., et al. Sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 7 (1943). p. 282-285
(19) Ishidate, M. Jr., et al. Primary mutagenicity screening of food additives currently used in Japan. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 8 (1984). p. 623-636
(20) Alarie, Y. Sensory irritation by airborne chemicals: a basis to establish acceptable levels of exposure. In: Toxicology of the nasal passages. Edited by: C.S. Barrow. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1986
(21) Schaper, M. Development of a database for sensory irritants and its use in establishing occupational exposure limits. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 54, no. 9 (Sept. 1993). p. 488-544
(22) Isoamyl acetate. In: Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 494
(23) Isoamyl acetate, anhydrous, 99+%. In: Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals: technical library [online]. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Valid 2002-02 - 2002-04. Available at: <www.sigma-aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Technical+Library?OpenFrameset> (Password required)
(24) Lide, D., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE, 1999
(25) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/physdemo.htm>
(26) Yaws, C.L. Handbook of chemical compound data for process safety: comprehensive safety and health-related data for hydrocarbons and organic chemicals: selected data for inorganic chemicals. Library of physico-chemical property data. Gulf Publishing Company, 1997. p. 16
(27) Sullivan, D.A. Solvents, industrial. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. p. 542-543, 551, 565
(28) Syracuse Research Corporation. Environmental Fate Database: CHEMFATE Chemical Search [online]. Last updated: 2001-12-18. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/efdb/Chemfate.htm>
(29) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo [online]. Date unknown. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/kowdemo.htm>
(30) Jasper, J.J. Surface tension of pure liquid compounds. In: Compilation of data of some 2200 pure liquid compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 1, no. 4 (1972). p. 853, 969
(31) Hine, J. et al. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of organic compounds. Correlations in terms of structural contributions. Journal of Organic Chemistry. Vol. 40, no. 3 (1975). p. 292-298
(32) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(33) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 277-280
(34) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 72-5 to 73-5
(35) Corrosion data survey: nonmetals section. 5th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1983. p. 49 (1-18) to 50 (1-6)
(36) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organics in Air. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc>
(37) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Esters 1. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2003-05-06

Revision Indicators:
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-22
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-22
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-09
Bibliography 2004-04-09



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