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CHEMINFO Record Number: 48
CCOHS Chemical Name: Ammonia gas

Anhydrous ammonia
Ammonia (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Ammoniac (gaz)
Chemical Name Spanish: Amoníaco
CAS Registry Number: 7664-41-7
UN/NA Number(s): 1005 2073
RTECS Number(s): BO0875000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-635-3
Chemical Family: Inorganic nitrogen compound / inorganic base / nitrogen hydride / inorganic gas
Molecular Formula: H3-N
Structural Formula: NH3


Appearance and Odour:
Colourless gas with a sharp, penetrating, intensely irritating odour; colourless liquid under pressure.(25,26,27)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely; 0.6 to 53 ppm; geometric mean: 17 ppm (detection) (27)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold is about the same magnitude as TLV.

Ammonia gas is commercially available in a number of grades depending on its intended use, such as agricultural, refrigeration, metallurgical and electronic grades, with a minimum purity of 99.5%.(25) Ammonia is shipped and stored as a liquefied gas under its own vapour pressure (787 kPa at 21.1 deg C).(28) Ammonia is also available in water solution. Solutions of less than 25-30% have specific hazards and control measures which are reviewed in the CHEMINFO record for ammonium hydroxide (record 434). Solutions of greater than 25-30% readily give off ammonia gas at normal temperatures. Therefore, the information in this review applies to these more concentrated solutions.

Uses and Occurrences:
The primary use of ammonia gas is in the fertilizer industry, as a direct application fertilizer and as a building block for the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers, such as urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate and nitrogen fertilizer solutions. It is also used in production of nitric acid and in the fibres and plastics industry for the production of caprolactam, acrylonitrile, hexamethylenediamine, toluene 2,4-isocyanate and melamine. Less important uses include the manufacture of explosives; as a refrigerant in both compression and absorption systems; in the pulp and paper industry; in metal-treating operations, such as the nitriding of steels and bright annealing; in the extraction of certain metals, such as copper, nickel and molybdenum from their ores; in pH control; removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from stack gases; as a corrosion inhibitor at petroleum refineries and natural gas plants; in the rubber industry for the stabilization of natural and synthetic latex; in the food and beverage industry; as a curing agent in making leather; manufacture of moth proofing; in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, dentifrices, lotions and cosmetics; in the manufacture of household ammonia, detergents and cleaners; in combination with chlorine to purify industrial and municipal water supplies; in the manufacture of numerous organic and inorganic chemicals, such as cyanides, amides and dye intermediates; and as a precipitant in uranium concentrate production.(29)
It is a normally found in the body as a by-product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism, and is a minor component of the diet.(6)


Colourless gas with a sharp, penetrating, intensely irritating odour; colourless liquid under pressure. FLAMMABLE GAS. High concentrations of ammonia can be a fire and explosion hazard, especially in confined spaces. Can decompose at high temperatures forming very flammable hydrogen and toxic nitrogen dioxide. COMPRESSED GAS. VERY TOXIC, CORROSIVE GAS. May be fatal if inhaled. Causes lung injury--effects may be delayed. Liquefied gas can cause frostbite and corrosive injury to eyes and skin.


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Ammonia gas is a severe respiratory tract irritant. It is noticeable by smell at 0.6 to 53 ppm. Volunteers have first noticed nose and throat irritation at concentrations as low as 24 ppm after 2-6 hours exposure.(1) A 10-minute exposure to 30 ppm was considered faintly irritating by 2/6 volunteers, while 50 ppm was considered moderately irritating by 4/6.(2) Irritation of the nose and throat was noticeable in 5/10 and 10/10 volunteers after a 5-minute exposure to 72 or 134 ppm.(3,4) At 500 ppm, immediate and severe irritation of nose, and throat occurs.(5) Brief exposure to concentrations above 1500 ppm can cause pulmonary edema, a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs.(1) The symptoms of pulmonary edema (tightness in the chest and difficulty breathing) may not develop for 1-24 hours after an exposure. Numerous cases of fatal ammonia exposure have been reported, but actual exposure levels have not been well documented.(1,3) If the victim survives, complete recovery may occur depending on the extent of injury to the respiratory tract and lungs. However, long-term respiratory system and lung disorders have been observed following severe short-term exposures to ammonia.(3,6,7)
People repeatedly exposed to ammonia may develop a tolerance (or acclimatization) to the irritating effects after a few weeks.(8) Tolerance means that higher levels of exposure are required to produce effects earlier seen at lower concentrations.

Skin Contact:
High levels of airborne ammonia gas dissolve in moisture on the skin, forming corrosive ammonium hydroxide. At 10000 ppm, ammonia is mildly irritating to moist skin. At 20000 ppm, the effects are more pronounced and 30000 ppm may produce chemical burns with blistering.(3, unconfirmed) These same exposure levels would be almost certainly fatal due to inhalation health effects.
Direct contact with liquefied gas can cause frostbite and corrosive burns. Symptoms of mild frostbite include numbness, prickling and itching in the affected area. Symptoms of more severe frostbite include a burning sensation and stiffness of the affected area. The skin may become waxy white or yellow. Blistering, tissue death and gangrene may also develop in severe cases. Corrosive burns of the skin have resulted from direct contact with a jet of liquefied ammonia.(9) Permanent scarring of the skin may result.

Eye Contact:
Exposure to 50 ppm or less for 5 minutes was not considered irritating by volunteers, while exposure to 72 ppm was irritating to a few individuals and 134 ppm was irritating and caused tearing.(3,4) At 700 ppm, the gas is immediately and severely irritating.(10)
Direct contact with the liquefied gas can cause frostbite and corrosive injury to eye. Permanent eye damage or blindness could result. Severe, permanent eye injury, including an almost complete loss of vision, has been reported following direct contact with liquefied ammonia gas.(9)

Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Despite design limitations, the small number of human population studies available have not shown significant effects in people with long-term occupational exposure to ammonia.(3,4) No significant differences in lung function were observed in 58 workers exposed to 9.2 ppm ammonia for an average of 12.2 years compared to controls with very low exposure (less than 1 ppm).(11) No conclusions can be drawn from one case report which described lung injury following long-term exposure to ammonia because the person was a long-term smoker.(12) People with repeated exposure to ammonia may develop a tolerance (or acclimatization) to the irritating effects after a few weeks.(8)

Respiratory Sensitization:
One case report describes a chemical worker who developed an increased respiratory sensitivity to ammonia, inert iron yellow dust and cold air following a cold.(14) It is unlikely that this case represents true respiratory sensitivity.

Skin Sensitization:
Insufficient details are available to evaluate two single case reports of hives which developed in people occupationally exposed to ammonia.(13) Previous history of allergies is not discussed and allergic sensitivity was not confirmed by patch testing in either case.


There is no credible evidence that ammonia can cause cancer.(4) Very limited human information is available. A poorly conducted and reported study found an increased rate of lung, stomach, urinary tract and lymphatic cancer among workers in two ammonia plants.(3,4,15) A single case report of nasal cancer was observed in a person exposed to an ammonia/oil mixture.(16) No conclusions can be drawn from one poorly conducted animal study.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

There is no human information available. One study which showed mutagenicity in live animals cannot be confirmed.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Ammonia does not accumulate in the body. It is a normal body component and is normally present in all tissues constituting a metabolic pool. It is a by- product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism, and is a minor component of the diet. The ammonia-nitrogen is incorporated into amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids in the body. Ammonia may be excreted in the urine, principally as urea and ammonium salts, with some free ammonia, and there is also some elimination through sweat glands. Respiratory and fecal excretion is not significant.(1,6)


Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Quickly remove victim from source of contamination and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm the affected area on site. DO NOT rub area or apply dry heat. Gently remove clothing or jewelry that may restrict circulation. Carefully cut around clothing that sticks to the skin and remove the rest of the garment. Loosely cover the affected area with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Eye Contact:
Quickly remove victim from source of contamination. Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm. Cover both eyes with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.


Flash Point:
No flash point determined in conventional closed cup tests.(30)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
16% (25); 15.5% at 100 deg C (31);15% (30)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
25% (25,30); 28% at 100 deg C (31)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
850 deg C (1562 deg F) (25)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Liquefied ammonia will not accumulate static charge, since the electrical conductivity is high.

Electrical Conductivity:
1.3 X 10(7) pS/m (- 79 deg C ) (32); 3 X 10(9) pS/m (commercial) (-35 deg C) (31)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
680 millijoules (32)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Ammonia gas decomposes into hydrogen and nitrogen at about 450-500 deg C.(25,26,29) It has also been reported that the main products of combustion in air (at/or above 780 deg C) are nitrogen and water, with small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and ammonium nitrate.(28)

Fire Hazard Summary:
High airborne concentrations of ammonia can be ignited and pose a significant fire and explosion hazard, especially in a confined space. A number of major fires and explosions have occurred in industry. The combustible or flammable/explosion concentration range is reported to be 16 to 25%.(25,30) The explosive range is broadened to 15 to 79% by mixing with combustible or flammable gases (such as hydrogen), and by higher temperatures and pressures. The presence of oil or combustible materials increases the fire hazard and the presence of iron lowers the ignition temperature from 850 to 651 deg C.(25,31) Ammonia decomposes into flammable hydrogen gas at about 450-500 deg C. Toxic and irritating nitrogen dioxide can form during burning in air. Containers or cylinders may rupture violently due to overpressurization, if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time, releasing flammable and toxic gases.

Extinguishing Media:
Use extinguishing media appropriate to surrounding fire conditions.(30) If ammonia gas is burning, use dry chemical powder or carbon dioxide for small fires and water spray, fog or foam for large fires.(26)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous gases and toxic decomposition products.
When escaping gas is burning, the best procedure is to stop the flow of gas before attempting to extinguish the fire. To extinguish the fire, while allowing continued flow of the gas, is extremely dangerous because ammonia is a corrosive gas. Use water spray to protect personnel attempting to shut off flow. If it is not possible to stop the flow of gas, it is preferable to allow continued burning, while protecting exposed materials with water spray until the flow of gas can be stopped. Gas clouds may be controlled by water spray or fog. Water reacts with ammonia to form corrosive ammonium hydroxide liquid.
Isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move cylinders from fire area if this can be done without risk. Explosive decomposition may occur under fire conditions. Use extreme caution since heat may rupture containers, which may possibly rocket. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Do not apply water directly to a liquid spill, since this may greatly increase evaporation. Do not direct water directly on leak as this may cause leak to increase. Reverse flow into cylinder may cause rupture. Take care not to block pressure relief valves.
No part of a cylinder should be subjected to a temperature higher than 52 deg C (approximately 125 deg F). If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. After the fire has been extinguished, explosives atmospheres may linger. Before entering such an area, especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate device.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Ammonia is a corrosive gas. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating, chemical protective suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.


NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.


Molecular Weight: 17.03

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 0.695 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 1.44 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Gas
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: -77.7 deg C (-108 deg F) (25,29)
Boiling Point: -33.4 deg C (-28 deg F) (6,29,31)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not applicable (gas)
Solubility in Water: Very soluble (89.8 g/100 mL at 0 deg C; 52.9 g/100 mL at 25 deg C) (6,26)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, other organic solvents and mineral acids.(26)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: 11.6 (1 N); 11.1 (0.1 N) (solutions in water at 25 deg C) (26)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.255 mPa.s (0.255 centipoise) at -33.5 deg C (liquid) (28) 0.00982 mPa.s (0.00982 centipoise) at 20 deg C and 101.33 kPa (gas) (28)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 0.374 mm2/m (0.374 centistokes) at -33.5 deg C (calculated)
Surface Tension: 44.55 mN/m (44.55 dyes/cm) at -40 deg C (28)
Vapour Density: 0.597 at 25 deg C (air = 1) (28)
Vapour Pressure: 786.7 kPa (7.76 atm.) at 21.1 deg C (25); also reported as 888 kPa (8.76 atm) at 21.1 deg C (28)
Vapour Pressure at 50 deg C: Approximately 2070 kPa (20.4 atm) (25)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable at room temperature; gas.
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable; gas.
Critical Temperature: 133 deg C (271.4 deg F) (25,29)
Critical Pressure: 11425 kPa (112.75 atm) (25,29)

Other Physical Properties:
TRIPLE POINT: -77.7 deg C (-108 deg F) at 6.1 kPa.(25,28)


Stable at normal temperatures. Decomposes into hydrogen and nitrogen at about 450-500 deg C. Decomposition will occur at lower temperatures in the presence of metals such as iron, nickel and zinc and, to a lesser extent, catalytic surfaces, such as porcelain and pumice. In the presence of catalysts, decomposition begins as low as 300 deg C and is complete at 500-600 deg C.(29)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. perchlorates, chlorates, hydrogen peroxide, chromic trioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid or nitryl chloride) or BORON HALIDES, ACIDS, ACID ANHYDRIDES, ACID CHLORIDES - can react violently or explosively.(30,33,34)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine, fluorine) or INTERHALOGENS (e.g. bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride) - can react violently or form explosive products.(33,34)
HEAVY METALS AND THEIR SALTS (e.g. gold compounds (e.g. chloride, oxide, other salts), silver compounds (e.g. chloride, nitrate, oxide) or mercury - may form shock-sensitive compounds that may explode when dry.(30,33,34)
SULFUR DICHLORIDE, TELLURIUM TETRABROMIDE AND TELLURIUM TETRACHLORIDE - react with ammonia to form nitrides which can explode on heating.(33,34)
ETHYLENE OXIDE - can polymerize explosively in contact with ammonia.(33)
HYPOCHLOROUS ACID - explodes on contact, producing chlorine.(26)
CALCIUM - react with evolution of heat; may ignite at higher temperatures.(26,34)
2-NITRO-, 4-NITRO-, or 2,4-DINITRO CHLOROBENZENE - may cause violent runaway reactions producing high pressures and explosions.(34)
ACETALDEHYDE - violent reaction.(30)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
High temperatures, electric discharge, electric sparks, welding, other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Ammonia gas is not corrosive to most common metals, such as cast iron, steel, stainless steel, copper and its alloys, nickel and its alloys and aluminum.(25,35) In the presence of water vapour or moisture, ammonia will attack copper, silver, tin, zinc and their alloys and galvanized surfaces.(25,26)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Ammonia decomposes to nitrogen and flammable hydrogen gases when exposed to an electric discharge.(6,9) Considerable heat is evolved when ammonia gas is dissolved in water; approximately 2180 kilojoules (520 kcal) of heat is evolved when 1 kg ammonia gas is dissolved.(29)


LC50 (rat): 3670 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 7338 ppm (1-hour exposure) (2)
LC50 (mouse): 2115 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 4230 ppm (1-hour exposure) (17); 3370 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 3.31 mg/L (4766 ppm) (2-hour exposure) (1,unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

High concentrations of the gas are extremely irritating and can produce corrosive eye injury. Exposure to 5000 to 6000 ppm for 5 minutes to 2 hours produced cloudiness of the cornea in 8/8 guinea pigs. Permanent blindness resulted in 5 animals with longer exposures.(3)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Numerous animal studies confirm that the respiratory system can be severely affected following inhalation exposures.(1,3,6) Brief exposure of mice to concentrations of 8780 to 12960 ppm (cited as 6.1 to 9.0 mg/L) resulted in deaths within 5 minutes after exposure started.(18) With the exception of lung injury in 1 monkey, no significant changes were observed in rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs and monkeys exposed to 220 ppm (cited as 155 mg/m3) for 6 weeks. At 1100 ppm (cited as 770 mg/m3), laboured breathing was observed in the rabbits and dogs, but this symptom disappeared by the second week. No other significant symptoms were observed.(19) The concentration of ammonia which reduces the respiratory rate of male mice by 50% (RD50) is 303 ppm.(20) The RD50 is a measure of sensory (nasal passage) irritation. This result indicates that ammonia is a moderate sensory irritant. In a related study, a 5-day exposure to the RD50 (303 ppm) resulted in minimal tissue injury and tissue death in the nasal cavity of male mice.(21)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Rats exposed continuously to 180 ppm (cited as 127 mg/m3) for 90 days did not show any abnormalities of organs or tissues. Mild nasal irritation was observed in 12/49 rats exposed to 380 ppm (cited as 262 mg/m3). At 655 ppm (cited as 455 mg/m3), 32/51 animals died by day 25 of exposure and 50/51 rats had died after 65 days exposure. Rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs were continuously exposed to 680 ppm (cited as 470 mg/m3) for 90 days. Deaths occurred in 13/15 rats and 4/15 guinea pigs. At autopsy, all test animals had lung injury. No signs of toxicity were observed in rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs and monkeys exposed to 60 ppm (cited as 40 mg/m3) continuously for 114 days.(19) Mild changes in the spleen, kidneys and livers were observed in guinea pigs exposed to 140-200 ppm ammonia for 18 weeks, but not at 6 or 12 weeks.(22)

No conclusions can be drawn from one poorly conducted study in which a single group of mice were exposed to extremely high concentrations (12000 ppm) of ammonia for 8 weeks. Pre-cancerous changes in the nasal cavities of a small number of mice and 1 case of cancer was observed. Statistical analysis of the data was not presented.(23)

Insufficient details are available to evaluate a report of in vivo mutagenicity (chromosomal changes in rats exposed to 28 ppm for 16 weeks).(24)


Selected Bibliography:
(1) Pierce, J.O. Alkaline materials: ammonia (Cas Rn 7664-41-7), ammonium hydroxide (Cas Rn 1336-21-6), and ammonium salts. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part A. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 756-762
(2) MacEwen, J.D., et al. Toxic hazards research unit annual technical report: 1972. Report no. AMRL-TR-72-62. NTIS AD 755-358. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Aug. 1972
(3) National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety. Criteria document for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to ammonia. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1974
(4) Swotinsky, R.B., et al. Commentary: health effects of exposure to ammonia: scant information. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 17, no. 4 (1990). p. 515-521
(5) Silverman, L., et al. Physiological response of man to ammonia in low concentrations. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 2 (Mar. 1949). p. 74-78
(6) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Ammonia. Environmental Health Criteria 54. World Health Organization, 1986
(7) de la Hoz, R.E., et al. Chronic lung disease secondary to ammonia inhalation injury: a report of three cases. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 29, no. 2 (Feb. 1996). p. 209-214
(8) Ferguson, W.S., et al. Human physiological response and adaptation to ammonia. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 19, no. 5 (May 1977). p. 319-326
(9) Levy, D.M., et al. Ammonia burns of the face and respiratory tract. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 190, no. 10 (Dec. 7, 1964). p. 95-98 (873-876)
(10) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 124-131
(11) Holness, D.L., et al. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of occupational exposure to ammonia. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 50, no. 12 (Dec. 1989). p. 646-650
(12) Kollef, M.H. Chronic ammonium hydroxide exposure. Letter. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 107, no. 1 (July 1987). p. 118
(13) Morris, G.E. Urticaria following exposure to ammonia fumes. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 13, no. 5 (May 1956). p. 480
(14) Haux, E.H. Occupational allergies. English translation. SMRE translation no. 6952. Medizinische Laboratorium. Vol. 28, no. 10 (Oct. 1975). p. 235-237 (NIOSHTIC Control No. 00072590)
(15) Bittersohl, G. Epidemiologic studies on cancer cases in the chemical industry. English translation. Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. Vol. 38, nos. 3-4 (1971). p. 198-209. (NIOSHTIC Control No. 00101175)
(16) Shimkin, M.B., et al. Appearance of carcinoma following single exposure to a refrigeration ammonia-oil mixture: report of a case and discussion of the role of co-carcinogenesis. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 9 (1954). p. 186-193
(17) Kapeghian, J.C., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of ammonia in mice. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology. Vol. 29, no. 3 (1982). p. 371-378
(18) Silver, S.D., et al. A comparison of acute toxicities of ethylene imine and ammonia in mice. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 30, no. 1 (Jan. 1948). p. 7-9
(19) Coon, R.A., et al. Animal inhalation studies on ammonia, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, dimethylamine and ethanol. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 16, no. 3 (May 1970). p. 646-655
(20) Alarie, Y. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: Prediction of human responses. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 41 (Dec. 1981). p. 9-13
(21) Buckley, L.A., et al. Respiratory tract lesions induced by sensory irritants at the RD50 concentration. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 74, no. 3 (July 1984). p. 417-429
(22) Weatherby, J.H. Chronic toxicity of ammonia fumes by inhalation. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 81 (Oct. 1952). p. 300-301
(23) Gaafar, H., et al. The effect of ammonia on the respiratory nasal mucosa of mice: a histological and histochemical study. Acta Oto- Laryngologica. Vol. 112, no. 2 (1992). p. 339-342
(24) RTECS database record for ammonia. Last updated: 9704
(25) Compressed Gas Association. Handbook of compressed gases. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1990. p. 231-252
(26) Environmental Protection Service. Environmental and technical information for problems spills (EnviroTIPS): ammonia. Environment Canada, July 1984
(27) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 13, 44-45
(28) Braker, W., et al. Matheson gas data book. 6th ed. Matheson Gas Products, 1980. p. 23-33
(29) Czuppon, T.A., et al. Ammonia. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 638-691
(30) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(31) Bakemeier, H, et al. Ammonia. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised edition. Vol. A 2. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 143-242
(32) Britton, L.G. Using material data in static hazard assessment. Plant/Operations Progress. Vol. 11, no.2 (Apr. 1992). p. 56-70
(33) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 1553-1556
(34) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma- Aldrich, 1988. p. 231D
(35) Corrosion data survey: metals section. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 8-13 to 9-13, 10-12 to 11-12
(36) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 14-15
(37) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(38) Emergency response planning guidelines. AIHA Journal. Vol. 56, no. 3, 1995. p. 297
(39) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr 29, 2004
(40) Latenser, B.A., et al. Anhydrous ammonia burns: case presentation and literature review. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation. Vol. 21. no. 1, part 1 (Jan./Feb 2000). p. 40-42
(41) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for ammonia. Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Sept., 2004
(42) Sekizawa, J., et al. A simple method for screening assessment of skin and eye irritation. Journal of Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 19, no. 1 (1994). p. 25-35

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 1997-12-22

Revision Indicators:
EU Safety 1998-11-01
Composition 1998-06-01
ERPG 2001-03-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
UN/NA No 1998-06-01
Flash point 2001-12-13
LFL/LEL 2001-12-13
UFL/UEL 2001-12-13
Fire hazard summary 2001-12-13
Extinguishing media 2001-12-13
Fire fighting instructions 2001-12-13
Protection of fire fighters 2001-12-13
Engineering controls 2001-12-13
Conditions to avoid 2001-12-13
WHMIS proposed classification 2002-06-11
WHMIS health effects 2002-06-11
Emergency overview 2002-06-11
Handling 2002-06-11
WHMIS detailed classification 2002-07-23
US transport 2002-12-11
TDG 2002-12-17
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-22
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
EU classification 2004-11-07
EU comments 2004-11-07
Bibliography 2006-04-25
Relative density 2006-09-28

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