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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 434
CCOHS Chemical Name: Ammonium hydroxide

Synonyms:
Ammonia aqueous
Ammonia solution
Ammonia monohydrate
Ammonia water
Ammonium hydrate
Aqua ammonia
Aqueous ammonia

Chemical Name French: Ammoniaque
Chemical Name Spanish: Agua amoniacal
CAS Registry Number: 1336-21-6
UN/NA Number(s): 2672
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 215-647-6
Chemical Family: Inorganic nitrogen compound / inorganic base / nitrogen hydride
Molecular Formula: H5-N-0
Structural Formula: NH4+.OH-

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to milky coloured liquid; strong pungent odour of ammonia gas.(36,37)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely for ammonia gas; 0.043 to 53 ppm; geometric mean: 17 ppm (detection) (38)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold is about the same magnitude as TLV.

Composition/Purity:
Ammonium hydroxide is made by dissolving ammonia in water and is commercially available in various grades containing 10-30% ammonia by weight.(36) Solutions up to 25% can be transported and stored at atmospheric pressure. Solutions greater than 25% are shipped under pressure. Above 25% ammonia in solution, ammonia gas will readily be given off.(39) This CHEMINFO record only relates to solutions containing 30% ammonia or less.

Uses and Occurrences:
Ammonium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of plastics, fibres, resins, elastomers, dyes, explosives, detergents, pesticides, nitric acid, rayon, rubber, pharmaceuticals, inks, ceramics, lubricants, fertilizers, livestock feed, ammonium compounds, and other chemicals. It is also used in refrigeration, in photography, for fertilizer, as a household cleaner, in fireproofing wood, as a solvent for casein in pulp and paper industry, as wood pulping chemical, and for saponifying fats and oils.(36,37)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to milky coloured liquid with a strong pungent odour of ammonia gas. Will not burn under normal conditions. However, ammonia gas may be generated from ammonium hydroxide solutions. High airborne concentrations of ammonia can be ignited and pose a significant fire and explosion hazard, especially in a confined space. Ammonia gas can decompose at high temperatures forming very flammable hydrogen and toxic nitrogen dioxide. May be a confined space explosion and toxicity hazard. TOXIC. Harmful if inhaled or swallowed. Causes lung injury--effects may be delayed. CORROSIVE to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Can cause permanent eye injury or blindness, and permanent scarring of the skin.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Ammonia gas is readily released from ammonium hydroxide solutions, depending on the concentration of the solution and the temperature. Ammonia gas is a severe respiratory tract irritant. It is noticeable by smell at 0.043 to 53 ppm. Volunteers have first noticed nose and throat irritation at concentrations as low as 24 ppm after 2-6 hours exposure.(1) A 10-minute exposure to 30 ppm was considered faintly irritating by 2/6 volunteers, while 50 ppm was considered moderately irritating by 4/6.(2) Irritation of the nose and throat was noticeable in 5/10 and 10/10 volunteers after a 5-minute exposure to 72 or 134 ppm.(3,4) At 500 ppm, immediate and severe irritation of nose, and throat occurs.(5) Brief exposure to concentrations above 1500 ppm can cause pulmonary edema, a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs.(1) The symptoms of pulmonary edema (tightness in the chest and difficulty breathing) may not develop for 1-24 hours after an exposure. Numerous cases of fatal ammonia exposure have been reported, but actual exposure levels have not been well documented.(1,3) If the victim survives, complete recovery may occur depending on the extent of injury to the respiratory tract and lungs. However, long-term respiratory system andlung disorders have been observed following severe short-term exposures to ammonia.(3,6,7)
People repeatedly exposed to ammonia may develop a tolerance (or acclimatization) to the irritating effects after a few weeks.(8) Tolerance means that higher levels of exposure are required to produce effects earlier seen at lower concentrations.

Skin Contact:
Ammonium hydroxide is extremely corrosive and is capable of causing severe burns with deep ulceration and permanent scarring.(1,3) The severity of the injury depends on the concentration of the solution and the duration of contact. In studies using volunteers, application of a saturated solution of ammonium hydroxide produced well-defined blisters within a few minutes.(9,10)

Eye Contact:
Ammonium hydroxide is extremely corrosive. The severity of injury increases with the concentration of the solution and the duration of exposure. Damage can range from severe irritation and mild scarring to blistering, disintegration, ulceration, severe scarring and clouding of the cornea. In severe cases, progressive ulceration, clouding of the eye and cataracts may result in permanent blindness. Numerous cases of eye injury following contact with concentrated ammonium hydroxide have been reported.(1,3,11,12)

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure. Non- occupational ingestion has produced severe corrosive burns to the mouth, throat and esophagus, which has sometimes progressed to stricture formation. Should ingestion occur, severe pain, burning of the mouth, throat and esophagus, vomiting, diarrhea, collapse and death can result.(3,6)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Despite design limitations, the small number of human population studies available have not shown significant effects in people with long-term occupational exposure to ammonia.(3,4) No significant differences in lung function were observed in 58 workers exposed to 9.2 ppm ammonia for an average of 12.2 years compared to controls with very low exposure (less than 1 ppm).(13) No conclusions can be drawn from one case report which described lung injury following long-term exposure to ammonia because the person was a long-term smoker.(14) People with repeated exposure to ammonia may develop a tolerance (or acclimatization) to the irritating effects after a few weeks.(8)

Respiratory Sensitization:
One case report describes a chemical worker who developed an increased respiratory sensitivity to ammonia, inert iron yellow dust and cold air following a cold.(16) It is unlikely that this case represents true respiratory sensitivity.

Skin:
Owing to its corrosive nature, repeated or prolonged skin contact would be expected to cause drying, cracking, and inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).

Skin Sensitization:
Insufficient details are available to evaluate two case reports of hives which developed in people occupationally exposed to ammonia.(15) Previous history of allergies is not discussed and allergic sensitivity was not confirmed by patch testing in either case.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no credible evidence that airborne ammonia can cause cancer.(4) Very limited human information is available. A poorly conducted and reported study found an increased rate of lung, stomach, urinary tract and lymphatic cancer among workers in two ammonia plants.(3,4,17) A single case report of nasal cancer was observed in a person exposed to an ammonia/oil mixture.(18) No conclusions can be drawn from one poorly conducted animal study.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. One study which showed mutagenicity in live animals exposed to ammonia cannot be confirmed. Positive or weak mutagenicity results observed in bacteria are most likely caused by the high pH and cell death, rather than a mutagenic effect.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Ammonia does not accumulate in the body. It is a normal body component. It is a by-product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism, and is a minor component of the diet. The ammonia-nitrogen is incorporated into amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids in the body. Ammonia may be excreted in the urine, principally as urea and ammonium salts, with some free ammonia, and there is also some elimination through sweat glands. Respiratory and fecal excretion is not significant.(1,6)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 60 minutes, by the clock. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep the emergency vehicle waiting. Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 60 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse the contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Quickly transport the victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240-300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation contact.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not flammable under normal conditions.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available for solutions. 15.5-16% (ammonia gas) (36, 39-41)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available for solutions. 25-27% (ammonia gas) (36, 39-41)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
651 deg C (1204 deg F) (ammonia gas) (36,40,41)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Ammonium hydroxide solutions will not accumulate static charge and will not be ignited by a static discharge.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Ammonium hydroxide can release ammonia gas, which decomposes into hydrogen and nitrogen at about 450-500 deg C.(41-43) It has also been reported that the main products of combustion in air (at/or above 780 deg C) are nitrogen and water, with small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and ammonium nitrate.(44)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Ammonium hydroxide solutions are not considered flammable at normal temperatures. However, ammonia gas may be generated from ammonium hydroxide solutions. Ammonia gas concentrations within the flammable range (15.5-27%) can be ignited and pose a significant fire and explosion hazard, especially in a confined space. However, a large and intense energy source is necessary to ignite ammonia gas. A number of major fires and explosions involving ammonia gas have occurred in industry. Under certain circumstances, mixtures of ammonia and air within the flammable/explosive limits can occur above high concentrations of ammonium hydroxide solutions. For example, it has been reported that welding operations on a vessel containing ammonium hydroxide solutions caused a violent explosion.(47) Ammonium hydroxide solutions containing 5% or less ammonia in water do not produce ammonia gas in the flammable range at any temperature. More concentrated solutions of ammonium hydroxide can give ammonia gas off within the flammable range.(45) Ammonia gas decomposes into flammable hydrogen gas at about 450-500 deg C. Toxic and irritating nitrogen dioxide can form during burning in air. Containers may rupture violently due to overpressurization, if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time, releasing flammable and toxic gases.

Extinguishing Media:
Ammonium hydroxide will not burn. If ammonia gas is burning, use dry chemical powder or carbon dioxide for small fires and water spray, fog or foam for large fires.(43) Otherwise, use extinguishing media appropriate to the surrounding fire conditions.(40)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous gases and flammable and toxic decomposition products (e.g. ammonia and hydrogen).
Ammonium hydroxide is not considered flammable at normal temperatures. However, ammonia gas may be generated from ammonium hydroxide solutions. Ammonia gas concentrations within the flammable range can be ignited and pose a significant fire and explosion hazard, especially in a confined space.
If possible, isolate materials not involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move containers from fire area if it can be done without risk. Explosive decomposition may occur under fire conditions. Use extreme caution since fire or excessive heat may rupture containers and suddenly release flammable and toxic gases. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Water may also be used to flush spills away from the fire, while gas clouds may be controlled by water spray or fog.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Ammonium hydroxide and ammonia gas are corrosive. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 35.05

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.43 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.7 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -72.4 deg C (-98.3 deg F) (concentration not specified) (36); -77 deg C (-107 deg F) (concentration not specified) (37)
Boiling Point: 27.2 deg C (81 deg F) (29.4%) (36)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.96 (10%); 0.925 (20%) at 20 deg C (36); 0.895 (30%) at 15 deg C (39) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(36,37)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Not available
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: 10.6 (0.01 N); 11.1 (0.1 N); 11.6 (1 N) (46)
Basicity: Moderately strong base; pKb = 4.767 (Kb = 1.71 X 10(-5)) at 20 deg C; pKb = 4.751 (Kb = 1.774 X 10(-5) at 25 deg C (46)
Vapour Density: Not available
Vapour Pressure: Approximately 15 kPa (112.5 mm Hg) (10%) at 20 deg C (42); 29.5 kPa (221.4 mm Hg) (19.1%); 74.2 kPa (556.7 mm Hg) (28.8%) both at 21.1 deg C (36)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 148000 ppm (14.8%) (10% solution) at 20 deg C; 291500 ppm (29%) (19.1%) at 21.1 deg C; 732500 ppm (73.3%) (28.8%) at 21.1 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Ammonia gas may be given off under normal conditions.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. perchlorates, chlorates, hydrogen peroxide, chromic trioxide, nitrogen oxides, calcium or sodium hypochlorite) - can react violently or explosively.(36)
HEAVY METALS AND THEIR SALTS (e.g. silver, gold, lead, mercury or zinc, especially halide salts) - may form shock-sensitive compounds that may explode when dry.(36,37,40)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine, fluorine or iodine) or INTERHALOGENS (e.g. bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride) - can react violently or form explosive chemicals.(36,40)
NITROMETHANE - Increases the sensitivity of nitromethane to detonation.(47) Form salts which are explosive when dry.
ACIDS, ACID ANHYDRIDES, ACID CHLORIDES - can react violently or explosively.(48)
DIMETHYL SULFATE - react violently.(40)
CALCIUM - react with evolution of heat; may ignite at higher temperatures.(36)
ACROLEIN, PROPIOLACTONE, or PROPYLENE OXIDE - mixing with 28% ammonium hydroxide in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to rise.(40)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
High temperatures, open flames, electric sparks, welding.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Ammonium hydroxide is corrosive to aluminum, copper, lead, nickel, silver, tin, zinc, various alloys of these metals and galvanized surfaces.(36,49) It is not corrosive to cast iron, steel and stainless steel at normal temperatures.(49)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Ammonium hydroxide dissolves in water with mild release of heat.(36)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 3670 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 7338 ppm (1-hour exposure) (2) (ammonia)
LC50 (mouse): 2115 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 4230 ppm (1-hour exposure) (20); 2420 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 4837 ppm (1-hour exposure) (2) (ammonia)

LD50 (oral, rat): 350 mg/kg (21)

Eye Irritation:

Ammonium hydroxide has produced corrosive injury.

Application of 28.5% ammonium hydroxide to rabbits for 2-20 seconds caused injury ranging from faint, permanent clouding of the cornea to profound, permanent clouding of the cornea, proportional to the length of time of exposure.(11) In another study, application of 0.1 mL of 1-10% ammonium hydroxide also produced corrosive injury (corneal opacity) in rabbits. Similar application of 0.3% did not produce corrosive injury.(22) Another study showed that concentrations above 0.88% were corrosive in rabbits producing clouding of the cornea and ulceration of the eyelids.(23) Application of 0.005 mL of a 5% solution of ammonium hydroxide caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 9/10).(24)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Numerous animal studies confirm that the respiratory system can be severely affected following inhalation exposures to ammonia.(1,3,6) Brief exposure of mice to concentrations of 8780 to 12960 ppm (cited as 6.1 to 9.0 mg/L) resulted in deaths within 5 minutes after exposure started.(25) With the exception of lung injury in 1 monkey, no significant changes were observed in rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs and monkeys exposed to 220 ppm (cited as 155 mg/m3) for 6 weeks. At 1110 ppm (cited as 770 mg/m3), laboured breathing were observed in the rabbits and dogs, but this symptom disappeared by the second week. No other significant symptoms were observed.(26) The RD50, the concentration which produces a 50% reduction in the respiratory rate of male mice, is 303 ppm.(27) Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans. In a related study, a 5-day exposure to the RD50 (303 ppm) resulted in minimal tissue injury and tissue death in the nasal cavity of male mice.(28)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats exposed continuously to 185 ppm (cited as 127 mg/m3) for 90 days did not show any abnormalities of organs or tissues. Mild nasal irritation was observed in 12/49 rats exposed to 380 ppm (cited as 262 mg/m3). At 655 ppm (cited as 455 mg/m3), 32/51 animals died by day 25 of exposure and 50/51 rats had died after 65 days exposure. Rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs were continuously exposed to 675 ppm (cited as 470 mg/m3) for 90 days. Deaths occurred in 13/15 rats and 4/15 guinea pigs. At autopsy, all test animals had lung injury. No signs of toxicity were observed in rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs and monkeys exposed to 60 ppm (cited as 40 mg/m3) continuously for 114 days.(26) Mild changes in the spleen, kidneys and livers were observed in guinea pigs exposed to 140-200 ppm ammonia for 18 weeks, but not at 6 or 12 weeks.(29)

Carcinogenicity:
No conclusions can be drawn from one poorly conducted study in which a single group of mice were exposed to extremely high concentrations (12000 ppm) of ammonia for 8 weeks. Pre-cancerous changes in the nasal cavities of a small number of mice and 1 case of cancer was observed. Statistical analysis of the data was not presented.(30) Administration of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% ammonium hydroxide to mice for their lifetimes did not result in carcinogenicity.(31) In one study, rats pretreated with known carcinogen and then exposed to 0.01% ammonium hydroxide in drinking water for 24 weeks showed an increased incidence of gastric cancer.(32) This study suggests that long-term oral exposure to ammonium hydroxide may result in the promotion of stomach cancer caused by other chemicals.

Mutagenicity:
Insufficient details are available to evaluate a report of mutagenicity in live animals (chromosomal changes in rats exposed to 28 ppm for 16 weeks).(33)
In two studies using bacteria, ammonium hydroxide produced weak/doubtful results or produced positive results, but only at concentrations that caused significant cell death making the results unreliable.(34,35) In general, chemicals with a high pH, like ammonium hydroxide, have caused mutagenic effects in bacteria, but only at concentrations that are toxic to the cells.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Pierce, J.O. Alkaline materials: ammonia (Casrn 7664-41-7), ammonium hydroxide (Casrn 1336-21-6), and ammonium salts. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part A. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 756-762
(2) MacEwen, J.D., et al. Toxic hazards research unit annual technical report: 1972. Report no. AMRL-TR-72-62. NTIS AD 755-358. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Aug. 1972
(3) National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety. Criteria document for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to ammonia. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1974
(4) Swotinsky, R.B., et al. Commentary: health effects of exposure to ammonia: scant information. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 17, no. 4 (1990). p. 515-521
(5) Silverman, L., et al. Physiological response of man to ammonia in low concentrations. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 2 (Mar. 1949). p. 74-78
(6) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Ammonia. Environmental Health Criteria 54. World Health Organization, 1986
(7) de la Hoz, R.E., et al. Chronic lung disease secondary to ammonia inhalation injury: a report of three cases. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 29, no. 2 (Feb. 1996). p. 209-214
(8) Ferguson, W.S., et al. Human physiological response and adaptation to ammonia. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 19, no. 5 (May 1977). p. 319-326
(9) Hamami, I, et al. Structural determinants of the response of the skin to chemical irritants. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 18, no.2 (1988). p. 71-75
(10) Frosch, P.J., et al. Rapid blister formation in human skin with ammonium hydroxide. British Journal of Dermatology. Vol. 96 (1977). p. 461- 473
(11) Levy, D.M., et al. Ammonia burns of the face and respiratory tract. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 190, no. 11 (Dec. 1964). p. 95-98 (873-976)
(12) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1993. p. 124-131
(13) Holness, D.L., et al. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of occupational exposure to ammonia. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 50, no. 12 (Dec. 1989). p. 646-650
(14) Kollef, M.H. Chronic ammonium hydroxide exposure. Letter. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 107, no. 1 (July 1987). p. 118
(15) Morris, G.E. Urticaria following exposure to ammonia fumes. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 13, no. 5 (May 1956). p. 480
(16) Haux, E.H. Occupational allergies. English translation. SMRE translation no. 6952. Medizinische Laboratorium. Vol. 28, no. 10 (Oct. 1975). p. 235-237. (NIOSHTIC Control No. 00072590)
(17) Bittersohl, G. Epidemiologic studies on cancer cases in the chemical industry. English translation. Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. Vol. 38, nos. 3-4 (1971). p. 198-209. (NIOSHTIC Control No. 00101175)
(18) Shimkin, M.B., et al. Appearance of carcinoma following single exposure to a refrigeration ammonia-oil mixture: report of a case and discussion of the role of co-carcinogenesis. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 9 (1954). p. 186-193
(19) Emergency response planning guidelines. AIHA Journal. Vol. 56, no. 3 (1995). p. 297
(20) Kapeghian, J.C., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of ammonia in mice. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology. Vol. 29, no. 3 (1982). p. 371-378
(21) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. The single dose toxicity of some glycols and derivatives. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 6 (June 1941). p. 259-268
(22) Murphy, J.C., et al. Ocular irritancy responses to various pHs of acids and bases with and without irrigation. Toxicology. Vol. 23 (1982). p. 281- 291
(23) Calvery, H.O., et al. Effects of some silver salts on the eye (silver nitrate, silver ammonium nitrate, silver ammonium sulfate, silver ammonium lactate and a mixture of silver ammonium nitrate and silver ammonium sulfate). Archives of Ophthalmology. Vol. 25 (1941). p. 839-846
(24) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(25) Silver, S.D., et al. A comparison of acute toxicities of ethylene imine and ammonia in mice. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 30, no. 1 (Jan. 1948). p. 7-9
(26) Coon, R.A., et al. Animal inhalation studies on ammonia, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, dimethylamine and ethanol. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 16, no. 3 (May 1970). p. 646-655
(27) Alarie, Y. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 41 (Dec. 1981). p. 9-13
(28) Buckley, L.A., et al. Respiratory tract lesions induced by sensory irritants at the RD50 concentration. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 74, no. 3 (July 1984). p. 417-429
(29) Weatherby, J.H. Chronic toxicity of ammonia fumes by inhalation. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 81 (Oct. 1952). p. 300-301
(30) Gaafar, H., et al. The effect of ammonia on the respiratory nasal mucosa of mice: a histological and histochemical study. Acta Oto- Laryngologica. Vol. 112, no. 2 (1992). p. 339-342
(31) Toth, B. Hydrazine, methylhydrazine and methylhydrazine sulfate carcinogenesis in Swiss mice: failure of ammonium hydroxide to interfere in the development of tumors. International Journal of Cancer. Vol. 9 (1972). p. 109-118
(32) Tsujii, M., et al. Ammonia: a possible promotor in Helicobacter pylori- related gastric carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters. Vol. 65 (1992). p. 15-18
(33) RTECS database record for ammonia. Last updated: 1997-04
(34) Demerec, M., et al. A survey of chemicals for mutagenic action on E. Coli. The American Naturalist. Vol. 85, no. 821 (Mar.-Apr. 1951). p. 119- 136
(35) Szybalski, W. Special microbiological systems. II. Observations on chemical mutagenesis in microorganisms. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 78 (1958). p. 475-489
(36) Emergency action guide for ammonium hydroxide. Association of American Railroads, Mar. 1995
(37) HSDB record for ammonium hydroxide. Last revision date: 97/03/18
(38) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 13, 44-45
(39) Bakemeier, H, et al. Ammonia. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 2. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 143-242
(40) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325 (ammonia, anhydrous), NFPA 49 (ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied); NFPA 491 (ammonia (anhydrous), ammonium hydroxide)
(41) Compressed Gas Association. Handbook of compressed gases. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1990. p. 231-252
(42) Czuppon, T.A., et al. Ammonia. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 642
(43) Environmental Protection Service. Environmental and technical information for problems spills (EnviroTIPS): ammonia. Environment Canada, July 1984
(44) Braker, W., et al. Matheson gas data book. 6th ed. Matheson Gas Products, 1980. p. 23-33
(45) Harris, G.F.P., et al. Flammability and explosibility of ammonia. Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Chemical Process Hazards Referring to Plant Design. Institute Chemical Engineers. Symposium series no. 49. Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1977. p. 31-39
(46) Weast, R.C., ed. CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics. 66th ed. CRC Press Inc., 1985-1986
(47) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. (CD-ROM). 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(48) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(49) Corrosion data survey: metals section. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 10-12 to 11-12
(50) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(51) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(52) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-06-22

Revision Indicators:
EU Number 1998-11-01
EU Classification 1998-11-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
EU Safety 1998-11-01
EU Comments 1998-11-01
TDG 2002-05-29
NFPA (health) 2003-05-28
NFPA (flammability) 2003-05-28
NFPA (reactivity) 2003-05-28
LFL/LEL 2003-05-28
UFL/UEL 2003-05-28
Sensitivity to static charge 2003-05-28
Fire hazard summary 2003-05-30
Combustion and thermal decomposition products 2003-05-30
Fire fighting instructions 2003-05-30
Emergency overview 2003-05-30
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-05-30
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
PEL-STEL final 2003-12-19
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Bibliography 2004-04-06



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