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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 82
CCOHS Chemical Name: Aluminum powder, uncoated

Synonyms:
Aluminium powder
Aluminum
Aluminum flake
Aluminum metal
Metana

Chemical Name French: Aluminium (poudre)
Chemical Name Spanish: Aluminio

Trade Name(s):
Noral aluminum
Aluminum 27

CAS Registry Number: 7429-90-5
UN/NA Number(s): 1396
RTECS Number(s): BD0330000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-072-3
Chemical Family: Aluminum and compounds / elemental aluminum / aluminum metal
Molecular Formula: Al
Structural Formula: Al

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Light, silvery-white to gray, odourless powder.(30-33)

Odour Threshold:
Odourless

Warning Properties:
NONE - odourless and essentially non-irritating

Composition/Purity:
Aluminum is normally coated with a layer of aluminum oxide unless the particles are freshly formed. There are two main types of aluminum powder: the "flake" type which is made by stamping the cold metal and the "granulated" type which is made from molten aluminum. Pyro powder is an especially fine type of "flake" powder and is composed of very small particles (less than 1 micrometre (um) diameter).(9,35) This CHEMINFO record contains information for aluminum powders, supplemented with general information for aluminum and its compounds. For information on the hazards associated with exposures that are mainly to aluminum oxide, see CHEMINFO record 86. The physical properties of aluminum vary significantly according to purity and alloying. The values given in this CHEMINFO record are for aluminum of a minimum of 99.99% purity. Some aluminum powders are treated with materials such as stearin to minimize surface oxidation.(9) In addition, some aluminum powders are coated with polystyrene to reduce or eliminate the fire hazard.(34) This review does not address the hazards of coated aluminum powders. For information on these materials, consult your manufacturer/supplier and/or the material safety data sheet (MSDS).

Uses and Occurrences:
Aluminum powders are used in paints, pigments, protective coatings, printing inks, rocket fuel, explosives, abrasives and ceramics; production of inorganic and organic aluminum chemicals; and as catalysts. Pyro powder is mixed with carbon and used in the manufacture of fireworks. The coarse powder is used in aluminothermics (thermite reaction).(1,6,9)
Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust. Because of its strong affinity for oxygen, aluminum never occurs as a metal in nature and is found only in the form of its compounds, for example aluminum oxide.(6)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Light, silvery-white to gray, odourless powder. REACTIVE FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. Moist aluminum powder may ignite in air, with the formation of flammable hydrogen gas. COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Powdered material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. Contact with water, strong acids, strong bases or alcohols releases flammable hydrogen gas. Can react violently or explosively with many inorganic and organic chemicals. Essentially non-toxic following short-term exposure.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
There are no reports of effects following short-term inhalation of aluminum. In general, high concentrations of dust may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation. Certain types of aluminum powder may cause effects following long-term exposure (see Effects of Long-term Exposure below).

Skin Contact:
Aluminum dust is not irritating to the skin, based on animal information. There is no human information available.
It has generally been considered that aluminum is very poorly absorbed through the skin.(1) Animal toxicity values for aluminum salts indicate that toxic effects would not be expected following short-term skin contact.

Eye Contact:
No irritation or inflammation has been observed in cases where aluminum has become embedded in the eyes.(2) Temporary irritation has been observed in animal studies. The dust is probably not irritating to the eye, except as a "foreign object". Some tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as the solid material is rinsed from the eye by tears.

Ingestion:
Short-term oral toxicity is low. Aluminum is a normal component of the human diet and the normal daily intake is significant. In adults, daily aluminum intake has been estimated at about 9 to 14 mg (3) in one reference and 1 to 100 mg (mean 5 mg) (4) in another, and can be much higher (1000 mg or more (5)) in individuals taking antacids containing aluminum hydroxide. No animal toxicity values are available since death occurs from intestinal blockage rather than systemic toxicity.(4) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

LUNG EFFECTS: No conclusions can be drawn regarding the possible long-term effects of aluminum on the lungs. Historically, several cases of scarring of lung tissue (pulmonary fibrosis) have been observed following prolonged or repeated occupational exposure to certain types of aluminum dust, either a molten pellet variety or stamped aluminum powder (also called pyro powder). Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially serious lung disease which, in severe cases, may lead to death.(6,7,8) Airborne dust concentrations required to produce the effects were not well documented and there was exposure to other chemicals at the same time. Some reviewers have concluded that the lung effects may have been related to a mineral oil-based lubricant historically used to treat pyro powders in Germany and the United Kingdom. Pulmonary fibrosis has not been observed following more recent occupational exposures to coarser granulated aluminum dust, manufactured from melted aluminum, aluminum pigment flake or pyro powders treated with stearin.(6,7,9,10)

Reduced lung function, consistent with chronic airflow limitation, has been observed in aluminum production workers although the cause has not been determined and exposures to many different airborne substances occur in this industry.(6)

One case of injury to the lower lung (pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) has been reported in a worker employed as an aluminum grinder. This disease may or may not be reversible. No details of the level of exposure were reported.(7) Similar effects have been observed in experimental animals. However, no conclusions can be drawn based on this limited information.

NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: A link between exposure to aluminum or aluminum compounds and Alzheimer's disease or other neurological diseases has been suggested. This link was suggested because of severe neurological effects which have been observed in patients receiving dialysis treatment (with dialysis fluids containing aluminum); effects seen in animals exposed to aluminum using non-occupational routes of exposure; case reports of neurological effects in individual workers; and findings of elevated aluminum levels in the brains of patients with neurological diseases. At present, whether or not this association is a true effect is controversial and findings are inconsistent. Recent reviewers have concluded that the evidence is inadequate to establish a link between occupational exposure to aluminum and specific effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease, in normal, healthy workers.(1,3,4,11,12,13) One reviewer has concluded that there is a likely connection between long-term occupational exposure to aluminum and a specific effect, impaired co-ordination, but not other toxic effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease.(14)

One case of brain disease (encephalopathy) involving convulsions, as well as pulmonary fibrosis, was observed in a worker occupationally exposed to aluminum flake powder. These effects were not observed in another 53 workers similarly exposed.(6) In another study, follow-up of 2 employees who had been diagnosed with fibrosis, following exposure to pyro powder in the 1930's and 1940's, revealed that one had developed a brain disorder (dementia with motor disturbances).(13) No firm conclusions can be drawn based on these limited findings.

SKIN CONTACT: One recent report indicates that aluminum can be absorbed through the skin of mice following long-term application of a water soluble salt (aluminum chloride hexahydrate).(15) This study indicates that long-term skin contact may contribute to overall exposure and accumulation of aluminum in the body. The relevance of this finding to aluminum metal is not known.

SKIN SENSITIZATION: Considering the widespread use of aluminum, only a very few cases of potential sensitization have been reported and very few details of the cases are available. In one report, 4 cases of contact dermatitis were reported in workers occupationally exposed to aluminum. No information on previous history of allergies was reported. In addition, the possibility of an irritant, rather than allergic, reaction was not excluded.(16,17) Another case report describes a hospital worker who showed a positive response to aluminum following sensitivity tests.(18) It is not clear that this person was occupationally exposed to aluminum. If aluminum is a true allergen, which is doubtful, the allergy is considered very rare.(7,19) Negative results have been obtained in animal studies.

RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION: Cases of asthma-like symptoms have been observed among workers in the aluminum production industry. However, the cause has not been determined, and these workers are potentially exposed to many different airborne substances.(6)

INGESTION: Ingestion of large amounts of aluminum compounds over a prolonged period may cause phosphate deficiency, based on animal and human information.(20) Prolonged ingestion of very large amounts (several grams/day) may result in osteomalacia (softening and bending of the bones).(7) There are no reports of these effects from occupational exposures to aluminum.

Carcinogenicity:

Increases in death rates from some types of cancer have been observed in aluminum production, but these effects are believed to be the result of exposure to other substances, not of exposure to aluminum.(1,7) Cancers have not been observed in animal studies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that aluminum production is classified as carcinogenic to humans, based on sufficient human information (overall evaluation: Group 1). However, IARC does not suggest that the carcinogenic effect is due to aluminum exposure.(21,22)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

ACGIH has proposed a carcinogenicity designation of A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen) (aluminum metal and insoluble compounds).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no specific information available for metallic aluminum. In animal studies, an insoluble aluminum compound (aluminum hydroxide) was not embryotoxic or fetotoxic unless administered in the presence of citric acid, lactic acid or ascorbic acid, in which case there was also maternal toxicity. Very high oral exposure of rats to soluble aluminum compounds has caused fetotoxicity, in the absence of maternal toxicity.(23) It is not known if similar effects would be expected from aluminum or its insoluble compounds. There is no human information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific information available for metallic aluminum or its insoluble compounds. A soluble aluminum compound (aluminum chloride) has caused slight sperm effects in rats.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results were obtained in an in vitro test using bacteria. There is no specific information for aluminum in tests using cultured mammalian cells or live animals.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Aluminum is absorbed only to a limited degree from either the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs, and is rapidly excreted in the urine. A certain amount of tissue uptake does occur.(6) The degree of absorption of aluminum following ingestion has been shown to depend on the chemical form of the metal as well as the presence of other dietary constituents such as citrate, ascorbate and lactate.(23) Water solubility has not been found to be a good indicator of the degree of aluminum absorption for different aluminum compounds.(24) In one study, urine aluminum levels increased by between 4 and 50 times following ingestion of antacids containing aluminum hydroxide.(3)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. If irritation does occur, gently brush away excess chemical quickly.

Eye Contact:
Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eye(s).

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for severe exposures.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
760 deg C (1400 deg F) (33)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Electrical Conductivity:
41 MS/m at 0 deg C; 37.7 MS/m at 20 deg C (30,40) 2.42 X 10(-8) ohms.m at O deg C; 2.65 X 10(-8) ohms.m at 20 deg C (30)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Aluminum oxide

Flammable Properties:

Extinguishing Media:
DO NOT use carbon dioxide, sodium bicarbonate, halogenated extinguishing agents, foam or water. Smother fire with dry sand, dry clay, dry ground limestone, dry sodium chloride based extinguishers or use approved Class D dry powder extinguishers.(33)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance.
Move containers from the fire area if it can be done without risk. Burning aluminum powder reacts violently with common extinguishing agents, listed above. Confine and smother fire, if possible. Small fires can be controlled by the recommended extinguishing agents, but large fires may be impossible to extinguish. In this case isolate the fire, protect surroundings and allow the fire to burn itself out.
Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 0 - Exposure, under fire conditions, would be no more hazardous than an ordinary combustible material.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 26.98

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 660 deg C (1220 deg F) (30-32,40)
Boiling Point: 2467 deg C (4473 deg F) (31,32); 2494 deg C (4521 deg F) (30,40)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 2.698 at 25 deg C (water=1) (30)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble (31,32)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Insoluble in most organic solvents. Soluble in alkalis, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid (forms soluble salts). Insoluble in hot acetic acid and concentrated nitric acid.(31,32)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Extremely low at 25 deg C; 0.133 kPa (1 mm Hg) at 1284 deg C (1,31)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 1-1.2 mPa.s (1-1.2 centipoises) at 700-750 deg C (molten aluminum) (30)
SURFACE TENSION: 860 mN/m (860 dynes/cm) at 700-750 deg C (molten aluminum) (30)
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY: 41 MS/m at 0 deg C; 37.7 MS/m at 20 deg C (30,40)
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY: 2.42 X 10(-8) ohms.m at O deg C; 2.65 X 10(-8) ohms.m at 20 deg C (30)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
The dry powder is stable. Damp bulk dust may heat spontaneously and form flammable hydrogen gas.(33)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


Uncoated aluminum powder is very reactive and can react violently or explosively with many inorganic and organic compounds. Coated aluminum powder or aluminum powder which has formed a layer of aluminum oxide is less reactive. For a review of the many substances that react with aluminum, consult references 33 and 34.
Aluminum powder or dust can react violently or explosively with oxidizing agents (e.g. dinitrogen tetroxide, bromates, chlorates, sodium peroxide). Explosion of the reacted mixture may be triggered by heat, striking, banging or light friction. Powdered aluminum reacts violently on heating with antimony, arsenic, phosphorous, sulfur or selenium. Aluminum powder or metal may undergo violent or explosive reactions ("thermite" reaction) on heating with metal oxides, oxosalts or sulfides (e.g copper or lead oxides, nitrates, sulfates).
An explosion may occur when aluminum powder or dust is mixed with ammonium nitrate, ammonium persulfate and water, halogenated hydrocarbons, silver chloride, sodium carbonate, or fluorochloro-lubricants. Aluminum dust when heated is ignitable and explosive in carbon dioxide atmospheres. Violent explosions my occur with aluminum metal and halogenated hydrocarbons, due to the formation of aluminum chloride, which catalyses further decomposition.
Mixtures of aluminum powder with halogens, interhalogens, nitro compounds and water can ignite. Aluminum ignites in non-metal halides (e.g. phosphorous pentoxide) and in the vapours of carbon disulfide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen tetroxide, phosgene or sulfur dioxide. Aluminum and diborane react spontaneously to form complex hydrides which ignite in air. /Aluminum powder reacts with water, strong acids, strong bases or alcohols to release flammable hydrogen gas.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Flammable hydrogen gas.

Conditions to Avoid:
Generation of dust, moisture, heat, sparks, flames or other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Aluminum is highly resistant to corrosion, since it develops a thin film of aluminum oxide when exposed to air.
In a study of the reaction of aluminum powder with water at 100-110 deg C in the presence of various salts, it was found that pH values above 9.5 increased the rate of hydrogen evolution.(34)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

There are no standard animal toxicity values available. Aluminum in its insoluble forms has been found to have low in short-term toxicity.(6)

Eye Irritation:

Irritation, which cleared within 7 days, but no corneal cloudiness, was observed in rabbits following application of a compound containing 96.7% atomized aluminum.(25) Slight inflammation and small lens cloudiness (opacities) have been observed in rabbits following implantation of aluminum particles in the eye.(2)

Skin Irritation:

No irritation was observed in rabbits following application of a compound containing 96.7% atomized aluminum to intact or abraded skin.(25)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
No harmful effects were observed in rats following exposure to 195 mg/kg/day for 1 month.(1)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Injury to the lower lung (alveolar proteinosis) was observed in rats, hamsters and guinea pigs following exposure to 3 types of aluminum powders (pyro powder, atomized and flake aluminum) at concentrations of 15-30 mg/m3 for 12 months or 50-100 mg/m3 for 6 months. No scarring of the lungs (fibrosis) was observed. Particle sizes were mainly within the inhalable range, with the exception of the flake particulate.(26) Some research has been conducted using the intratracheal route of administration. This research has not been evaluated here because of its questionable relevancy to occupational exposure (protective mechanisms in the upper respiratory tract are by-passed and the rate of administration is very high).

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results were obtained in guinea pigs in tests using a compound containing 96.7% atomized aluminum.(25)

Carcinogenicity:
No carcinogenic effects attributable to aluminum metal powder have been observed in animal studies following exposures by various routes.(27)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is no specific information available for metallic aluminum. Aluminum hydroxide (an insoluble aluminum compound) produced no evidence of embryo or fetotoxicity when administered orally to rats and mice. However, when aluminum hydroxide was administered with common dietary constituents, such as citric acid, lactic acid and ascorbic acid, fetotoxicity was observed in the presence of maternal toxicity. These studies indicate that aluminum absorption may be significantly enhanced by certain dietary constituents. Other reports have indicated that very high oral exposure of rats to soluble aluminum compounds during pregnancy or lactation have caused fetotoxicity, in the absence of maternal toxicity.(23) It is not known if similar effects would be expected from aluminum or its insoluble compounds.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific information available for aluminum or insoluble aluminum compounds. A small but statistically significant change in sperm number and motility were observed in rats orally exposed to aluminum chloride (a soluble aluminum compound) for 6-12 months.(28) It is not known if similar effects would be expected from aluminum or its insoluble compounds.

Mutagenicity:
Negative results were obtained for aluminum in an in vitro test using bacteria.(27) In general, negative results have also been obtained for aluminum compounds in in vitro tests using non-mammalian and mammalian cells. Positive results have been obtained for chromosomal aberrations in animals following exposure to aluminum compounds by intraperitoneal injection.(25,27,29)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for aluminum. TP-91/01. US Department of Health and Human Services, July 1992
(2) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 96
(3) Industrial Disease Standards Panel. Interim Report to the Workers' Compensation Board on Aluminum. IDSP report of findings No. 9. Toronto, Ontario, May 1992
(4) Bertholf, R.L., et al. Aluminum. In: Handbook on toxicity of inorganic compounds. Edited by H.G. Seiler. Marcel Dekker, 1988. p. 56-64
(5) Kilburn, K.H. Pulmonary and neurologic effects of aluminum. In: Environmental and occupational medicine. Edited by W.N. Rom. Little, Brown and Company, 1992. p. 465-473
(6) Beliles, R.P. The metals. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1880-1900
(7) Elinder, C.-G., et al. Aluminum. In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals. 2nd ed. Vol. II: Specific metals. Edited by L. Friberg, et al. Elsevier, 1986. p. 2-25
(8) Sjogren, B., et al. A follow-up study of five cases of aluminosis. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 68 (1996). p. 161-164
(9) Waldron, H.A. Non-neoplastic disorders due to metallic, chemical and physical agents. In: Occupational lung disorders. Edited by W.R. Parkes. 3rd edition. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1994. p. 593-643
(10) Dinman, B.D. Aluminum in the lung: the pyropowder conundrum. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 29, no. 11 (Nov. 1987). p. 869-876
(11) Wennberg, A. Neurotoxic effects of selected metals. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 20, Special Issue (1994). p. 65-71
(12) Martyn, C.N. The epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease in relation to aluminium. In: Aluminium in biology and medicine. Ciba Foundation Symposium 169. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 69-86
(13) Sjogren, B., et al. Aluminium. Arbete och Halsa. Criteria documents from the nordic expert group 1992. Edited by B. Beije, et al. No.1 (1993)
(14) Doll, R. Review: Alzheimer's disease and environmental aluminium. Age and Ageing. Vol. 22, no. 2 (Mar. 1993). p. 138-153
(15) Anane, R., et al. Bioaccumulation of water soluble aluminium chloride in the hippocampus after transdermal uptake in mice. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 69, no. 8 (1995). p. 568-571
(16) Hall, A.F. Occupational contact dermatitis among aircraft workers. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 125, no. 3 (May 1944). p. 179-185
(17) Meding, B., et al. Patch test reactions to aluminium. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 10, no. 2 (1984). p. 107
(18) Kotovirta, M.-L., et al. Contact sensitivity to aluminum. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 11, no. 2 (1984) p. 135
(19) Newman, L.S. Metals. In: Occupational and environmental respiratory disease. Edited by P. Harber, et al. Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1996. p. 469-513
(20) Krueger, G.L., et al. The health effects of aluminum compounds in mammals. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 1 (1984). p. 1-24
(21) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Aluminium production. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 34. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Part 3. Industrial exposures in aluminium production, coal gasification, coke production, and iron and steel founding. World Health Organization, June 1984. p. 37-64
(22) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Aluminium production (group 1). In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Suppl. 7. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. World Health Organization, 1987. p. 89-91
(23) Domingo, J.L. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminum: a review. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 4 (July 1995). p. 515- 521
(24) Yokel, R.A. Benefit vs. risk of oral aluminum forms: antacid and phosphate binding vs. absorption. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 12, nos. 3 and 4 (1989). p. 277-286
(25) Weeks, M.H., et al. Toxicological evaluation of blasting agent materials in laboratory animals. Jan.-Nov. 1978. Special study no. 75- 51-0080-79. U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Nov. 1978
(26) Gross, P., et al. Pulmonary reaction to metallic aluminum powders. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 26 (May 1973). p. 227-236
(27) Leonard, A., et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of aluminium. Mutation Research. Vol. 196, no. 3 (Nov. 1988). p. 247-257
(28) Krasovskii, G.N., et al. Experimental study of biological effects of lead and aluminum following oral administration. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 30 (June 1979). p. 47-51
(29) Bhamra, R.K., et al. Trace elements aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel. In: Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their health effects. Edited by M. Lippmann. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1992. p. 575-632
(30) Staley, J.T., et al. Aluminum and aluminum alloys. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 184-251
(31) Weast, R.C., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 66th edition. CRC Press, 1985-1986. p. B-68, D-192
(32) James, A.M., et al. Macmillan's chemical and physical data. The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1992. p. 285
(33) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(34) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 22-35
(35) Mitchell, J., et al. Pulmonary fibrosis in workers exposed to finely powdered aluminium. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 18, no. 10 (1961). p. 10-20
(36) Field, P. Dust explosions. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1982. p. 205
(37) Field, P. Explosibility assessment of industrial powders and dusts. Building Research Establishment, 1983
(38) Schwab, R.F. Dusts. In: Fire protection handbook. Edited by G.P. McKinnon. 15th ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1981. p. 4-84 to 4-97
(39) Grossel, S.S. Safety considerations in conveying of bulk solids and powders. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Vol. 1 (Apr. 1988). p. 62-74
(40) Frank, W.B., et al. Aluminum. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 1. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 459-480
(41) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1997-10-29

Revision Indicators:
Transport (US) 1998-02-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
EU Comments 1998-09-01
TDG 2002-05-29
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-03-10
Bibliography 2003-04-17
PEL-TWA final 2004-02-02
PEL-TWA transitional 2004-02-02
TLV proposed changes 2007-04-11
Carcinogenicity 2007-04-12
WHMIS detailed classification 2007-04-12



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