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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 170
CCOHS Chemical Name: Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate

Synonyms:
Aluminium nitrate nonahydrate
Aluminum (111) nitrate (1:3) nonahydrate
Aluminum trinitrate nonahydrate
Nitric acid, aluminum salt nonahydrate
Nitric acid, aluminum (3+) salt nonahydrate
Aluminum nitrate (non-specific name)

CAS Registry Number: 7784-27-2
UN/NA Number(s): 1438
RTECS Number(s): BD1050000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 236-751-8
Chemical Family: Aluminum and compounds / inorganic aluminum compound / nitrate / hydrate / nonahydrate
Molecular Formula: Al-N3-O9.9H2-0
Structural Formula: Al(NO3)3.9H2O

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
White, odourless crystals and chunks.(27-29)

Odour Threshold:
Odourless

Warning Properties:
NONE - aluminum nitrate nonahydrate is odourless and nonirritating.

Composition/Purity:
Aluminum nitrate exists in the anhydrous and hydrated forms, of which the nonahydrate (Al(NO3)3.9H2O) is the most stable. Commercially, aluminum nitrate is available as the nonahydrate.

Uses and Occurrences:
Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate is used in the preparation of insulating papers, on transformer core laminates and in cathode-ray tube heating elements; as a tanning agent, antiperspirant, nitrating agent, corrosion inhibitor, catalyst in petroleum refining and in uranium extraction; and in the manufacture of incandescent filaments.(27,28)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
White, odourless crystals and chunks. Will not burn. OXIDIZER. Contact with combustible materials will increase risk of fire or explosion. Can decompose at high temperatures forming corrosive and toxic nitric acid and nitrogen oxides. Causes eye irritation and may cause skin irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Dusts and mists from solutions are probably irritating to the nose and throat. There is no human or animal information available. Symptoms may include sore throat and coughing.

Skin Contact:
The dust is probably a mild irritant, based on animal information for the powdered form. Depending on the concentration, solutions can cause moderate to severe irritation, based on pH. Repeated application of solutions are irritating and may cause corrosive injury, based on animal information. Corrosive injury can result in permanent scarring. There is no human information available.
It is generally considered that aluminum is very poorly absorbed through the skin.(1)

Eye Contact:
Dusts and mists or splashes of solutions can cause severe irritation and may cause permanent (corrosive) injury, based on animal, limited human information and pH (acidity). Depending on the concentration of the solution and the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness.
One report, which provides few details, indicates that a case of corneal injury occurred following occupational exposure to aluminum nitrate (form and concentration unspecified). In this case, healing occurred within 48 hours with medical treatment.(2)

Ingestion:
Animal information indicates that aluminum nitrate nonahydrate is low in oral toxicity. Ingestion of large amounts can probably cause irritation of the lining of the stomach, based on animal information. There is no human information available. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: A link between exposure to aluminum or aluminum compounds and Alzheimer's disease or other neurological diseases has been suggested. This link was suggested because of severe neurological effects which have been observed in patients receiving dialysis treatment (with dialysis fluids containing aluminum); effects seen in animals exposed to aluminum using non-occupational routes of exposure; case reports of neurological effects in individual workers; and findings of elevated aluminum levels in the brains of patients with neurological diseases. However, at present whether or not this association is a true effect is controversial and findings are inconsistent. Based on the available information, including studies of occupationally-exposed employees, reviewers have concluded that the evidence is inadequate to establish a link between occupational exposure to aluminum and specific effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease, in normal, healthy workers.(1,3-7) One reviewer has concluded that there is a likely connection between long-term occupational exposure to aluminum and a specific effect, impaired co-ordination, but not other toxic effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease.(8)

SKIN CONTACT: One report indicates that aluminum can be absorbed through the skin of mice following long-term application of another water soluble salt (aluminum chloride hexahydrate).(9) This study indicates that long-term skin contact may contribute to overall exposure and accumulation of aluminum in the body. The relevance of this finding to aluminum nitrate nonahydrate is not known.

INGESTION: Ingestion of large amounts of aluminum salts over a prolonged period may cause phosphate deficiency, based on animal and human information.(10) Prolonged ingestion of very large amounts (several grams/day) has resulted in osteomalacia (softening and bending of the bones).(11) There are no reports of these effects from occupational exposures to aluminum salts.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available. Negative results have been obtained for other aluminum salts in animal studies.(23)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate has caused effects (fetotoxic and/or teratogenic) at doses that either were, or would be expected to be, maternally toxic. There is no human information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no specific information available. In general, aluminum compounds have been found to be non-mutagenic in tests with both cultured mammalian cells and non-mammalian cells.(10,11,12,13)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Aluminum is absorbed only to a limited degree from either the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs, and is rapidly excreted in the urine. A certain amount of tissue uptake does occur and animal experiments have shown that it can accumulate in bone.(14,15) The degree of absorption of aluminum following ingestion has been shown to depend on the chemical form of the metal, as well as the presence of other dietary constituents such as citrate, ascorbate and lactate.(16) Water solubility has not been found to be a good indicator of the degree of aluminum absorption for different aluminum compounds.(17)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. If symptoms persists, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible (does not burn). However, it is an oxidizing material and increases risk of fire and explosion.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Not applicable. Not combustible.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
When heated above 13035 deg C, aluminum nitrate nonahydrate decomposes to form corrosive nitric acid and basic aluminum nitrates. Dissociation to aluminum oxide and nitrogen oxides occurs above 500 deg C.(27)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate does not burn or support combustion. Heating aluminum nitrate to high temperatures may produce corrosive and toxic nitrogen oxides. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) lists inorganic nitrate compounds, like aluminum nitrate, as Class 1 oxidizers. A Class 1 oxidizer will slightly increase the burning rate, but does not cause spontaneous ignition when it comes in contact with combustible materials.(30) Well-sealed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Does not burn. Use fire extinguishing agents suitable for materials which are burning.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Remove all flammable and combustible materials from the vicinity, especially oil and grease.
If aluminum nitrate nonahydrate is not involved in the fire, move containers from the fire area, only if they have not been exposed to heat. Explosive decomposition may occur under fire conditions. Use extreme caution since heat may rupture containers. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of water spray. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Take care not to get water inside container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. For a massive fire, consider using unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. In any case, stay away from the ends of tanks involved in the fire.
The decomposition products of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate are corrosive and hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 375.13

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 73.5 deg C (164.3 deg F) (27,31)
Boiling Point: Decomposes beginning at 130-13 deg C (266-275 deg F) (27,28)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not available
Solubility in Water: Very soluble (63.7 g/100 mL at 25 deg C). Very soluble in hot water with decomposition.(31)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in ethanol; soluble in acetone, alkalis and nitric acid; practically insoluble in ethyl acetate and pyridine.(27,28,31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available.
pH Value: 2.0-4.0 (5% in water at 25 deg C) (32). Approximately 0.8 for a saturated solution in water.(22)
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Probably practically zero.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Probably zero
Critical Temperature: Not applicable

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Above 130 deg C, aluminum nitrate nonahydrate decomposes to form corrosive nitric acid and basic aluminum nitrates. Aluminum oxide and nitrogen oxides form above 500 deg C.(27)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS (e.g. wood, oil, paper, sulfur) - may react violently and cause fire.(29)
FINELY POWDERED METALS (e.g. aluminum)- may be explosive.(29)
STRONG REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. phosphorus and tin (II) chloride) - may react explosively.(29,33)
PHOSPHINATES - explode on heating.(29,33)
ALKYL ESTERS - may explode due to formation of alkyl nitrates.(29)
CYANIDES, THIOCYANATES, ISOCYNATES or HYPOPHOSPHATES - may explode.(29)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid) - may react violently.(29)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Nitric acid

Conditions to Avoid:
Generation of airborne dusts and mists, moisture, open flames, high temperatures.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Dry aluminum nitrate is not corrosive to metals. In the presence of moisture, aluminum nitrate may be corrosive to metals such as gray cast iron and steel. It is not corrosive to type 304 stainless steel.(34)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 3632 mg/kg (18); 3670 mg/kg (reported as 264 mg aluminum/kg) (19); 4280 mg/kg (20)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 3980 mg/kg (18)

Eye Irritation:

Extreme irritation was observed in rabbits following application of aluminum nitrate (form unspecified) without rinsing. Severe irritation was observed following application and rinsing after 30 seconds and rinsing after 4 seconds resulted in irritation only.(36)

Skin Irritation:

No to slight irritation (graded 0.35-0.54/8) was observed in rabbits following application of aluminum nitrate powder (form unspecified) under a moist gauze patch for 4 or 23 hours.(22) Evidence of skin irritation and occasional tissue death (ulceration) was observed in mice, rabbits and guinea pigs following application of a 10% solution for 5 consecutive days.(23)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Damage to the lining of the stomach was observed in rats fed a single dose of 3670 mg/kg (reported as 264 mg aluminum/kg). A reduction in working capacity in rats and rabbits and an adverse effect on reflex responses in rabbits were observed in animals fed 350, 700, or 1400 mg/kg/day (reported as 25, 50 or 100 mg aluminum/kg/day) for 10 days.(19)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Few harmful effects have been observed in animals following long-term ingestion. Effects on respiration (changes in oxygen uptake levels), but no other harmful effects, were observed in rats following oral administration of 140 mg/kg/day aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (reported as 10 mg aluminum/kg/day) for 6 months. Decreased body weight and decreased red blood cell counts were observed in rabbits following oral administration of this same dose for 6 months. None of these effects were observed in animals receiving 14 mg/kg/day (reported as 1 mg aluminum/kg/day) for 6 months.(19) Only a reduced growth rate attributed to decreased water and food consumption was observed in rats fed 3600 mg/kg/day aluminum nitrate nonahydrate in drinking water for 100 days. This effect was not observed at doses of 360 or 720 mg/kg/day. A significant increase in aluminum concentration was measured in bone, but not in brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, abdominal muscle or blood, at all three dose levels.(24)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Fetotoxic effects have been observed in rats exposed to oral doses which have caused or would be expected to cause maternal toxicity. Teratogenicity has been observed in the presence of maternal toxicity.
Decreased growth of newborn rats was observed following oral administration of 180, 360 or 720 mg/kg/day to mothers for 22 days during pregnancy and 21 days after birth. Toxic effects to the mothers would be expected to occur at these doses.(25) In another study, harmful effects on the fetus (decreased body weight and tail length) and teratogenic effects (skull and rib malformations) were observed in the presence of maternal toxicity in rats following administration of 180, 360 or 720 mg/kg/day to mothers during pregnancy.(26)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for aluminum. TP-91/01. US Department of Health and Human Services, July 1992
(2) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no. 11 (Nov. 1946). p. 1355-1362
(3) Industrial Disease Standards Panel. Interim Report to the Workers' Compensation Board on Aluminum. IDSP report of findings No. 9. Toronto, Ontario, May 1992
(4) Wennberg, A. Neurotoxic effects of selected metals. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 20, Special Issue (1994). p. 65-71
(5) Bertholf, R.L., et al. Aluminum. In: Handbook on toxicity of inorganic compounds. Edited by H.G. Seiler. Marcel Dekker, 1988. p. 56-64
(6) Martyn, C.N. The epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease in relation to aluminium. In: Aluminium in biology and medicine. Ciba Foundation Symposium 169. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 69-86
(7) Sjogren, B., et al. Aluminium. Arbete och Halsa. Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992. Edited by B. Beije, et al. No. 1 (1993)
(8) Doll, R. Review: Alzheimer's disease and environmental aluminium. Age and Aging. Vol. 22, no. 2 (Mar. 1993). p. 138-153
(9) Anane, R., et al. Bioaccumulation of water soluble aluminium chloride in the hippocampus after transdermal uptake in mice. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 69, no. 8 (1995). p. 568-571
(10) Krueger, G.L., et al. The health effects of aluminum compounds in mammals. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 13, issue 1 (1984). p. 1-24
(11) Elinder, C.-G., et al. Aluminum. In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals. 2nd ed. Vol. II: Specific metals. Edited by L. Friberg, et al. Elsevier, 1986. p. 2-25
(12) Leonard, A., et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of aluminium. Mutation Research. Vol. 196, no. 3 (Nov. 1988). p. 247-257
(13) Bhamra, R. K., et al. Trace elements aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel. In: Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their health effects. Edited by M. Lippmann. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1992. p. 575-632
(14) Beliles, R.P. The metals. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1880-1900
(15) HSDB record for aluminum nitrate. Last revision date: 96/10/12
(16) Domingo, J.L. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminum: a review. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 4 (1995). p. 515-521
(17) Yokel, R.A. Benefit vs. risk of oral aluminum forms: antacid and phosphate binding vs. absorption. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 12, nos. 3 and 4 (1989). p. 277-286
(18) Llobet, J.M., et al. Acute toxicity studies of aluminium compounds: antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents. Pharmacology and Toxicology. Vol. 60, no. 4 (Apr. 1987). p. 280-283
(19) Nekipelov, M.I. Hygienic standard for aluminum nitrate in water basins. Hygiene and Sanitation. Vol. 31, no. 8 (July-Sept. 1966). p. 204-208
(20) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30 (1969). p. 470-476
(21) RTECS record for aluminum (111) nitrate (1:3). Last updated: 9701
(22) Guillot, J.P., et al. Evaluation of the cutaneous-irritation potential of 56 compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20, no. 5 (1982). p. 563-572
(23) Lansdown, A.B.G. Production of epidermal damage in mammalian skins by some simple aluminium compounds. British Journal of Dermatology. Vol. 89 (1973). p. 67-76
(24) Domingo, J.L., et al. Nutritional and toxicological effects of short- term ingestion of aluminum by the rat. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 56, no. 3 (June 1987). p. 409-419
(25) Domingo, J.L., et al. Effects of oral aluminum administration on perinatal and postnatal development in rats. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 57, no. 1 (July 1987). p. 129-132
(26) Paternain, J.L., et al. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of aluminum nitrate in rats upon oral administration. Teratology. Vol. 38, no. 3 (Sept. 1988). p. 253-257
(27) Grams, G.W. Aluminum compounds: aluminum halides and aluminum nitrate: aluminum nitrate. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 289
(28) Budavari, S, ed. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 12th ed. Merck and Co., Inc., 1996
(29) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(30) NFPA 430. Code for the storage of liquid and solid oxidizers. 1995 ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1995. p. 430-1 to 430-16
(31) Weast, R.C., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 66th ed. CRC Press, 1985-1986
(32) Fluka chemica-biochemika-analytika 1997/98. Fluka Chemie AG, 1997
(33) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 2. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 210-213
(34) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 6-15 to 7-15
(35) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Aluminum. Environmental Health Criteria 194. World Health Organization, 1997
(36) Guillot, J.P., et al. Evaluation of the ocular-irritation potential of 56 compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20, no. 5 (1982). p. 563-572

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-06-22

Revision Indicators:
Bibliography 2005-01-18
Bibliography 2006-01-18
TLV proposed changes 2007-04-12



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