The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 782
CCOHS Chemical Name: Aluminum chloride solutions

Synonyms:
Aluminium chloride solutions
Aluminum trichloride solutions
Trichloroaluminum solutions
Aluminum chloride (non-specific name)

CAS Registry Number: 7446-70-0
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 7784-13-6
UN/NA Number(s): 2581
RTECS Number(s): BD0525000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-208-1
Chemical Family: Aluminum and compounds / inorganic aluminum compound / chloride
Molecular Formula: Al-Cl3
Structural Formula: AlCl3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless to yellow liquid.(33) Odourless to slightly to sharply irritating odour of hydrogen chloride depending on concentration.

Odour Threshold:
Values reported for hydrogen chloride (0.255-10.06 ppm) are not reliable.(34)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold values reported for hydrogen chloride are not reliable.

Composition/Purity:
Aluminum chloride is commercially available as anhydrous aluminum chloride, the hexahydrate and as 16.5%, 28%, and 80% solutions in water.(35) In solution, aluminum chloride reacts with water to form varying amounts of hydrochloric acid. This CHEMINFO review is for aluminum chloride solutions. For information on the anhydrous or hexahydrate forms, refer to CHEMINFO relevant records.

Uses and Occurrences:
The solutions are used to treat roofing granules and mineral aggregate for bituminous products, to improve adhesion of the asphalt; to make pigmented coatings, containing sodium silicate, and used to colour roofing granules, insoluble; and to harden certain casting molds; and as a waste water flocculant. They are also used in antiperspirant and deodorant preparations.(3,35,36)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless to yellow liquid. Odourless to slight to sharp irritating odour of hydrogen chloride depending on concentration. Will not burn. Can decompose at high temperatures forming corrosive hydrogen chloride gas. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. May cause blindness and permanent scarring of the skin. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Mists of concentrated solutions are probably irritating to the nose and throat, based on acidity (which depends on the amount of hydrochloric acid present).
If solutions are heated, hydrogen chloride, a corrosive gas, may be produced. Depending on the concentration, hydrogen chloride can cause a potentially life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of pulmonary edema may be delayed for up to 24 hours after exposure.
There is no human or animal information available for aluminum chloride solutions. For additional information on hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid, refer to relevant CHEMINFO review.

Skin Contact:
Solutions can cause moderate to severe irritation, depending on the concentration and the duration of contact, based on animal and human information. Dilute solutions (e.g. 2.5%) are probably not irritating. Concentrated solutions may be corrosive. Depending on the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent scarring.
Mild irritation was observed following application of 2.5% aluminum chloride hexahydrate in water to damaged (scarified) skin once daily for 3 days. Marked irritation was observed with a 5% solution.(1) This type of exposure is more severe than would occur in occupational settings.
It has generally been considered that aluminum is very poorly absorbed through the skin.(2) An animal toxicity value indicates that toxic effects would not be expected following short-term skin contact.

Eye Contact:
Mists and splashes from solutions can cause irritation and may cause corrosive injury, depending on their concentration and the degree of exposure, based on human information. Corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness.
Slight to moderate irritation, but no serious injury, has been reported following accidental contact with 10-25% solutions of aluminum chloride hexahydrate in water.(3) Five cases of burns to the eyes (corneal burns) have been reported following accidental eye contact with aluminum chloride (form and concentration unspecified) in an occupational setting. Healing occurred within two days in 4/5 cases, following medical treatment. In one case, healing occurred in 3-10 days.(4)

Ingestion:
Aluminum chloride solutions are acidic and may cause burns of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, depending on their concentration and the amount ingested. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Nervous System:
A link between exposure to aluminum or aluminum compounds and Alzheimer's disease or other neurological diseases has been suggested. This link was suggested because of severe neurological effects which have been observed in patients receiving dialysis treatment (with dialysis fluids containing aluminum); effects seen in animals exposed to aluminum using non-occupational routes of exposure; case reports of neurological effects in individual workers; and findings of elevated aluminum levels in the brains of patients with neurological diseases. However, at present whether or not this association is a true effect is controversial and findings are inconsistent. Based on the available information, including studies of occupationally-exposed employees, recent reviewers have concluded that the evidence is inadequate to establish a link between occupational exposure to aluminum and specific effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease, in normal, healthy workers.(2,5-9) One reviewer has concluded that there is a likely connection between long-term occupational exposure to aluminum and a specific effect, impaired co-ordination, but not other toxic effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease.(10)

Skin:
One recent report indicates that aluminum can be absorbed through the skin of mice following long-term application of an aluminum chloride solution.(11) This study indicates that long-term skin contact may contribute to overall exposure and accumulation of aluminum in the body.

Skin Sensitization:
The available information does not suggest that aluminum chloride is an occupational sensitizer.
There is a single case report of a positive patch test in a man who developed a contact sensitivity to aluminum chloride hexahydrate in a roll-on antiperspirant. Previous history of allergies was not discussed.(48)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no animal or human information available for aluminum chloride. Negative results have been obtained for other aluminum salts in animal studies.(12)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the potential developmental toxicity of aluminum chloride based on the available animal studies due to design limitations such as a small number of animals/group, the use of only one exposure group, incomplete reporting and/or non-standard study designs.

Reproductive Toxicity:
Negative results have been obtained in animal studies. There is no human information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Most live animal studies have produced negative results. Conflicting results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and negative results have been obtained in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Aluminum is absorbed only to a limited degree from either the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs, and is rapidly excreted in the urine. A certain amount of tissue uptake does occur and animal experiments have shown that it can accumulate in bone.(13,14) The degree of absorption of aluminum following ingestion has been shown to depend on the chemical form of the metal as well as the presence of other dietary constituents such as citrate, ascorbate and lactate.(15) Water solubility has not been found to be a good indicator of the degree of aluminum absorption for different aluminum compounds.(16)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Transport victim immediately to an emergency care facility. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible (does not burn)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Solutions do not accumulate static charge.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Aluminum chloride solutions will not burn or support combustion. Heating concentrated solutions may produce corrosive hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid. Well-sealed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Does not burn. Use extinguishing media appropriate for the surrounding fire.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of water spray. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Take care not to get water inside container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. For a massive fire under these circumstances, it may be prudent to use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. In any case, stay away from the ends of tanks involved in the fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The decomposition products of aluminum chloride are corrosive. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 133.34

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Not available
Boiling Point: Not available. Probably decomposes.
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.19-1.3 (water = 1) (33)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions
Solubility in Other Liquids: Not available
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Moderately acidic; 2.5-3.5 (5% aqueous solution) (39)
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Not available
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


Aluminum chloride solutions can react violently with alkali hydroxides, such as sodium hydroxide, and other bases with the evolution of heat.(33)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat

Corrosivity to Metals:
Aluminum chloride solutions are corrosive to steel, stainless steel, cast iron, copper, brass and bronze, aluminum and lead.(41)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, mouse): 770 mg aluminum/kg (cited as 0.77 g Al/kg; administered as aluminum chloride, form not specified) (25)
One study reports LD50 values for rats, guinea pigs and rabbits as 380-400 mg/kg for aluminum chloride (form unspecified).(18) These values are not considered reliable because the study was poorly reported.

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (17, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

Redness, thickening and scaling were observed in mice following application of up to 25% solutions of aluminum chloride in water for 5 consecutive days. Damage was severe by the 4th day following application of the 25% solution. No harmful effects were observed following application of a 2.5% solution.(19)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Subtle behavioural changes have been observed in rats and mice. Behavioural changes (e.g. reduced locomotor activity and slower acquisition of shuttle-box avoidance behaviour) were observed in rats fed 0.1% aluminum (as aluminum chloride) (approximately 50 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks or 11 months.(20) In another study, behavioural effects (acquisition and retention of conditioned avoidance response) were observed in very young (weanling) mice following ingestion of 1.0% aluminum (as aluminum chloride) in drinking water for up to 8 weeks of age. Similar effects were not observed following ingestion of the same concentration from 1 month to 4 months of age.(21) Similar effects have been observed following ingestion of aluminum chloride hexahydrate. No conclusions can be drawn from one poorly reported study in which rats, guinea pigs and rabbits were orally administered aluminum chloride (form unspecified) for up to 6 months.(18)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There have been several developmental toxicity studies conducted with rats and mice orally exposed to aluminum chloride during pregnancy.(22,23,24,25,45,46,47) All of the studies are limited by a small number of animals/group. Other study limitations include the use of only one exposure group, incomplete reporting, and non-standard study designs. Therefore, firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the potential developmental toxicity of aluminum chloride.

Reproductive Toxicity:
The available studies have not shown any reproductive effects in rats and mice following oral administration.
No adverse reproductive effects were observed in male rats following oral administration of up to 500 ppm anhydrous aluminum chloride in drinking water for 30, 60 or 90 days.(26) Similarly, no adverse effects on numbers of litters or litter size were observed in mice fed approximately 95 mg/kg/day (reported as 19.3 mg aluminum/kg/day) in a multi-generation study.(25) No conclusions can be drawn from a poorly reported study in which rats were orally administered aluminum chloride (form unspecified) for up to 6 months.(18)

Mutagenicity:
The available information suggests that aluminum chloride solutions are not mutagenic.
Negative results (chromosomal aberrations) have been obtained in studies in live animals, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits, following oral administration.(13) Positive results (chromosome aberrations) have been obtained in bone marrow cells of mice following intraperitoneal injection of aluminum chloride.(27) This study is not considered reliable because statistical analysis of the data was not conducted and the route of exposure is not considered relevant to occupational exposure situations.
Positive, inconclusive, and negative results have been obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells.(2,17, unconfirmed,28,29) Aluminum chloride has produced negative results in a number of tests using bacteria.(30-32)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Frosch, P.J., et al. The chamber-scarification test for assessing irritancy of topically applied substances. In: Cutaneous Toxicity: proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976. Edited by V.A. Drill, et al. Academic Press, 1977. p. 127-154
(2) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for aluminum. TP-91/01. US Department of Health and Human Services, July 1992
(3) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 99
(4) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no. 11 (Nov. 1946). p. 1355-1362
(5) Industrial Disease Standards Panel. Interim Report to the Workers' Compensation Board on Aluminum. IDSP report of findings No. 9. Toronto, Ontario, May 1992
(6) Wennberg, A. Neurotoxic effects of selected metals. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 20, Special Issue (1994). p. 65-71
(7) Bertholf, R.L., et al. Aluminum. In: Handbook on toxicity of inorganic compounds. Edited by H.G. Seiler. Marcel Dekker, 1988. p. 56-64
(8) Martyn, C.N. The epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease in relation to aluminium. In: Aluminium in biology and medicine. Ciba Foundation Symposium 169. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 69-86
(9) Sjogren, B., et al. Aluminium. Arbete och Halsa. Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992. Edited by B. Beije, et al. No. 1 (1993)
(10) Doll, R. Review: Alzheimer's disease and environmental aluminium. Age and Aging. Vol. 22, no. 2 (Mar. 1993). p. 138-153
(11) Anane, R., et al. Bioaccumulation of water soluble aluminium chloride in the hippocampus after transdermal uptake in mice. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 69, no. 8 (1995). p. 568-571
(12) Leonard, A., et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of aluminium. Mutation Research. Vol. 196, no. 3 (Nov. 1988). p. 247-257
(13) HSDB record for aluminum chloride. Last revision date: 96/03/21
(14) Beliles, R.P. The metals. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1880-1900
(15) Domingo, J.L. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminum: a review. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 4 (July 1995). p. 515- 521
(16) Yokel, R.A. Benefit vs. risk of oral aluminum forms: antacid and phosphate binding vs. absorption. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 12, nos. 3 and 4 (1989). p. 277-286
(17) RTECS record for aluminum chloride. Last updated: 9701
(18) Krasovskii, G.N., et al. Experimental study of biological effects of lead and aluminum following oral administration. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 30 (June 1979). p. 47-51
(19) Lansdown, A.B.G. Production of epidermal damage in mammalian skins by some simple aluminium compounds. British Journal of Dermatology. Vol. 89 (1973). p. 67-76
(20) Commissaris, R.L., et al. Behavioral changes in rats after chronic aluminum and parathyroid hormone administration. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 4, no. 3 (1982). p. 403-410
(21) Yen-Koo, H.C. The effect of aluminum on conditioned avoidance response (CAR) in mice. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 8, no. 1/2. (Jan. 1992). p. 1-7
(22) Bernuzzi, V., et al. Effects of prenatal aluminum exposure on neuromotor maturation in the rat. Neurobehavioural Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 8, no. 2 (1986). p. 115-119
(23) Bernuzzi, V., et al. Developmental alterations in offspring of female rats orally intoxicated by aluminum chloride or lactate during gestation. Teratology. Vol. 40, no. 1 (1989). p. 21-27
(24) Cranmer, J.M., et al. Fetal-placental-maternal uptake of aluminum in mice following gestational exposure: effect of dose and route of administration. NeuroToxicology. Vol. 7, no. 2 (1986). p. 601-608
(25) Ondreika, R., et al. Chronic toxicity of aluminium in rats and mice and its effects on phosphorus metabolism. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 23, no. 4 (Oct. 1966). p. 305-312
(26) Dixon, R.L., et al. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 30 (June 1979). p. 53-68
(27) Manna, G.K., et al. Chromosome aberrations in mice induced by aluminium chloride. The Nucleus. Vol. 15, no. 3 (1972). p. 180-186
(28) Krueger, G.L., et al. The health effects of aluminum compounds in mammals. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 13, issue 1 (1984). p. 1-24
(29) DiPaulo, J.A., et al. Quantitative studies of in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster cells by inorganic metal salts. Cancer Research. Vol. 39 (Mar. 1979). p. 1008-1013
(30) Cannata, J.B., et al. Aluminum toxicity in mammals: a minireview. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 6 (Dec. 1989). p. 577-583
(31) Marzin, D.R., et al. Study of the mutagenicity of metal derivatives with Salmonella typhimurium TA102. Mutation Research. Vol. 155, nos. 1/2 (1985). p. 49-51
(32) Kanematsu, N., et al. Rec assay and mutagenicity studies on metal compounds. Mutation Research. Vol. 77, no. 2 (1980). p. 109-116
(33) MSDS database record for aluminum chloride solution (Dow Chemical Canada Inc). Date of MSDS: 10/13/94
(34) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 20, 61
(35) Grams, G.W. Aluminum compounds: aluminum halides and aluminum nitrate: aluminum chloride. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 281-288
(36) Stark, H., et al. Aluminum compounds, inorganic: aluminum chloride. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 1. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 536-541
(37) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 112B
(38) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49
(39) Fluka chemica-biochemika 1995/96. Fluka Chemie AG, 1995. p. 74
(40) Urban, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 39-42
(41) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 6-9 to 7-9
(42) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(43) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 166-167
(44) European Communities. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(45) McCormack, K.M., et al. The teratogenic effects of aluminum in rats. Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 2 (1978). p. 50A
(46) McCormack, K.M., et al. Effect of prenatal administration of aluminum and parathyroid hormone on fetal development in the rat. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 161 (1979). p. 74-77
(47) Misawa, T., et al. Effects of prenatal aluminum treatment on development and behaviour in the rat. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 18 (1993). p. 43-48
(48) Fischer, T., et al. A case of contact sensitivity to aluminum. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 8 (1982). p. 343
(49) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Aluminum. Environmental Health Criteria 194. World Health Organization, 1997
(50) Bio-Dynamics Inc. Initial submission: Letter from Monsanto Co to USEPA regarding aluminum chloride solution with cover letter and attachments dated 081392. Monsanto Co. Date produced: Aug. 28, 1992. EPA/OTS 88-920008492. NTIS/OTS057-773.
(51) Gollhausen, G., et al. Effects of presure on contact dermatitis. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 8, no. 4-5 (1985). p. 323-328

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1997-11-25

Revision Indicators:
Transport (US) 1998-02-01
EU Comments 1998-11-01
Carcinogenicity 2002-10-16
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Bibliography 2005-01-18
Toxicological info 2005-01-18
Teratogenicity/embryotoxicity 2005-01-18
Emergency overview 2005-01-18
WHMIS detailed classification 2005-01-18
WHMIS proposed classification 2005-01-18
WHMIS disclosure list 2005-01-18
WHMIS health effects 2005-01-18
Long-term exposure 2005-01-18
Handling 2005-03-29
Bibliography 2006-06-23
TLV proposed changes 2007-04-12



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6