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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 152
CCOHS Chemical Name: Aluminum chloride, anhydrous

Synonyms:
Aluminium chloride, anhydrous
Aluminum chloride (1:3), anhydrous
Aluminum trichloride, anhydrous
Anhydrous aluminum chloride
Trichloroaluminum, anhydrous
Aluminum chloride (non-specific name)
Chlorure d'aluminium, anhydre

CAS Registry Number: 7446-70-0
UN/NA Number(s): 1726
RTECS Number(s): BD0525000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-208-1
Chemical Family: Aluminum and compounds / inorganic aluminum compound / chloride
Molecular Formula: Al2-Cl6 or Al-Cl3
Structural Formula: Al2Cl6 or AlCl3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Pure material is white crystalline solid or powder. The commercial product varies in colour from light yellow to light grey. Pungent odour of hydrogen chloride. Deliquescent (absorbs moisture from the air and forms wet solids or solutions).(32-35)

Odour Threshold:
Values reported for hydrogen chloride (0.255-10.06 ppm) are not reliable.(36)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold values reported for hydrogen chloride are not reliable.

Composition/Purity:
Impurities include ferric chloride, free aluminum, silicon tetrachloride and sodium chloride.(13) Anhydrous aluminum chloride reacts with moisture in the air or water to form corrosive hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid. Aluminum chloride is commercially available as anhydrous aluminum chloride, the hexahydrate and as 16.5%, 28%, and 80% solutions in water.(32) For information on the hexahydrate or solutions, refer to CHEMINFO records 781 and 782, respectively.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as an acid catalyst in the production of a wide range of organic compounds including hydrocarbon resins, ethylbenzene, titanium dioxide, pharmaceuticals, alkylate detergents, dyes, ethyl chloride, agricultural chemicals, butyl rubber, polybutenes, plastics, lubricants, fragrances and cosmetics; as a catalyst in the petroleum industry; in the electrolytic production of aluminum; as a chemical intermediate for aluminum compounds; production of aluminum borohydride and lithium aluminum hydride.(13,32,33)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Pure material is white crystalline solid or powder. The commercial product varies in colour from light yellow to light grey. Pungent odour of hydrogen chloride. Deliquescent (absorbs moisture from the air). Will not burn. DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE. Can decompose at high temperatures or react with water forming corrosive hydrogen chloride gas or hydrochloric acid. May be CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. May cause blindness. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Anhydrous aluminum chloride dust reacts with moisture in the respiratory tract and in room air to form hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid, which are corrosive and irritating to the nose and throat. The severity of effects depends on the concentration of dust, the rate of the reaction and the duration of exposure. Symptoms may include severe nasal irritation, sore throat, choking, coughing and difficulty breathing.
Exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas (which may be formed at elevated temperatures) can cause a life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of pulmonary edema, such as shortness of breath, can be delayed for several hours. For more information on the effects of hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid, refer to the relevant CHEMINFO reviews.

Skin Contact:
The dust can probably cause moderate to severe irritation of moist skin, depending on the extent and duration of contact. Anhydrous aluminum chloride reacts with the moisture on the skin (e.g. perspiration) or in the air forming corrosive hydrochloric acid and generating heat.(1) Aluminum chloride solutions are moderate to severe skin irritants.
It has generally been considered that aluminum is very poorly absorbed through the skin.(2) An animal toxicity value indicates that toxic effects would not be expected following short-term skin contact.

Eye Contact:
The dust reacts with moisture in the eyes forming a hydrochloric acid and generating heat. It may cause moderate to severe irritation or corrosive injury to the eye, depending on the extent and duration of exposure, based on limited human information. Aluminum chloride solutions are corrosive to eyes. Corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness.
Five cases of burns to the eyes (corneal burns) have been reported following accidental eye contact with aluminum chloride (form and concentration unspecified) in an occupational setting. Healing occurred within two days in 4/5 cases, with medical treatment. In one case, healing occurred in 3-10 days.(3)

Ingestion:
Ingested anhydrous aluminum chloride reacts with moisture in the mouth and throat to form corrosive hydrochloric acid. Sore throat, burns of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea may develop. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Nervous System:
A link between exposure to aluminum or aluminum compounds and Alzheimer's disease or other neurological diseases has been suggested. This link was suggested because of severe neurological effects which have been observed in patients receiving dialysis treatment (with dialysis fluids containing aluminum); effects seen in animals exposed to aluminum using non-occupational routes of exposure; case reports of neurological effects in individual workers; and findings of elevated aluminum levels in the brains of patients with neurological diseases. However, at present whether or not this association is a true effect is controversial and findings are inconsistent. Based on the available information, including studies of occupationally-exposed employees, recent reviewers have concluded that the evidence is inadequate to establish a link between occupational exposure to aluminum and specific effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease, in normal, healthy workers.(2,4-8) One reviewer has concluded that there is a likely connection between long-term occupational exposure to aluminum and a specific effect, impaired co-ordination, but not other toxic effects on the nervous system or Alzheimer's disease.(9)

Skin Sensitization:
The available information does not suggest that aluminum chloride is an occupational sensitizer.
There is a single case report of a positive patch test in a man who developed a contact sensitivity to aluminum chloride hexahydrate in a roll-on antiperspirant. Previous history of allergies was not discussed.(46)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no animal or human information available for aluminum chloride. Negative results have been obtained for other aluminum salts in animal studies.(10)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the potential developmental toxicity of aluminum chloride based on the available animal studies due to design limitations such as a small number of animals/group, the use of only one exposure group, incomplete reporting and/or non-standard study designs.

Reproductive Toxicity:
Negative results have been obtained in animal studies. There is no human information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Live animal studies have produced negative results. Conflicting results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and negative results have been obtained in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Aluminum is absorbed only to a limited degree from either the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs, and is rapidly excreted in the urine. A certain amount of tissue uptake does occur and animal experiments have shown that it can accumulate in bone.(12,13) The degree of absorption of aluminum following ingestion has been shown to depend on the chemical form of the metal as well as the presence of other dietary constituents such as citrate, ascorbate and lactate.(14) Water solubility has not been found to be a good indicator of the degree of aluminum absorption for different aluminum compounds.(15)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Gently blot or brush away excess chemical quickly. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary keep emergency vehicle waiting. Transport victim immediately to an emergency care facility. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Gently blot or brush away excess chemical quickly. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible or explosive

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable metal.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Not applicable. Not combustible.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride.(37)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Aluminum chloride does not burn or support combustion. Heating aluminum chloride may produce corrosive hydrogen chloride gas. Well-sealed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time. Aluminum chloride reacts violently with water producing corrosive hydrochloric acid and heat.

Extinguishing Media:
Does not burn, but reacts violently with water. Therefore, DO NOT use water. Otherwise, use extinguishing media appropriate for the surrounding fire.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of water spray. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Take care not to get water inside container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. For a massive fire under these circumstances, it may be prudent to use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. In any case, stay away from the ends of tanks involved in the fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The decomposition products of aluminum chloride are irritating and hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 0 - Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.
NFPA - Specific Hazards: Water-reactive.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 266.68 133.34

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 192.5 deg C (378.5 deg F) at 233 kPa (2.3 atmospheres) (Triple point) (32,33)
Boiling Point: 180.2 deg C (356.4 deg F) at 101.33 kPa (760 mm Hg) (sublimes as the dimer, Al2Cl6) (32,33)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 2.44 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (fused solid) (33,35,39)
Solubility in Water: Very soluble (70 g/100 mL at 15 deg C); reacts violently with water (35,39)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in absolute alcohol (100 g/100 mL at 12.5 deg C); soluble in chlorinated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, and in polar, aprotic solvents, such as acetonitrile, diethyl ether, nitrobenzene and nitromethane, forming a complex with the solvent; slightly soluble in benzene (13,32,33,35)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable. Reacts violently with water
pH Value: Reacts violently with water. Resulting solutions are acidic.
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Extremely low at room temperature; 0.133 kPa (1 mm Hg) at 100.0 deg C (35,37)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Extremely low at normal temperatures
Evaporation Rate: Not available. Probably very low at normal temperatures.
Critical Temperature: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable to dry air and light; deliquescent (reacts with moisture in air producing hydrogen chloride gas); reacts violently with water producing corrosive hydrochloric acid.(34,35)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


WATER - can react violently with anhydrous aluminum chloride to release corrosive hydrogen chloride.(37,40)
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS - can react vigorously.
ALKALI METALS (e.g. potassium or sodium) - produces strong explosion on impact.(34)
NITROBENZENE or NITROMETHANE - mixtures are thermally unstable and may lead to explosive decomposition.(34,40)
POLYMERIZABLE MATERIALS (e.g. monomers such as ethylene, ethylene oxide, isobutene or allyl chloride) - can polymerize or react violently.(34,40)
OXYGEN DIFLUORIDE, PHENYL AZIDE, PERCHLORYL BENZENE, PERCHLORYL FLUORIDE and BENZENE, SODIUM TETRAHYDROBORATE or STRONG BASES - can react explosively.(34,37,40)
MIXTURE OF BENZOYL CHLORIDE and NAPHTHALENE, MIXTURE OF ANILINE and ETHYLENEIMINE or MIXTURE OF SODIUM PEROXIDE and ALUMINUM - violent exothermic reactions can occur upon contact.(37,40)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid

Conditions to Avoid:
Moisture, water

Corrosivity to Metals:
Dry (anhydrous) aluminum chloride is not corrosive. Anhydrous aluminum chloride absorbs moisture from the air forming a "wet" paste or solutions and corrosive hydrochloric acid. Therefore, in the presence of moisture, aluminum chloride is corrosive to steel, stainless steel, cast iron, copper, brass and bronze, aluminum and lead.(41)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Prolonged storage of anhydrous aluminum chloride in closed containers has resulted in apparently spontaneous decomposition and occasionally explosion upon opening. This reaction is probably due to slow diffusion of moisture into the container with resulting pressure build-up due to the release of hydrogen chloride. Containers should be carefully vented before being opened. When heated in sealed tubes, high internal pressure may be generated.(32,37,40)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, mouse): 770 mg Al/kg (cited as 0.77 g Al/kg; administered as aluminum chloride, form unspecified) (23)
One study reports LD50 values for rats, guinea pigs and rabbits as 380-400 mg/kg for aluminum chloride (form unspecified).(17) These values are not considered reliable because the study was poorly reported.

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (16, unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Subtle behavioural changes have been observed in rats and mice. Behavioural changes (e.g. reduced locomotor activity and slower acquisition of shuttle-box avoidance behaviour) were observed in rats fed 0.1% aluminum (as aluminum chloride) (approximately 50 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks or 11 months.(20) In another study, behavioural effects (acquisition and retention of conditioned avoidance response) were observed in very young (weanling) mice following ingestion of 1.0% aluminum (as aluminum chloride) in drinking water for up to 8 weeks of age. Similar effects were not observed following ingestion of the same concentration from 1 month to 4 months of age.(21) No conclusions can be drawn from one poorly reported study in which rats, guinea pigs and rabbits were orally administered aluminum chloride (form unspecified) for up to 6 months.(17)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There have been several developmental toxicity studies conducted with rats and mice orally exposed to aluminum chloride during pregnancy.(18,19,22,23,24,44,45) All of the studies are limited by a small number of animals/group. Other study limitations include the use of only one exposure group, incomplete reporting, and non-standard study designs. Therefore, firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the potential developmental toxicity of aluminum chloride.

Reproductive Toxicity:
The available studies have not shown any reproductive effects in rats and mice following oral administration.
No adverse reproductive effects were observed in male rats following oral administration of up to 500 ppm anhydrous aluminum chloride in drinking water for 30, 60 or 90 days.(25) Similarly, no adverse effects on numbers of litters or litter size were observed in mice fed approximately 95 mg/kg/day (reported as 19.3 mg aluminum/kg/day) in a multi-generation study.(23) No conclusions can be drawn from a poorly reported study in which rats were orally administered aluminum chloride (form unspecified) for up to 6 months.(17)

Mutagenicity:
The available information suggests that aluminum chloride, anhydrous is not mutagenic.
Negative results (chromosomal aberrations) have been obtained in studies in live animals, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits, following oral administration.(13) Positive results (chromosome aberrations) have been obtained in bone marrow cells of mice following intraperitoneal injection of aluminum chloride.(26) This study is not considered reliable because statistical analysis of the data was not conducted and the route of exposure is not considered relevant to occupational situations.
Positive, inconclusive, and negative results have been obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells.(2,16, unconfirmed,27,28) Aluminum chloride has produced negative results in a number of tests using bacteria.(29-31)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Chlorine and hydrogen chloride. Medical and biologic effects of environmental pollutants. Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, National Academy of Sciences, 1976
(2) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for aluminum. TP-91/01. US Department of Health and Human Services, July 1992
(3) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no. 11 (Nov. 1946). p. 1355-1362
(4) Industrial Disease Standards Panel. Interim Report to the Workers' Compensation Board on Aluminum. IDSP report of findings No. 9. Toronto, Ontario, May 1992
(5) Wennberg, A. Neurotoxic effects of selected metals. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 20, Special Issue (1994). p. 65-71
(6) Bertholf, R.L., et al. Aluminum. In: Handbook on toxicity of inorganic compounds. Edited by H.G. Seiler. Marcel Dekker, 1988. p. 56-64
(7) Martyn, C.N. The epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease in relation to aluminium. In: Aluminium in biology and medicine. Ciba Foundation Symposium 169. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 69-86
(8) Sjogren, B., et al. Aluminium. Arbete och Halsa. Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992. Edited by B. Beije, et al. No. 1 (1993)
(9) Doll, R. Review: Alzheimer's disease and environmental aluminium. Age and Aging. Vol. 22, no. 2 (Mar. 1993). p. 138-153
(10) Leonard, A., et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of aluminium. Mutation Research. Vol. 196, no. 3 (Nov. 1988). p. 247-257
(11) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Hydrochloric acid. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 54. Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids; and other industrial chemicals. World Health Organization, 1992. p. 189-211
(12) Beliles, R.P. The metals. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1880-1900
(13) HSDB record for aluminum chloride. Last revision date: 96/09/04
(14) Domingo, J.L. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminum: a review. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 4 (July 1995). p. 515- 521
(15) Yokel, R.A. Benefit vs. risk of oral aluminum forms: antacid and phosphate binding vs. absorption. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 12, nos. 3 and 4 (1989). p. 277-286
(16) RTECS record for aluminum chloride. Last updated: 9701
(17) Krasovskii, G.N., et al. Experimental study of biological effects of lead and aluminum following oral administration. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 30 (June 1979). p. 47-51
(18) Bernuzzi, V., et al. Effects of prenatal aluminum exposure on neuromotor maturation in the rat. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 8, no. 2 (1986). p. 115-119
(19) Bernuzzi, V., et al. Developmental alterations in offspring of female rats orally intoxicated by aluminum chloride or lactate during gestation. Teratology. Vol. 40, no. 1 (1989). p. 21-27
(20) Commissaris, R.L., et al. Behavioral changes in rats after chronic aluminum and parathyroid hormone administration. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 4, no. 3 (1982). p. 403-410
(21) Yen-Koo, H.C. The effect of aluminum on conditioned avoidance response (CAR) in mice. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 8, nos. 1/2 (Jan. 1992). p. 1-7
(22) Cranmer, J.M., et al. Fetal-placental-maternal uptake of aluminum in mice following gestational exposure: effect of dose and route of administration. NeuroToxicology. Vol. 7, no. 2 (1986). p. 601-608
(23) Ondreika, R., et al. Chronic toxicity of aluminium in rats and mice and its effects on phosphorus metabolism. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 23, no. 4 (Oct. 1966). p. 305-312
(24) McCormack, K.M., et al. The teratogenic effects of aluminum in rats. {Abstract}. Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 2 (Nov. 1978). p. 50A
(25) Dixon, R.L., et al. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 30 (June 1979). p. 53-68
(26) Manna, G.K., et al. Chromosome aberrations in mice induced by aluminium chloride. The Nucleus. Vol. 15, no. 3 (1972). p. 180-186
(27) Krueger, G.L., et al. The health effects of aluminum compounds in mammals. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 13, issue 1 (1984). p. 1-24
(28) DiPaolo, J.A., et al. Quantitative studies of in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster cells by inorganic metal salts. Cancer Research. Vol. 39 (Mar. 1979). p. 1008-1013
(29) Cannata, J.B., et al. Aluminum toxicity in mammals: a minireview. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 6 (Dec. 1989). p. 577-583
(30) Marzin, D.R., et al. Study of the mutagenicity of metal derivatives with Salmonella typhimurium TA102. Mutation Research. Vol. 155, nos. 1/2 (1985). p. 49-51
(31) Kanematsu, N., et al. Rec assay and mutagenicity studies on metal compounds. Mutation Research. Vol. 77, no. 2 (1980). p. 109-116
(32) Grams, G.W. Aluminum compounds: aluminum halides and aluminum nitrate: aluminum chloride. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 281-288
(33) Stark, H., et al. Aluminum compounds, inorganic: aluminum chloride. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A1. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 536-541
(34) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(35) Weast, R.C., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 66th ed. CRC Press, 1985-1986. p. B-68, D-192
(36) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 20, 61
(37) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 112A
(38) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(39) James, A.M., et al. Macmillan's chemical and physical data. The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1992. p. 285
(40) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 39-42
(41) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 6-9 to 7-9
(42) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(43) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 166-167
(44) McCormack, K.M., et al. Effect of prenatal administration of aluminum and parathyroid hormone on fetal development in the rat. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 161 (1979). p. 74-77
(45) Misawa, T., et al. Effects of prenatal aluminum treatment on development and behaviour in the rat. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 18 (1993). p. 43-48
(46) Fisher, T. et al. A case of contact sensitivity to aluminium. Contact Dermatitis. Vol 8 (1982). p. 343
(47) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Aluminum. Environmental Health Criteria 194. World Health Organization, 1997

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1997-11-25

Revision Indicators:
US transport 1998-02-01
Carcinogenicity 2002-10-17
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Bibliography 2005-01-17
Toxicological info 2005-01-17
Teratogenicity/embryotoxicity 2005-01-17
WHMIS detailed classification 2005-01-17
WHMIS proposed classification 2005-01-17
WHMIS disclosure list 2005-01-17
WHMIS health effects 2005-01-17
Emergency overview 2005-01-17
Long-term exposure 2005-01-17
Respiratory protection guidelines 2005-03-29
Handling 2005-03-29
Short-term skin contact 2007-01-23
Short-term eye contact 2007-01-23
TLV proposed changes 2007-04-12



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