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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION             FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                          ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE     ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                                      VBC/DS/79.41

                                                      ORIGINAL: ENGLISH






    DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 41

    April 1979

    ALDRIN






         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food  and Agriculture              des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

                             CLASSIFICATION:

                             Primary use: Insecticide

                             Secondary use: Acaricide

                             Chemical group: Organochlorine Compound

                             Date issued: April 1979

    1.  GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1  COMMON NAME:

    Aldrin (ISO)

    1.1.1  Identity:

    A material containing not less than 95% of 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro,
    1,4,4a, 5,8,8a-hexahydro-exo-1,4-endo-5,8-dimethanonaphthalene
    (HHDN)

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    In the convention of the American Chemical Society, the
    configuration is endo-exo.

    1.1.2  Synonyms:

    OMS-194
    Compound 118

    Local synonyms:

    1.2  SYNOPSIS

    An organochlorine pesticide of high mammalian toxicity which
    accumulates in the tissues of man and animals.

    1.3  SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1  Physical characteristics

    HHDN is a white, crystalline, odourless, solid, m.p. 104 to 104.5°C.
    Technical aldrin is a tan to dare brown solid, melting range 49 to
    60°C.

    1.3.2  Solubility

    Practically insoluble in water (0.027 mg/litre at 25-29°C).
    Moderately soluble in petroleum oil. Readily soluble in acetone,
    benzene and xylene.

    1.3.3  Stability

    Stable to heat, alkali and to mild acids; oxidizing agents and
    strong acids attack the unchlorinated ring. It can also be
    corrosive.

    1.3.4  Vapour pressure

    2.31 x 10-5 mmHg at 20°C.

    1.4  AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1  Common formulations

    Emulsifiable concentrates 240-480 g/litre; epichlorhydrin added to
    delay corrosion and inhibit dehydrochlorination. Wettable powders
    40-70% - urea added to prevent dehydrochlorination by certain
    carriers. Dysts 2.5-5%. Seed dressings and granules.

    1.4.2  Pests mainly controlled

    Effective against a wide range of insect species, notably cabbage
    root fly, hop root, weevil, leatherjackets, narcissus bulb fly,
    wireworm and other soil insects, strawberry beetle and grasshoppers.

    1.4.3  Use pattern

    Used against pests which occur in soil and attack plants below
    ground level or at ground level. Major crops treated are maize,
    sorghum, small grain, cereals, potatoes, beet vegetables, tobacco,
    cotton and sugar cane.

    1.4.4  Unintended effects

    No information.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMME

    No recommended use.

    1.6  HOUSEHOLD USE

    Aldrin is too toxic for household use.

    2.  TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS

    2.1  TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1  Absorption route

    Absorbed by the intact skin as well as by inhalation and from the
    gastrointestinal tract. Organic solvents such as xylene and edible
    and other vegetable oils enhance the rate of absorption of the
    toxicant into the body.

    2.1.2  Mode of action

    Central nervous system stimulant producing convulsions.

    2.1.3  Excretion products

    After absorption aldrin is rapidly epoxidized to dieldrin (Data
    Sheet No. 17) and only for a short time may it be demonstrable in
    blood or body fat.

    Dieldrin is stored in body tissues, particularly body fat and is
    slowly excreted. It is mainly excreted as hydrophilic metabolites in
    the bile and faeces. A few minor metabolites are also excreted in
    the urine.

    2.1.4  Toxicity, single dose

    Oral:    LD50 rat (M):   38-54 mg/kg
             LD50 rat (F):   46-67 mg/kg
             LD50 dog:       65-95 mg/kg

    Dermal:  LD50 rat: 98 mg/kg
             LD50 rabbit: 600-1250 mg/kg

    2.1.5  Toxicity, repeated doses

    Oral: See dietary studies.

    Inhalation: No information.

    Dermal: Dry aldrin was applied daily to the skin of rabbits for 2
    hours on each of 50 days over a period of 10 weeks. The minimum
    lethal doses were 35-123 mg/kg.

    Cumulation of compound: Aldrin is stored as dieldrin in body
    tissues; its chronic toxicity is related to the level of dieldrin in
    the body; the level of dieldrin in adipose tissue is related to
    intake and reaches a plateau level if intake is steady.

    2.1.6  Dietary studies

    Short-term: Groups of 12 rats (6 males and 6 females) were fed
    diets containing 0.5, 2.5, 75, 150 mg aldrin/kg diet for three
    months. The liver weight was increased at the two higher dosages and
    the mortality rate was increased at the 150 mg/kg level only. Dogs
    were more susceptible than rats to the toxic effects of aldrin.
    Diets that contained aldrin in concentrations of 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg
    fed 5 or 6 days of each week, induced fatalities in mongrel dogs
    after periods of feeding ranging from several days to three months.
    Groups of four beagle dogs fed dietary concentrations of 1.0 and
    3.0 mg/kg aldrin survived 15.6 months. Increased liver weights were
    observed at the dietary levels of 3.0 mg/kg aldrin. Minor liver cell
    changes were seen in males and females fed aldrin at 3.0 mg/kg diet.
    Groups of three rabbits were given dosages of aldrin of 0.625, 1.25,
    2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg body weight per day, i.e. equivalent to
    approximately 20.6, 82.5, 165 and 330 mg/kg diet. There were no
    observable effects at the 1.25 and 0.625 levels. Dosages of
    2.5 mg/kg body weight and above were fatal.

    Long-term: When fed for two years to rats (in groups of 40 males
    and 40 females) at concentrations of 2.5, 12.5 or 25.0 mg/kg diet,
    aldrin showed no significant effect on mortality of rat or growth
    rate. Non-specific changes in hepatic cells were recorded in all
    experimental groups. In another two-year study, groups of 12 male
    and 12 female rats were fed concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, 50, 100
    and 150 mg aldrin/kg diet. Survival was markedly decreased among
    rats fed 50 mg/kg and above. Histopathological changes in the liver
    were observed at 10 mg/kg. The 0.5 mg/kg level was assumed to be the
    lowest showing an effect. Groups of mongrel dogs (12 males and 12
    females) were fed aldrin at daily dosages of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0
    and 10.0 mg/kg diet for up to two years. Dogs fed 0.5 mg/kg and
    higher dosages showed gross toxic effects, including loss of weight
    and convulsions and died progressively earlier with increasing dose
    levels. Histopathological changes were seen in the liver, kidney and
    bone marrow of the dogs fed 1.0 mg/kg. No effect, either gross or
    microscopic was seen in dogs receiving 0.2 mg/kg.

    2.1.7  Supplementary studies of toxicity

    Carcinogenicity: Since aldrin is converted to dieldrin all chronic
    effects are due to dieldrin. Neither aldrin nor dieldrin have
    produced malignant tumours in rats, dogs and monkeys at tolerated
    dose levels in long-term feeding studies. In mice, however,
    long-term feeding studies have shown the development of liver
    tumours, some of which may present malignant characteristics. The
    incidence of liver tumours shows a direct relationship to the level
    of intake.

    Reproduction studies, including teratology: Rats fed aldrin or
    dieldrin at concentrations of 2.5, 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg diet over
    three consecutive generations, each generation being bred twice,
    showed no significant difference from controls in reproductive
    capacity. Increased litter mortality was noted, especially in the
    group receiving 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg. No teratogenic effects were
    found.

    2.1.8  Modification of toxicity

    No information.

    2.2  TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1  Absorption

    See 2.1.1. The greatest hazard is by absorption through the intact
    skin.

    2.2.2  Dangerous doses

    Single: Persons exposed to oral doses which exceed 10 mg/kg body
    weight frequently become acutely ill. The lethal dose of aldrin for
    an adult man is estimated to be about 5 g.

    Repeated: From observations on occupationally exposed workers it
    has been concluded that intoxication due to repeated or prolonged
    absorption of aldrin and dieldrin is not observed when the levels of
    dieldrin in the blood are below 0.2 mg.

    2.2.3  Observations of occupationally exposed workers

    Extensive observations on plant workers have been conducted. No
    fatal poisoning in aldrin manufacture has been reported. Aldrin and
    dieldrin exposed workers, with blood levels of 0.105 mg dieldrin,
    showed no sign of enzyme induction. This no-effect level has been
    calculated to be approximately equivalent to a daily intake of at
    least 1224 mg/man/day.

    2.2.4  Observations on exposure of the general population:

    Total diet studies in two countries and calculations from dieldrin
    levels in adipose tissues and also in blood, demonstrate an average
    combined aldrin/dieldrin intake of 7 µg/man (equivalent to
    0.1 µg/kg/day). This intake corresponds to a blood level of 600 mg.

    2.2.5  Observations on volunteers

    See Data Sheet No. 17.

    2.2.6  Reported mishaps

    There have been no cases of mass poisoning by aldrin or dieldrin.

    2.3  TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    2.3.1  Fish

    Varies in severity from harmful to highly toxic.

    2.3.2  Birds

    Toxic but toxicity varies considerably.

    2.3.3  Other species

    Toxic to wildlife in general.

    3.  FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS OF REGULATIONS OF
        COMPOUND

    3.1  RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY

    (for definition of categories, see introduction)

    Liquid formulations over 25%, category 3; liquid formulations above
    2.5%, category 4; solid formulations above 10%, category 4, all
    other formulations, category 5.

    3.2  TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

    All formulations; Categories 3 and 4, United Nations
    Classification 6.1 Should be transported or stored in clearly
    labelled rigid and leakproof containers, under lock and key, secure
    from access by unauthorized persons and children. No food or drink
    should be stored in the same compartment.

    Formulations, Category 5 - Should be stored in clearly labelled
    leakproof containers, out of reach of children, away from food and
    drink.

    3.3  HANDLING

    All protective clothing (see part 4) should be used by all handling
    of the compound. Adequate washing facilities should be available at
    all times during handling and should be close to the site of
    handling. Eating and drinking and smoking should be prohibited
    during handling and before washing after handling.

    Formulations, Category 5 - No facilities other than those needed
    for the handling of any chemical need be required.

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER

    All formulations - Containers must either be burned or crushed and
    buried below topsoil. Care must be taken to avoid subsequent
    contamination of water sources. Decontamination of containers in
    order to use them for other purposes should not be permitted.

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

    All formulations Categories 3 and 4 - Pre-employment medical
    examination of workers and regular special examination advisable.
    Special account should be taken of the workers' mental ability to
    comprehend and follow instructions. Training of workers in
    techniques to avoid contact essential.

    Formulation, Category 5 - Warning of workers to minimize contact
    essential.

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

    All formulations - Pilots and loaders should have special training
    in application methods and recognition of early symptoms of
    poisoning. Use of flagmen not recommended. Flagmen, if used, should
    wear overalls and be located well away from the dropping zone.

    3.7  LABELLING

    All formulations, Categories 3 and 4 - Minimum cautionary statement

    Aldrin is a toxic substance and may cause convulsions. It is
    poisonous if swallowed. It may be absorbed through the skin or
    inhaled as dusts or mists. Avoid skin contact; wear hand protection
    and clean protective clothing while using the material. Wash
    thoroughly with soap and water after using. Keep the material out of
    reach of children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and
    their containers.

    Formulation; Category 5 - Minimum cautionary statement - This
    formulation contains aldrin, a toxic substance which is poisonous if
    swallowed. Keep the material out of reach of children and well away
    from foodstuffs, animal feed and their containers.

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD

    Maximum residue limits for aldrin have been recommended by the Joint
    FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. These are subject to change
    at annual reviews.

    4. PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MEN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1  PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1  General

    Aldrin is an organochlorine pesticide of high mammalian toxicity
    which penetrates the intact skin; it may also be absorbed by
    inhalation and by the gastrointestinal tract. Concentrated
    formulations should be handled by trained personnel wearing
    protective clothing.

    4.1.2  Manufacture and formulation

    T.L.V.; (ACGIH) 0.25 mg/m3, (USSR) 0.01 mg/m3. Closed systems
    and forced ventilation may be required to reduce as much as possible
    the exposure of workers to the chemical.

    4.1.3  Mixers and applicators

    When opening the container and when mixing, protective impermeable
    boots, clean overalls, gloves and respirators should be worn.
    Mixing, if not mechanical, should always be carried out with a
    paddle of appropriate length. The applicator should avoid working in
    spray mist and avoid contact with the mouth. Particular care is
    needed when equipment is being washed after use. All protective
    clothing should be washed immediately after use, including the
    insides of gloves. Splashes must be washed immediately from the skin
    or eyes with large quantities of water. Before eating, drinking or
    smoking, hands and other exposed skin should be washed. Although not
    usually used on tall crops, if these are sprayed or during aerial
    applications, a face mask should be worn as well as an impermeable
    hat, overall, boots and gloves. The applicator should avoid working
    in spray mist and avoid contact with the mouth. Particular care is
    needed when equipment is being washed after use. All protective
    clothing should be washed immediately after use, including the
    insides of gloves.

    4.1.4  Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial
           operations)

    Persons exposed to aldrin and associated with its application should
    wear protective clothing and observe the precautions described above
    in 4.1.3 under "Mixers and applicators".

    4.1.5  Other populations likely to be affected

    With good agricultural practice, and subject to 4.2 below, other
    populations should not be exposed to hazardous amounts of aldrin.
    Total diet studies in two countries have demonstrated that the
    intake of aldrin and dieldrin is well below the hazard level.
    Detectable levels of dieldrin are found in the fat of the general
    population, some of which may be due to absorption of aldrin.


    4.2  ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS

    Unprotected persons should be kept out of treated areas for at least
    one day.

    4.3  DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS

    Residues in containers should be emptied in a diluted form into a
    deep pit taking care to avoid contamination of ground waters.
    Decontamination of containers in order to use them for other
    purposes should not be permitted. Spillage should be removed as much
    as possible into a deep dry pit and the remainder washed away with
    large quantities of water.

    4.4  EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1  Early symptoms of poisoning

    Early symptoms of poisoning are headache, dizziness, nausea,
    vomiting, loss of appetite, general malaise, and possibly insomnia.
    Later, convulsions may occur.

    4.4.2  Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these
           symptoms appear following exposure

    The person should stop work immediately; remove contaminated
    clothing and wash the affected skin with soap and water if
    available, and flush the area with large quantities of water. If
    swallowed, vomiting should be induced, if the person is conscious.

    5.  FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1  MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASES OF POISONING

    General information - An organochlorine pesticide of high toxicity
    which may be absorbed through the intact skin as well as by
    inhalation and from the gastrointestinal tract. It is rapidly
    epoxidized to dieldrin in the human body. The made of action is
    similar to that of dieldrin and consists of central nervous system
    stimulation producing epileptiform convulsions. It is stored in body
    tissues, particularly in the fat, as dieldrin. The half-life of
    dieldrin calculated from the decrease in blood levels after
    cessation of exposure is 0.73 years.

    5.1.2  Symptoms and signs

    Early symptoms of acute poisoning include headache, nausea,
    vomiting, general malaise and dizziness. With more severe poisoning,
    clonic and tonic convulsions occur with or without the symptoms just
    mentioned. Coma may or may not follow the convulsions.
    Hyperexcitability and hyperirritability are common findings. The
    clinical syndrome of intoxication is indistinguishable from epilepsy
    and therefore history of exposure is important.

    5.1.3  Laboratory

    No symptoms have ever been observed when the blood level of aldrin/
    dieldrin is 0.2 mg/litre or below levels above this may therefore be
    indicative of poisoning. The presence of aldrin metabolites in the
    urine also indicates absorption. The electroencephalogrammay show
    specific changes: bilateral synchronous spikes, spike and wave
    complexes and slow theta waves.

    5.1.4  Treatment

    If the pesticide has been ingested, gastric lavage should be
    performed with 2-4 litres of tap water followed by saline purgatives
    (30 g sodium sulfate in 250 ml of water). Barbiturates (preferably
    phenobarbitone or pentobarbitone) or diazepam should be given IM or
    IV in sufficient dosage to control restlessness or convulsions.
    Mechanical respiratory assistance with oxygen may be required.
    Calcium gluconate, 10% in 10 ml should be injected 4 hourly.
    Contraindications are oily purgatives, epinephrine and other
    adrenergic drugs and central stimulants of all kinds. It is
    advisable to continue large doses of phenobarbitone over a longer
    period since it may prevent a post-convulsive syndrome of loss of
    appetite and weight loss and by stimulating the oxydative enzyme
    system of the liver, increases the rate of excretion.

    5.1.5  Prognosis

    If the convulsions are survived, the chances of complete recovery
    are good. However, in very severe cases, there is a possibility of
    permanent brain damage secondary to continued anoxia resulting from
    prolonged convulsions.

    5.1.6  References of previous reported cases

    The following reference gives methods of treatment used in cases of
    poisoning: Zavon, M. R. (1964) J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 190,
    595-596. See also, Hayes, W. J. jr (1963) Clinical handbook on
    economic poisons, Environmental Protection Agency, p. 49, 50, 66.

    5.2  SURVEILLANCE TESTS

    There are no rapid methods for determining the extent of absorption
    of aldrin prior to the appearance of symptoms. Levels of
    aldrin/dieldrin in blood and the presence of aldrin metabolites in
    urine have been used in surveillance tests. Workers continuously
    exposed can be satisfactorily monitored by the regular determination
    of the dieldrin level in the blood which, to prevent intoxication,
    should not exceed 0.2 µg/ml.

    5.3  LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1  Detection and assay of compound

    References only are given.

    Due to rapid epoxidation of aldrin to dieldrin in the liver, only
    dieldrin needs to be determined in the blood.

    Determination of dieldrin in blood is carried out by gas
    chromatography, using an electrocapture detector as described by
    Richardson et al. (1967). Levels of dieldrin in urine have also been
    measured by Cueto et al. (1967). A number of multi-detection systems
    are available for the detection and determination of residues of
    aldrin in food, along with residues of other compounds. The methods
    are sensitive to about 0.002 ppm of aldrin in milk and 0.02 ppm in
    most other foods. Anon. (1966), Porter (1972).

    5.3.2  Other tests in cases of poisoning

    Electroencephalographic changes after poisoning by cyclodiene
    compounds are described by Hogendam, I. (1962).

See Also:
        Aldrin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Supplement 7, 1987)
        Aldrin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 5, 1974)
        Aldrin (PIM 573)
        Aldrin and Dieldrin (EHC 91, 1989)