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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 693
CCOHS Chemical Name: Acrylic acid

Synonyms:
Acroleic acid
Acrylic acid, inhibited
Ethylenecarboxylic acid
Glacial acrylic acid
Propene acid
2-Propenoic acid
Propenoic acid
Vinylformic acid
Acide acrylique

Chemical Name French: Acide acrylique
CAS Registry Number: 79-10-7
UN/NA Number(s): 2218
RTECS Number(s): AS4375000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 201-177-9
Chemical Family: Aliphatic carboxylic acid / unsaturated aliphatic carboxylic acid / unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid / alkenoic acid / acrylic acid
Molecular Formula: C3-H4-O2
Structural Formula: CH2=CH-C(=O)-OH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sharp, sweet, acrid, rancid, unpleasant odour.(25)

Odour Threshold:
0.092 ppm (detection) (26); 1.0 ppm (recognition) (26)

Warning Properties:
POOR - TLV is the same order of magnitude as the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Acrylic acid is available in technical (94% and greater) and glacial (98- 99.5% pure) grades with small amounts of water (0.5%).(25,27) Typical commercial samples (except glacial) contain water and acrylic acid dimer as impurities.(7) Commercial acrylic acid is usually stabilized with polymerization inhibitors such as hydroquinone, hydroquinone monomethyl ether or phenothiazine. Inhibitor levels of 200 ppm are common for acrylic acid stored under air.(28,29) Hexamethylene tetramine is also an effective stabilizer for acrylic acid, in both liquid and vapour phases, at concentrations of 50-100 ppm.(30)

Uses and Occurrences:
The main use of acrylic acid is as an intermediate in the production of acrylic acid esters, such as ethyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. It is also used for the manufacture of other specialty acrylates; for the production of water-soluble resins and salts, such as polyacrylic acid and its salts; unsaturated fatty acids and heterocycles; as a co-monomer with, for example, acrylamide, acrylonitrile and 1,3-butadiene to form acrylic polymers; and as a monomer for methacrylic acid polymer.(5,7,27,28)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sharp, sweet, acrid, rancid, unpleasant odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Confined space hazard. DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE. Vapour or uninhibited liquid may polymerize explosively, if heated or exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet light) or incompatible materials, or if the product is improperly thawed after freezing. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled or ingested and harmful if absorbed through the skin. Mist or vapour can be extremely irritating to the respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. Can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness, or permanent scarring of the skin.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Mist or vapour can cause severe irritation of nose and throat, nasal discharge, coughing and difficult breathing. Case reports indicate that short- term exposures in occupational settings have caused upper respiratory irritation.(1) These effects have also been observed in animal studies.
Although no specific human information is available, severe exposures might produce a potentially life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), shock, and death due to respiratory failure. Symptoms of pulmonary edema, such as shortness of breath, may not appear until several hours after exposure.

Skin Contact:
Contact with solutions can cause pain, redness and burns (corrosive effects), based on animal information. High vapour concentrations can also cause these effects. Depending on the concentration of the solution and the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent scarring. /Acrylic acid can be absorbed through the skin and may cause toxic effects by this route.(1,2)

Eye Contact:
Mists or spray of dilute solutions can cause severe damage to eye tissues (corrosive effects), based on animal information. High vapour concentrations can cause burns to the eyes. Depending on the concentration of the solution and the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness.

Ingestion:
Based on animal information, the acute oral toxicity of acrylic acid is high. Based on its corrosive properties, ingestion of concentrated acrylic acid can probably cause severe burns to the lips, mouth and throat. Other symptoms may include burning sensation in mouth and throat, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Permanent injury and death could result. There is no human information available. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

INHALATION: No specific human information is available, but based on animal studies, repeated exposure to acrylic acid vapours may cause redness and irritation of the nasal tissues.
In one study of employees exposed to 0.01 to 56 ppm acrylic acid and/or other acrylates, longer term exposure was associated with a decreased ability to detect and identify smells (olfactory dysfunction).(3) It is not possible to draw any firm conclusions from this report because of factors such as worker exposure to other chemicals at the same time.

SKIN SENSITIZATION: There is one case report of skin sensitivity to acrylic acid in a man following occupational exposure. However, the authors note that the sensitivity may have been due to an impurity in the acid.(4) Of three animal studies that have been conducted, two were negative and one was positive, but did not provide sufficient detail for evaluation. No firm conclusions can be drawn based on this limited information.

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is no relevant human information for the assessment of carcinogenicity.(5,6,41) Acrylic acid has been shown to be non-carcinogenic in three animal studies, and one other study cannot be evaluated due to lack of statistical analysis of the data.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Acrylic acid is probably not teratogenic or embryotoxic, based on animal information. There is no human information available. One animal study reported fetotoxic effects, but only at a high dose which also caused maternal toxicity. Another study reported no teratogenicity or embryotoxicity, even in the presence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
Acrylic acid is probably not a reproductive toxin, based on limited animal information. There is no human information available. An animal study reported no adverse reproductive effects, even at a high dose which caused other toxic effects.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results have been obtained in three in vivo tests in mammals and in one in vivo test in insects. Both negative and positive results have been obtained in in vitro tests.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Acrylic acid does not accumulate in the body. It is rapidly absorbed in experimental animals after oral or inhalation exposure. Dermal absorption is strongly dependent on the vehicle and the pH of the solution. Acrylic acid is rapidly metabolized to carbon dioxide (CO2), which is eliminated in the expired air within 24 hours.(1,7-9) Small amounts are also eliminated in the feces and urine.(8,9)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by a person trained in its use, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema may be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g., watchbands, belts). Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240-300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
50 deg C(122 deg F) (open cup) (31); 50-51 deg C (122-124 deg F) (closed cup) (25)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.0% (glacial) (25); 2.4% (technical) (25)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
8.0% (glacial) (25)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
412-438 deg C (774-820 deg F) (25)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Insufficient information

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Insufficient information

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Acrid fumes.(31)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air, at or above, 50 deg C. During a fire, irritating/toxic gases may be generated. Hazardous polymerization may occur under fire conditions. Acrylic acid vapours are uninhibited and may polymerize explosively in a fire and may form polymers in vents and flame arresters, resulting in blockage of vents. Can react with metal forming highly flammable hydrogen gas. Vapour from warmed liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and explosion hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant" foam or polymer foam, water spray or fog.(31,32)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire. In addition, the heat generated by the fire will cause their contents to polymerize. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from the fire area, if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks involved in the fire, but realize that shrapnel may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 72.06

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 2.94 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.34 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 13-14 deg C (55.4- 57.2 deg F) (7,33)
Boiling Point: 141-142 deg C (285.8-287.6 deg F) (25)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.051 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (7,25)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(7,25,29)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, diethyl ether and chloroform; soluble in acetone and benzene.(27,33)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.31; 0.43 (calculated) (34)
pH Value: 2.63 (0.1 M solution)
Vapour Density: 2.5 (air = 1) (31)
Vapour Pressure: 0.38 kPa (2.85 mm Hg) (7); 0.41 kPa (3.1 mm Hg) (25) at 20 deg C
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 4000 ppm (0.4%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: 342 deg C (648 deg F) (27,33)

Other Physical Properties:
ACIDITY: Weak acid; pKa = 4.26 (Ka = 5.5 x 10(-5)) (28,29,33)
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 1.3 (1.13 centipoises) at 20 deg C (7,33)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 1.237 mm2/s (1.237 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 28.1 mN/m (28.1 dynes/cm) at 30 deg C (33)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 5675 kPa (56 atm.) (33)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
The liquid is stable in the presence of an inhibitor. The vapour may polymerize explosively.(28) May form dimers at increased temperatures and is solvent dependent; this reaction cannot be controlled by inhibitors.(28,30)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Uninhibited acrylic acid or material that is depleted of inhibitor can polymerize violently when exposed to elevated temperatures, sunlight (ultraviolet light), the presence of incompatible materials, or if the product is improperly thawed after freezing.(25,31) Moisture may cause rust-initiated polymerization.(28)

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING MATERIALS (e.g. perchlorates, nitrates, chlorine) - may react violently. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(32,35)
STRONG BASES (e.g. alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide, or ammonium hydroxide) - may react violently.(32,35) May cause explosive polymerization.(25)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. chlorosulfonic acid, oleum) - may react to produce heat and pressure. May cause explosive polymerization.(25,31)
AMINES (e.g. 2-aminoethanol, ethylene diamine or ethyleneimine) - may react to produce heat and pressure. May cause explosive polymerization.(25,31)
IRON SALTS, METALS, AZO and DIAZO COMPOUNDS - can cause explosive polymerization.(7,25)
METALS (e.g. copper, nickel, zinc) - attacks many metals, giving off hydrogen gas.(35)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Information not available

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, sparks, open flames, other ignition sources, sunlight, low inhibitor concentration, oxygen-free atmospheres, oxygen depletion, moisture, corrosion of storage containers, improper thawing.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Corrosive to many metals, including iron, carbon steels, copper alloys and lead compounds.(25) Not corrosive to types 304 and 316 stainless steels, to nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloys or to aluminum.(28,36,37)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 1220 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 3600 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure) (10); 1300 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 5300 mg/m3 (2-hour exposure) (11, unconfirmed); 2000-4000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (2)

LD50 (oral, rat): 33.5 mg/kg (12, unconfirmed); 360 mg/kg (reported as 0.34 mL/kg) (2)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 2400 mg/kg (1, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 295 mg/kg (reported as 0.28 mL/kg) (2)

Eye Irritation:

Application of in excess of a 5% solution of acrylic acid to rabbits caused severe injury (Grade 9/10; scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury).(2) A 1% solution of acrylic acid was the lowest concentration that caused significant injury in rabbit eyes following a single application.(5) Severe irritation resulting in nonreversible changes in the eyes was observed in rats following exposure to an airborne concentration of 1220 ppm acrylic acid for 4 hours.(10)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted acrylic acid to rabbits produced tissue death (necrosis) (grade 6/10).(2) Little irritation was observed in mice following application of 1% acrylic acid in acetone. Significant irritation and necrosis was observed following application of a 4% solution.(1, unconfirmed) Severe irritation resulting in nonreversible changes in the skin was observed in rats following exposure to an airborne concentration of 1220 ppm acrylic acid.(10)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
No harmful effects were observed in rats following inhalation exposure to 80 ppm for 4 weeks. Nose irritation, lethargy, and reduced weight gain, but no kidney or liver effects were observed following exposure to 300 ppm for 4 weeks. Nasal discharge, lethargy, weight loss and kidney effects were observed following four 6-hour exposures to 1500 ppm.(13) Decreased rate or depth of breathing was observed following exposure of rats to 100-500 ppm for 1 hour or following exposure of rats and mice to 75 ppm for 6 hours.(1, unconfirmed) A slowed rate of growth and sores in the nose were observed in rats and mice following inhalation of 225 ppm for 2 weeks.(14) Deaths occurred in rats exposed for more than 1 hour to a saturated vapour concentration (approximately 4000 ppm).(2)

Ingestion:
Evidence of severe injury to the lining of the stomach was observed following one-time oral administration of 400 or 1000 mg/kg.(8) In contrast, no harmful effects, except decreased body weight at the highest doses, were observed in another study following ingestion of 210-760 mg/kg/day for 7 days.(1, unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Evidence of irritation was observed either in mice alone or in both rats and mice following inhalation of 5, 25 or 75 ppm acrylic acid for 13 weeks.(14) Reduced body weight gain, blood and kidney changes, as well as injury to the lining of the stomach and irritation of the nose and throat, were observed in rats following inhalation of 240 ppm for 5 weeks.(10) There is insufficient information available to fully evaluate this report.

Skin Contact:
No harmful effects were observed in mice following dermal application of 1% acrylic acid in acetone (3 times a week) for life.(1, unconfirmed)

Ingestion:
Deaths occurred in rats following oral administration by gavage of 150 mg/kg/day (10/20 animals died) or 375 mg/kg/day (15/20 animals died) for 3 months. At both doses, evidence of irritation and injury to the lining of the stomach were observed.(15) No harmful effects were observed following ingestion of 120, 800, 2000 or 5000 ppm (providing doses of approximately 9, 61, 140, and 331 mg/kg/day respectively) acrylic acid in drinking water for 12 months. Reduced water consumption due to the presence of acrylic acid was noted at 5000 ppm and marginally at 2000 ppm. No harmful effects were observed following ingestion of 120, 400 or 1200 ppm in drinking water (equivalent to 8, 27 or 78 mg/kg/day respectively) for 26-28 months.(15)

Skin Sensitization:
Positive results were obtained in guinea pigs for 5% acrylic acid following sensitization using the Polak method, with an adjuvant.(16) Insufficient information was provided to evaluate this study (e.g. the number of animals sensitized). Acrylic acid did not produce an allergic reaction in two other tests using guinea pigs.(1-unconfirmed, 17)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no experimental data relevant to evaluating the carcinogenicity of acrylic acid.(41) Two studies have not shown carcinogenicity in rats or mice following ingestion or skin application.(15,18)
In another study, skin tumours were observed in 2/30 mice following application of 4% acrylic acid in acetone for 1.5 years. Skin tumours were also observed in 4/30 mice when the application of acrylic acid was preceded by application of a known carcinogen.(19) This study cannot be evaluated since statistical significance of these results was not assessed.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
One study showed fetotoxic effects in rats following ingestion of maternally toxic doses for 3 months prior to pregnancy, and throughout pregnancy and lactation.(20) Another rat study did not show teratogenicity or embryotoxicity following inhalation of maternally toxic doses for 10 days during gestation.(21)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No effects on fertility were observed in male or female rats following oral doses of 83, 250 or 750 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks prior to mating.(20)

Mutagenicity:
Negative results were obtained in three mammalian in vivo tests (two bone marrow cytogenetic assays in the rat and a dominant lethal assay in the mouse).(1,22,41)
Both positive and negative results have been obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells.(1,22,23,24,41) Negative results were obtained in 2 tests using bacterial cells in vitro (Ames tests), both with and without metabolic activation.(1,41)
Negative results were obtained in a sex-linked recessive lethal assay in fruit flies.(1,22,41)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Katz, G.V., et al. Aliphatic carboxylic acids. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part E. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 3596, 3598, 3600-3607
(2) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VIII. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 28, no. 2 (May 1974). p. 313-319
(3) Schwartz, B.S., et al. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 79, no. 5 (May 1989). p. 613-618
(4) Fowler, Jr., J.F. Immediate contact hypersensitivity to acrylic acid. Dermatologic Clinics. Vol. 8, no. 1 (Jan. 1990). p. 193-195
(5) Acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate and polyacrylic acid. In: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 19. Some monomers, plastics and synthetic elastomers, and acrolein. World Health Organization, Feb. 1979. p. 47-71
(6) Results and conclusions. In: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Suppl. 7. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. World Health Organization, 1987. p. 56
(7) Acrylic acid: CAS 79-10-7. Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals No. 34. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Sept. 1995
(8) DeBethizy, J.D., et al. The disposition and metabolism of acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 8, no. 4 (May 1987). p. 549-561
(9) Black, K.A., et al. Disposition and metabolism of acrylic acid in C3H mice and Fischer 344 rats after oral or cutaneous administration. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Vol. 45, no. 3 (July 1995). p. 91-311
(10) Majka, J., et al. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of acrylic acid. English summary. Medycyna Pracy. Vol. 25 (1974). p. 435
(11) RTECS record for acrylic acid. Last updated: 9704
(12) Izmerov, N.F., et al. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
(13) Gage, J.C. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 27 (1970) p. 1-18
(14) Miller, R.R., et al. Inhalation toxicity of acrylic acid. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 1, nos. 5-6 (May/June 1981). p. 271-277
(15) Hellwig, J., et al. Subchronic and chronic studies of the effects of oral administration of acrylic acid to rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 1 (Jan. 1993). p. 1-18
(16) Parker, D., et al. Contact sensitivity to acrylate compounds in guinea pigs. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 9, no. 1 (1983). p. 55-60
(17) Rao, K.S., et al. A collection of guinea pig sensitization test results - grouped by chemical class. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 4, no. 4 (1981). p. 331-351
(18) DePass, L.R., et al. Dermal oncogenicity bioassays of acrylic acid, ethyl acrylate and butyl acrylate. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 14, nos. 2-3 (1984). p. 115-120
(19) Cote, I.L., et al. Acrylic acid: skin carcinogenesis in ICR/HA mice. Abstract. Toxicologist. Vol. 6, no. 1 (1986). p. 235
(20) DePass, L.R., et al. Subchronic and reproductive toxicology studies on acrylic acid in the drinking water of the rat. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 6, no. 1 (1983). p. 1-20
(21) Klimisch, H.-J., et al. The prenatal inhalation toxicity of acrylic acid in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 16, no. 4 (May, 1991). p. 656-666
(22) McCarthy, K.L., et al. Genetic toxicology of acrylic acid. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 30, no. 6 (June 1992). p. 505-515
(23) Moore, M.M., et al. Genotoxicity of acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 11, no. 1 (1988). p. 49-63
(24) Wiegand, H.J., et al. Non-genotoxicity of acrylic acid and n-butyl acrylate in a mammalian cell system (SHE cells). Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 63, no. 3 (May 1989). p. 250-251
(25) Emergency action guide for acrylic acid. Association of American Railroads, Jan. 1988
(26) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 12, 44
(27) HSDB record for acrylic acid. Last revision date: 97/02/27
(28) Bauer, Jr., W. Acrylic acid and derivatives. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, 1991. p. 287-314
(29) Ohara, T., et al. Acrylic acid and derivatives. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed.. Vol. A 1. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 161-176
(30) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 419-420
(31) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(32) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(33) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.80, 5.92, 6.134, 8.20
(34) Leo, A., et al. Partition coefficients and their uses. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 17, no. 6 (Dec. 1971). p. 559
(35) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991
(36) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 4-9 to 5-9
(37) Elder, G.B. Corrosion by organic acid. In: Process industries corrosion. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1975. p. 247-254
(38) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(39) Emergency response planning guidelines. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 56, no. 2, 1995. p. 202
(40) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004
(41) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-06-22

Revision Indicators:
Carcinogenicity 1999-12-01
Toxicological info 1999-12-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
Emergency overview 2000-08-01
Acute exposure (ingestion) 2000-08-01
First aid (ingestion) 2000-08-01
EU risks 2002-02-12
TDG 2002-05-29
US transport 2002-12-23
Personal hygiene 2003-05-05
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Bibliography 2005-01-05
EU classification 2005-01-05
EU comments 2005-01-05



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