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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 462
CCOHS Chemical Name: Acetic anhydride

Synonyms:
Acetanhydride
Acetic acid anhydride
Acetyl anhydride
Acetyl ether
Acetyl oxide
Ethanoic anhydrate
Ethanoic anhydride
Ethanoic acid anhydride
Anhydride acétique

Chemical Name French: Anhydride acétique
Chemical Name Spanish: Anhídrido acético
CAS Registry Number: 108-24-7
UN/NA Number(s): 1715
RTECS Number(s): AK1925000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-564-8
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic carboxylic acid anhydride / saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid anhydride / alkanoic acid anhydride
Molecular Formula: C4-H6-O3
Structural Formula: CH3-C(=O)-O-C(=O)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a strong, pungent, sour vinegar-like odour (13); lachrymator (vapour irritates the eyes and causes tears) (14,15,16).

Odour Threshold:
Less than 0.14 ppm (detection); 0.36 ppm (recognition) (17)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - the TLV is more than 10-times the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Available in purities of 95 to over 99% acetic anhydride.(14,15) The chief impurity is acetic acid (7); but may contain very small amounts of aluminum, iron, heavy metals, chloride, phosphorus and sulfur compounds, acetylacetone, diketene, dehydroacetic acid and particulate carbon or soot.(14,15)

Uses and Occurrences:
Used chiefly as an acetylating and dehydrating agent. Used in the manufacture of acetate esters, poly(methylacrylimide) hard foam, plastic and drilling fluid auxiliaries, explosives, certain types of brake fluids, cold- bleaching activators, organic compounds, pharmaceuticals, flavours and fragrances, herbicides, synthetic fibres, and plastics. Used in the dying industry as a solvent and dehydrating agent, in the food industry, in the metallography, etching and polishing of metals, in semiconductor manufacture, and as a solvent in chemical analysis.(7,14,15)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a strong, pungent, sour vinegar-like odour. Lachrymator. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. Can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness, or permanent scarring of the skin.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Acetic anhydride vapour is moderately to severely irritating to the nose, throat and respiratory system, depending on the airborne concentration. Irritating concentrations are formed readily. Concentrations above 5 ppm are reported to be irritating.(1) Acetic anhydride can cause a life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of pulmonary edema such as shortness of breath can be delayed for several hours after the exposure. A case of severe pulmonary edema which resulted in death is reported following an incident in which a dye operator was working with a drum of acetic anhydride which exploded.(2)
A condition called Reactive Airways Dysfunction (RADS) which is an increased responsiveness or sensitivity of the airways (similar to asthma) may develop following a severe inhalation exposure. This effect have been observed following exposure to concentrated acetic acid, a closely related chemical.

Skin Contact:
Animal information indicates that acetic anhydride is only a mild irritant. However, it is generally accepted that prolonged contact with acetic anhydride can cause severe burns. Although, there are no cases described in the literature which clearly support this view. The most severe effects would be expected if the skin is wet, since acetic anhydride reacts with water forming corrosive acetic acid and releasing heat.
One case report describes skin burns following an incident in which a drum of acetic anhydride exploded. However, the injuries were likely a combination of both thermal and chemical burns.(2) Another case report described leg burns which resulted from exposure to a mixture of acetic anhydride and acetic acid aerosol. However, it is possible that these effects were from acetic acid alone.(3)

Eye Contact:
Splashes of acetic anhydride can cause corrosive injury to the eye, based on human and animal information. Permanent injury, including blindness, may occur. Vapours can also be severely irritating.
Even small splashes of liquid in the eye can cause severe irritation (burning feeling), followed some hours later by swelling. Cloudiness of the cornea (corneal opacity) may result. This effect may or may not be permanent.(4) Three cases of slow healing burns (3-10 days) and 16 case of prompt healing burns (48 hours) are reported following eye contact with acetic anhydride. Total loss of vision resulted in one case.(5) Severe eye injury has been observed in experimental animals.

Ingestion:
Acetic anhydride is probably severely irritating to the mouth, throat and stomach, since it reacts with moisture in the tissues to form corrosive acetic acid and releasing heat. Pain, vomiting and bleeding may result. There is no human information available. Animal information indicates it is low in oral toxicity. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is very little known about the potential long-term health effects of exposure to acetic anhydride.

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Severe respiratory irritation was observed in rats exposed to 5 or 20 ppm for 13 weeks. Follow-up showed that the respiratory changes were largely reversible.

Respiratory Sensitization:
Acetic anhydride is structurally similar to phthalic, trimellitic and maleic anhydride, which are considered capable of producing occupational asthma. However, there is no positive evidence that acetic anhydride causes asthma. In addition, there is mechanistic evidence suggesting that acetic anhydride would not possess sensitizing properties.(28)

Skin Sensitization:
It is not possible to draw firm conclusions from one case report of sensitization to acetic anhydride following occupational exposure. The person involved had a personal and family history of allergy.(6) Sensitization has been produced in guinea pigs in a small-scale study for which few details are available.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human or animal information available. Negative results have been obtained in bacterial cells.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Acetic anhydride does not accumulate in the body. It is slowly converted to acetic acid by water or body fluids.(7) Acetic acid, which is a normal body component, is rapidly metabolized by most tissues and excreted, or used in the production of chemicals required for bodily functions.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue; e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system. Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Flush contaminated area with large volumes of lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Gently blot or brush away excess chemical quickly. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with large volumes of lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
52 deg C (126 deg F) (probably closed cup) (18)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.7% (18)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
10.3% (18)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Reported values vary; 316 deg C (600 deg F) (13,18); 332 deg C (630 deg F) (18); 390 deg C (734 deg F) (13)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Will probably not accumulate static charge by flow or agitation, since it has a relatively high electrical conductivity, reported as 2.3 X 10(6) pS/m at 20 deg C (14,15) or 4.8 x 10(7) at 25 deg C (19).

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Acetic acid, acrid smoke and other toxic, irritating fumes of unburned anhydride and products of incomplete combustion.(16,18)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 52 deg C. During a fire irritating/toxic gases may be formed. Vapours from warmed liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a explosion and toxicity hazard. Water reacts slowly with acetic anhydride at normal temperatures, but more rapidly and violently under fire conditions to form acetic acid and give off heat. The reaction is hazardous in a confined space, since an explosion can result. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Use water spray, dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide, "alcohol resistant" foam and polymer foam.(16,18) Water is an effective extinguishing agent, but must be used in flooding quantities to completely solubilize the anhydride and fully absorb the heat of reaction.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to heat of fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. DO NOT get water into acetic anhydride containers. If it is not possible to cool the containers, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to dilute the spill to a nonflammable mixture. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Acetic anhydride and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.
NFPA - Specific Hazards: REACTS VIOLENTLY WITH WATER

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 102.09

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.17 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.24 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -73 deg C (-99 deg F) (13,15,19); FREEZING POINT: -74 deg C (-101 deg F) (13)
Boiling Point: 139 deg C at 101.33 kPa (282 deg F) (13)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.082 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (15)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in cold water (10.7 to 12 g/100 g at 20 deg C); slowly forms acetic acid.(15,20)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol (slowly forms ethyl acetate), diethyl ether and acetic acid; soluble in chloroform and benzene.(13,19)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable (reacts)
pH Value: Not applicable. Reacts with water to form acidic solutions.
Vapour Density: 3.52 (air = 1) (16)
Vapour Pressure: 0.4 kPa (3 mm Hg) (14); 0.53 kPa (4 mm Hg) (13) at 20 deg C
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 3950 (0.4%); 5260 ppm (0.53%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.46 (butyl acetate = 1) (7)
Critical Temperature: 296 deg C (565 deg F) (14,19)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 0.907 mPa.s (0.907 centipoise) at 20 deg C (19)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 0.838 mm2/m (0.838 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 32.7 mN/m (32.7 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (7,14)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 4680 kPa (46.2 atm.) (14,19)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Reacts slowly with water or water vapour at normal temperatures to form acetic acid and heat.(13) The reaction may become violent, after a period of time. Also, decomposes to acetic acid if heated.(15)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING MATERIALS (e.g. chromic trioxide, hypochlorous acid, peroxides, potassium permanganate ) - can react rapidly and violently with a the risk of fire and/or explosion.(18,21)
STRONG MINERAL OR ORGANIC ACIDS (e.g. hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid or boric acid) - reaction can be sufficiently rapid and violent to cause an explosion.(18,21)
STRONG ALKALIS or CAUSTICS (e.g. sodium or potassium hydroxide), or BASES (e.g. 2-aminoethanol, ethylene diamine or aniline) - may react violently with spattering, accompanied by a temperature and pressure rise.(18)
WATER - reacts to form acetic acid, which may lead to dangerous explosive boiling, especially in the presence of mineral acids.(15,18)
STRONG REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, metal hydrides) - may react vigorously or violently. Increased risk of fire.(16)
NITRIC ACID - mixtures containing 30-85% nitric acid will detonate under certain conditions and are very sensitive to initiation by friction or shock.(18,21)
NITROGEN TETROXIDE, PEROXYACETIC ACID, or METAL NITRITES (e.g. copper nitrate or sodium nitrate) - may explode violently.(18,21)
GLYCEROL - a violent reaction occurred in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride as a catalyst.(21)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Acetic acid

Conditions to Avoid:
Moisture, heat, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Acetic anhydride is corrosive to stainless steel containing chromium. Moist or heated acetic anhydride is corrosive to cast iron, steel, and brass. Heated, dry acetic anhydride is corrosive to copper, bronze and aluminum. Dry acetic anhydride is not corrosive to types 304 and 316 stainless steels, aluminum, nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, tantalum and iron at normal temperatures.(13,14,22,23)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Acetic anhydride attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.(13)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): approximately 1000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (2-4/6 animals died) (9)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1780 mg/kg (8)

Eye Irritation:

Application of in excess of a 5% solution of acetic anhydride caused severe injury (graded 9/10; scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury).(8)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted acetic anhydride produce mild irritation (graded 2/10).(8)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Male rats were exposed to 400 ppm acetic anhydride vapour (whole-body exposure) for one 6-hour exposure. Clinical signs included tearing (lachrymation), prone posture and exaggerated respiration. Immediately after exposure, all animals showed noisy respiration. Body weight loss was marked, while food and water consumption were almost zero. Death occurred in 2/5 animals within 24 hours. Sacrifice of the 3 remaining animals was necessary on the day following exposure due to severe toxicity. Severe respiratory effects were noted in males and pregnant females exposed to 100 ppm for 6 or 7 exposures. A 2-week exposure to 25 ppm also resulted in clear signs of toxicity (irritation during exposure and noisy respiration following exposure).(26) No rats (0/6) died following inhalation of 1000 ppm for 4 hours. All rats (6/6) died following inhalation of 2000 ppm for the same duration.(8) In another study, 2-4/6 rats died following inhalation of 1000 ppm for 4 hours.(9)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Severe respiratory irritation was observed in rats exposed to 5 or 20 ppm for 13 weeks. Follow-up showed that the respiratory changes were largely reversible.

Inhalation:
In a 13-week study, rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5 or 20 ppm acetic anhydride vapour. Signs of severe respiratory irritation (noisy breathing) were observed in animals exposed to 5 or 20 ppm. Reduced weight gain and food consumption, increased lung weights and inflammatory lesions of minimal to moderate severity were observed in animals exposed to 20 ppm. Blood changes (e.g. increased hemoglobin concentration) indicative of an adaptative response to impaired gas exchange due to the respiratory tract lesions were observed in high-dose animals. Inflammatory changes observed in animals exposed to 5 ppm were, with few exceptions, minimal in degree. Examination of a group of exposed animals held for 13 weeks following exposure showed that the respiratory changes were largely reversible with some minor lesions still present in localized areas of some animals exposed to 20 ppm. Corneal lesions were observed in most animals exposed to 20 ppm and in a few animals exposed to 5 ppm. No significant effects were noted in animals exposed to 1 ppm.(27) Changes in muscles, blood enzymes, urine content and other biochemical markers were observed in rats following inhalation of 0.03 to 2.5 mg/m3 acetic anhydride for 95 days. However, it is not clear that these changes reflect any serious injury to the animals.(10)

Skin Sensitization:
No conclusions can be drawn from a small- scale study in which skin sensitization reactions were observed. The number of guinea pigs tested was not reported and few details of the study design were described.(11)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (Mar. 1986). p. A142-A151
(2) Sinclair, J.S., et al. Fatal inhalation injury following an industrial accident involving acetic anhydride. Burns. Vol. 20, no. 5 (Oct. 1994). p. 469-470
(3) Capellini, A., et al. An episode of collective poisoning from acetic anhydride and acid. English summary. La Medicina del Lavoro. Vol. 58, no. 2 (1967). p. 111-112
(4) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 54
(5) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no. 11 (Nov. 1946). p. 1355-1362
(6) Weil, A.J. et al. Allergic reactivity to simple aliphatic acids in man. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Vol. 17 (Oct. 1951). p. 227-231
(7) HSDB record for acetic anhydride. Last revision date: 97/03/27
(8) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list IV. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 4 (1951). p. 119-122
(9) Carpenter, C.P., et al. The assay of acute vapor toxicity and the grading and interpretation of results on 96 chemical compounds. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 6 (Nov. 1949). p. 343- 346
(10) Takhirov, M.T. Hygienic standards for acetic acid and acetic anhydride in air. English translation. Hygiene and Sanitation. Vol. 34, no. 4 (June, 1969). p. 122-125. (NIOSHTIC Control No. 00011702)
(11) Jacobs, J.L. Immediate generalized skin reactions in hypersensitive guinea pigs. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 43 (1940). p. 641-643
(12) Mortelmans, K., et al. Salmonella mutagenicity test: II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals. Environmental Mutagenesis. Vol 8, suppl. 7 (1986). p. 1-119
(13) Emergency action guide for acetic anhydride. Association of American Railroads, Jan. 1988
(14) Held, H., et al. Acetic anhydride and mixed fatty acid anhydrides. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 1. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 65-78
(15) Wagner, Jr., F.S. Acetic acid and derivatives: acetic anhydride. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, 1991. p. 142-154
(16) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(17) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 12, 42
(18) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(19) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992
(20) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(21) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 533-537
(22) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 2-7 to 3-7
(23) Elder, G.B. Corrosion by organic acid. In: Process industries corrosion. Edited by B.J. Moriz, et al. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1975. p. 290-293
(24) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(25) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998
(26) Jones, K. Final report of 2-week inhalation range-finding study of acetic anhydride vapor in pregnant and non- pregnant rats with cover letter dated 103194. Huntingdon Research Centre. Study completion date: Oct. 13, 1994. Hoechst Celanese Corp., 1994. EPA/OTS #89-950000039. NTIS/OTS #0556144.
(27) Kenny, T.J. Acetic anhydride: 13-week inhalation toxicity study in rats with cover letter dated 09/19/96. Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. Study completion date: Aug. 27, 1996. Hoechst Celanese Corp., 1996. EPA/OTS #89-960000214. NTIS/OTS #0556144-1.
(28) Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Asthmagen? Critical assessments of the evidence for agents implicated in occupational asthma. HSE Books, 1997 with amendments 1998, 2001

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-06-22

Revision Indicators:
TLV comments 1998-08-01
EU Class 2000-04-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
EU Comments 2000-04-01
Emergency overview 2000-08-01
Acute exposure (ingestion) 2000-08-01
First aid (ingestion) 2000-08-01
TDG 2002-05-29
Toxicological info 2002-12-04
Carcinogenicity 2002-12-04
WHMIS detailed classification 2002-12-04
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Long-term exposure 2006-05-18
Bibliography 2006-05-18



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