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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 181
CCOHS Chemical Name: Acetic acid (solutions greater than 10%)

Synonyms:
Ethanoic acid
Ethylic acid
Glacial acetic acid
Methanecarboxylic acid
Acetic acid (non-specific name)
Acide acetique glacial

Chemical Name French: Acide acétique
Chemical Name Spanish: Acido acético
Acido acetico
Acido etanoico
CAS Registry Number: 64-19-7
UN/NA Number(s): 2789 2790
RTECS Number(s): AF1225000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-580-7
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic carboxylic acid / saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid / alkanoic acid / acetic acid
Molecular Formula: C2-H4-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-C(=O)-OH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Pure acetic acid is a clear, colourless liquid above 16 deg C and colourless, icelike crystals below 16 deg C; strong, pungent odour of vinegar. Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air).(17,28,29)

Odour Threshold:
0.037-0.15 ppm (detection) (geometric mean odour threshold: 0.074 ppm).(35)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - The TLV is more than 10 times the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Acetic acid is available as the pure liquid or as solutions in water (6-90%). Virtually pure acetic acid (99.5% or higher) is called glacial acetic acid. Refer to CHEMINFO record 752 for information on acetic acid solutions of 10% and less. Water is the chief impurity in glacial acetic acid. Other impurities include acetaldehyde, acetic anhydride, formic acid, biacetyl, methyl acetate, ethyl acetoacetate, iron and mercury. Acetic acid forms a monohydrate containing about 23% water.(28)

Uses and Occurrences:
Chemical intermediate (e.g. vinyl acetate monomer, cellulose acetate, acetic anhydride, chloroacetic acid, terephthalic acid), used in manufacture of latex emulsion resins, paints, coatings, adhesives, rubber, nylon, fibres, dyes, aspirin and other pharmaceuticals and medicinals, plastics, lacquers, herbicides, solvents, and other chemicals and products; textile dyeing and finishing; laboratory reagent; etching compound; deliming agent, acidifying and neutralizing agent (e.g. oil well acidizer); food additive or flavorant; constituent of photographic fixing baths, bacteriocide, fungicide.(17,28,29)
Occurs widely in the environment. Occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues and is a normal metabolite in both plants and animals. Occurs naturally in many fruit juices and in the stems and woody parts of plants.(17)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Pure acetic acid is a clear, colourless liquid above 16 deg C and colourless, icelike crystals below 16 deg C. Has a strong, pungent odour of vinegar. Hygroscopic. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Harmful if inhaled or swallowed. Vapour is irritating to the respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. Concentrated solutions are CORROSIVE to eyes and skin. Causes permanent eye damage, including blindness, and skin burns, including tissue death and permanent scarring. May be an aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Accidental inhalation of high concentrations has produced nose and throat irritation, shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and reversible lung injury in people exposed occupationally. In one case, symptoms of airways hyperresponsiveness (chest tightness, coughing and shortness of breath) were still present 3 years later.
A maintenance worker inhaled a large cloud of hot glacial acetic acid (99.8%) as it vapourized. Seven days after the incident, he developed progressive exertional shortness of breath. Follow-up showed reversible airways obstruction and interstitial pneumonitis. He had no history of respiratory illness and was a not a smoker.(2) A hospital worker was exposed to an unspecified amount of glacial acetic acid during a spill. Within 15 to 30 minutes, she experienced nose and throat irritation, followed by chest tightness, mild shortness of breath and a slight cough. Over the next several days, she experienced frequent wheezing, worse at night and upon exertion. Chest x-rays and spirometry tests were normal. Despite treatment, mild episodes of airways hyperresponsiveness (chest tightness, coughing and shortness of breath) were still present 3 years later.(5)
Follow-up of 51 employees also exposed in the above incident (5), showed an increased incidence of reactive airways dysfunction in the "high" exposure group (3/14). No conclusions can be drawn from this aspect of the study due to limitations such as potential recall biases, lack of exposure information, and the small number of individuals followed up.

Skin Contact:
The degree of irritation depends on the concentration of acetic acid and the length of exposure. Based on animal evidence, highly concentrated solutions or pure acetic acid can cause corrosive tissue injury with deep burns, tissue death and permanent scarring. Less concentrated solutions can cause mild to severe irritation. Application of 10% acetic acid to the intact or abraded skin of human volunteers in a 4-hour patch test showed slight irritation.(9)

Eye Contact:
Even very dilute solutions of acetic acid have cause severe irritation in animal studies. Concentrated solutions are corrosive and can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness. There are 2 case reports where glacial acetic acid (99.8%) was accidentally used instead of eye drops. In one case, clouding of the cornea, fluid accumulation and inflammation of the iris were observed shortly after the incident. Clouding and loss of sensation of the cornea were observed 2.5 months later. In the second case, fluid accumulation was observed shortly after the incident. Follow-up 2 weeks later showed loss of sensation and permanent clouding of the cornea.(6)

Ingestion:
Intentional ingestion of 100-200 mL of 80-100% acetic acid has caused severe corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract and stomach.(15,16) Another report describing kidney injury in 2 people who ingested 80% acetic acid, cannot be evaluated due to the lack of information.(17)
Based on physical properties (viscosity and surface tension), acetic acid may be aspirated (inhaled into the lungs) during ingestion or vomiting. Aspiration of even a small amount of liquid could result in a life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Severe lung damage (edema), respiratory failure, cardiac arrest and death may result.
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are 2 case reports involving workers exposed to acetic acid during the production of cellulose acetate. One report describes workers exposed to 60 ppm acetic acid daily, with a one-hour exposure to 100-260 ppm. No evidence of injury was reported, other than slight irritation of the air passages, stomach and skin.(7) Another report describes 5 workers who were exposed to 82 and 265 ppm acetic acid during particular work phases for 7-12 years. Chronic bronchitis (asthmatic-like in 3 cases and emphysema in one) was observed.(18) These brief reports involved a very small number of workers and do not indicate if there were any other potential exposures or if there were any personal pre-disposing factors. Therefore, no conclusions can be drawn.
Another report describes a photographer who developed reversible airways obstruction after long-term exposure to acetic and sulfuric acids in a dark room.(3) No conclusions can be drawn due to the concurrent exposure and lack of exposure information.

SKIN SENSITIZATION: There is one case report of occupational skin sensitization. A worker occupationally exposed to soldering flux which contained acetic acid, among other ingredients, developed contact dermatitis. No history of allergy was recorded. Patch testing showed a positive result for 2% acetic acid.(19) This single case report does not prove that acetic acid is a skin sensitizer. Two other reports of skin sensitization due to acetic acid cannot be evaluated due to lack of information.(20,21)

RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION: There is one case report of a 58-year old man developing an asthmatic response following occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid (99.8%). The man had a history of childhood asthma, but remained symptom free from age 11-56 until the current exposure commenced. The asthmatic response was confirmed by pulmonary function testing.(4) This single report does not prove that acetic acid is a respiratory sensitizer.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no animal or human information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no animal or human information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no animal or human information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. The mutagenicity of acetic acid appears to be an effect of pH on the culture media, rather than mutagenic activity of acetic acid itself. There have been no positive reports of mutagenicity, once the effect of pH on the culture media has been controlled.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Oral administration of 3% acetic acid to male rats for 8 months has increased the incidence of esophageal cancer caused by N-nitrososarcosin ethyl ester (NSEE).(13) Dermal application of acetic acid to female mice has increased the incidence and rate of development of skin carcinomas caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene.(14)

Potential for Accumulation:
Acetic acid is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and through the lungs. Acetic acid is a normal body component and does not accumulate in the body. It is rapidly metabolized by most tissues and excreted, or used in the production of chemicals required for bodily functions.(17)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce the risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
39 deg C (103 deg F) (glacial) (31); 43 deg C (109 deg F) (glacial) (28); 50 deg C (122 deg F) (85%) (33) (closed cup values)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
4% (28); 5.3-5.4% (32) (glacial)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
16% (28,32); 19.9% (30) (glacial)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
463-465 deg C (867-869 deg F) (28,30); 516 deg C (961 deg F) (30) (glacial)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Information not available. Will not accumulate static discharge. The electrical conductivity of acetic acid (6 x 10(5) pS/m) is high.(33)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Irritant gases, which may include unburned acid and toxic constituents.(30,32)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 39 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Vapours from warm liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a flammability and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. NOTE: The fire properties of acetic acid depend upon the strength of the solution. In concentrated form, its properties approach those of glacial acetic acid.(30)

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant" foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.(32,34)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and dilute the spill to a nonflammable mixture. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Acetic acid and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. (Glacial acetic acid)
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur. (Glacial acetic acid)
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water. (Glacial acetic acid)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 60.05

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 2.45 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.408 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: 16.6 deg C (61.9 deg F) (100%) (29,32); -7.4 deg C (80.6%); -19.8 deg C (50.6%); -6.3 deg C (18.11%) (29)
Boiling Point: 117.9 deg C (244.2 deg F) (glacial) (28,29,32)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.05 at 20 deg C (100%) (28,29); 1.08 (80%); 1.06 (50%); 1.03 (20%) at 15 deg C (28,29) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(32)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, glycerol and benzene.(17)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.31 (17)
pH Value: 2.4 (1M solution in water (approx. 6%)) (17,36)
Acidity: pKa = 4.76 at 25 deg C (17,29)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 1.22 mPa.s (1.22 centipoises) (100%) at 20 deg C (17,36). 2.39 mPa.s (90 wt.%); 2.72 mPa.s (80%); 2.16 mPa.s (50%); 1.43 mPa.s (20%) at 20 deg C (36)
Surface Tension: 27.57 mN/m (27.57 dynes/cm) (100%) at 20.1 deg C (28,29); 34.3 mN/m (69.9 wt.%); 38.4 mN/m (49.96%); 43.6 mN/m (30.09%) at 30 deg C (36)
Vapour Density: 2.07 (air = 1) (34)
Vapour Pressure: 1.52 kPa (11.4 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (17,34)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 1.5% (15000 ppm) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.97 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (17)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chromic acid, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchloric acid, potassium permanganate, sodium peroxide) - react violently, with risk of fire and explosion.(30,31,33,37)
STRONG ALKALIS or CAUSTICS (e.g. sodium or potassium hydroxide), or BASES - may react violently.(30,31)
MOST COMMON METALS (except aluminum) - may give off flammable hydrogen gas.(31,33)
ACETALDEHYDE - polymerization occurs, with evolution of heat.(30,37)
2-AMINOETHANOL, CHLOROSULFONIC ACID, ETHYLENE DIAMINE, ETHYLENEIMINE, OLEUM - mixing in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to rise.(30)
AMMONIUM NITRATE - may ignite when warmed.(30)
BROMINE PENTAFLUORIDE, CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE - may react violently, with fire and explosion likely.(30,37)
PHOSPHORUS ISOCYANATE - react violently.(30)
PHOSPHORUS TRICHLORIDE - explosion may occur due to the possible formation of spontaneously flammable phosphine.(30,37)
POTASSIUM tert-BUTOXIDE - ignition occurs after 3 minutes.(30,37)
n-XYLENE - during production of terephthalic acid in which n-xylene is oxidized in the presence of acetic acid, detonating mixtures may be produced.(30)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 39 deg C, open flames, static charge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Acetic acid attacks most common metals, including steel, iron, most stainless steels, copper, bronze and brass, particularly when diluted with water. Depending on conditions, acetic acid (greater than 99%) may be used with or stored and shipped in stainless steel grades 316, 318 and 321, and aluminum. Aluminum slowly corrodes, forming a layer of aluminum acetate that prevents further corrosion. Water increases the corrosion rate, while mercury, present as an impurity, catalyzes the corrosion of aluminum.(28,29,32,38)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Attacks many forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. It dissolves synthetic resins and rubber.(32)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (mouse): 2810 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 5620 ppm (1-hour exposure) (22)

LD50 (oral, rat): 3530 mg/kg (concentration not specified) (23)

LD50 (dermal, guinea pig): 3300 mg/kg (cited as 3.2 mL/kg) (28% solution) (24, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

There is no specific information on acetic acid solutions greater than 10%. Solutions of 10% and less have produced moderate to very severe eye irritation in rabbits, including corrosive injury.(23,24,25)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.01 mL of 100% acetic acid produced strong redness, swelling or slight tissue death in rabbits (graded 5/10).(23) Application of 0.1 mL of glacial acetic acid (99.8%), under cover, produced severe irritation in rabbits (scores of 2.6/4 (intact skin) or 3.2/4 (abraded skin); where 4 is corrosive tissue injury).(8)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Reversible upper respiratory tract irritation and reversible effects on respiratory function have been observed in mice and guinea pigs following inhalation of the vapour. Guinea pigs were exposed for 1 hour to 5, 40, 120 or 570 ppm. Dose-dependent reversible effects on respiratory function (e.g. increased pulmonary flow resistance and decreased compliance) were observed. Concentrations of 120 and 570 ppm also caused a decrease in respiration rate and minute volume and increased resistance to airflow.(1) Mice exposed to concentrations greater than 1000 ppm experienced reversible irritation of the upper respiratory tract.(22)

Ingestion:
Ingestion of 40 or 50% solutions by rabbits has been reported cause slightly caustic or caustic injury to the esophagus, respectively.(26, unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Continuous exposure to a low concentration (2 ppm) has produced slight changes in the blood and slight changes in liver function in male rats.(27)

Mutagenicity:
The mutagenicity of acetic acid appears to be an effect of pH on the culture media, rather than mutagenic activity of acetic acid itself. There have been no positive reports of mutagenicity, once the effect of pH on the culture media has been controlled.(10,11) One study showed positive results in Eschericheri coli, but the effects of pH were not considered in the evaluation.(12)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Amdur, M.O. The respiratory response of guinea pigs to the inhalation of acetic acid vapor. Industrial Hygiene Journal. Vol. 22, no. 1 (February, 1961). p. 1-5
(2) Rajan, K.G., et al. Reversible airways obstruction and interstitial pneumonitis due to acetic acid. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 46, no. 1 (January, 1989). p. 67-68
(3) Hodgson, M.J., et al. Respiratory disease in a photographer. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 9, no. 4 (April, 1986). p. 349-354
(4) Kivity, S., et al. Late asthmatic response to inhaled glacial acetic acid. Thorax. Vol. 49, no. 7 (July, 1994). p. 727-728
(5) Kern, D.G. Outbreak of the reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a spill of glacial acetic acid. American Review of Respiratory Disease. Vol. 144, no. 5 (November, 1991). p. 1058-1064
(6) Shafto, C.M. Two cases of acetic acid burns of the cornea. British Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 34 (1950). p. 559-562
(7) Vigliani, E.C., et al. Experiences of the Clinica del Lavoro with maximum allowable concentrations of industrial poisons. Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. Vol. 13 (1955). p. 528-535. (English translation: Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 13 (1956). p. 403)
(8) Campbell, K.I., et al. Dermal irritancy of metal compounds: studies with palladium, platinum, lead and manganese compounds. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 30 (April, 1975). p. 168-170
(9) Nixon, G.A., et al. Interspecies comparisons of skin irritancy. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 31 (1975). p. 481-490
(10) Sipi, P., et al. Sister-chromatid exchanges induced by vinyl esters and respective carboxylic acids in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutation Research. Vol. 279, no. 2 (16 May, 1992). p. 75-82
(11) Morita, T., et al. Evaluation of clastogenicity of formic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid on cultured mammalian cells. Mutation Research. Vol. 240, no. 3 (March, 1990). p. 195-202
(12) Demerec, M., et al. A survey of chemicals for mutagenic action in E. Coli. The American Naturalist. Vol. LXXXV, no. 821 (March-April, 1951). p. 119-136
(13) Alexandrov, V.A., et al. The stimulating effect of acetic acid, alcohol and thermal burn injury on esophagus and forestomach carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrososarcosin ethyl ester in rats. Cancer Letters. Vol. 47 (1989). p. 179-185
(14) Rostein, J.B. et al. Acetic acid, a potent agent of tumor progression in the multistage mouse skin model for chemical carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters. Vol. 42, nos. 1,2 (September/October, 1988). p. 87-90
(15) Jurim, O., et al. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy caused by acetic acid ingestion. Acta Haematologica. Vol. 89 (1993). p. 204- 205
(16) Hakenbeck, Von H., et al. Vergiftung mit 80%iger Essigsaure. [English summary]. Zeitschrift fur Urologie und Nephrologie. Vol. 77 (1984). p. 311-314
(17) HSDB record for acetic acid. Last revision date: 96/01/18
(18) Parmeggiani, L., et al. On the injuries to health caused by acetic acid in the production of cellulose acetate. [English summary]. Medicina del Lavoro. Vol. 45 no. 5 (1954). p. 319-323
(19) Goh, C.L. Occupational dermatitis from soldering flux among workers in the electronics industry. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 13. no. 1 (1985). p. 85-90
(20) Weil, A.J., et al. Allergic reactivity to simple aliphatic acids in man. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Vol. 17 (October, 1951). p. 227-231
(21) Vaneckova, J., et al. Hypersensitivity to rubber surgical gloves in healthcare personnel. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 31, no. 4 (October, 1994). p. 266-268
(22) Ghiringhelli, L., et al. Pathology due to acetic acid: observations on experimental animals and on men. [English summary]. Medicina del Lavoro. Vol. 48, no. 10 (1957). p. 559-565
(23) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list IV. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 4 (1951). p. 119-122
(24) Acetic acid. Hygienic Guide Series. American Industrial Hygiene Association, June 1978.
(25) Murphy, J.C., et al. Ocular irritancy responses to various pHs of acids and bases with and without irrigation. Toxicology. Vol. 23 (1982). p. 281-291
(26) v. Muhlendahl, K.E., et al. Local injuries by accidental ingestion of corrosive substances by children. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 39 (1978). p. 299-314
(27) Takhirov, M.T. Hygienic standards for acetic acid and acetic anhydride in air. Hygiene and Sanitation. Vol. 34, no. 4 (June, 1969). p. 122-125
(28) Wagner, Jr., F.S. Acetic acid. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th edition. Volume 1. John Wiley and Sons, 1991. p. 121-139
(29) Aguilo, A, et al. Acetic acid. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised edition. Volume A 1. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 45-64
(30) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(31) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 2-3
(32) Emergency action guide for acetic acid. Association of American Railroads, January, 1988
(33) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 3,4
(34) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Volume 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 13A
(35) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 12, 42
(36) Weast, R.C., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 66th edition. CRC Press, 1985-1986. p. C-47, D-146, D-161, D-221, F-31, F- 63
(37) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th edition. Volume 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 319-320
(38) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 2-4,5,6 to 3-4,5,6
(39) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. September 1, 1993
(40) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(41) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Acetic and Formic Acids in Workplace Atmospheres. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(42) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Acetic Acid. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(43) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Acetic Acid. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-11-28

Revision Indicators:
Ingestion (Health) 1997-05-01
Ingestion (First Aid) 1997-05-01
Emergency Overview 1997-05-01
US transport 2002-12-10
TDG 2003-08-14
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-05
ERPG-1 2004-06-30
ERPG-2 2004-06-30
ERPG-3 2004-06-30
Bibliography 2005-03-10
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-10
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-10
Toxicological info 2007-07-09
Relative density 2007-07-09



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